2Corinthians 3:18 Commentary

 

 

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INDEX FOR 2CORINTHIANS
2Corinthians 3:15-17

See other commentaries on:
2 Corinthians 5:9   2 Corinthians 5:10 2 Corinthians 5:17
2 Corinthians 7:1;  2 Corinthians 12:9;  2 Corinthians 12:10
2 Corinthians 10:3 2 Corinthians 10:4 2 Corinthians 10:5
2 Corinthians 12:9  2 Corinthians 12:10   
2 Corinthians 13:5

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2 Corinthians 3:18 Commentary

2 Corinthians 3:18  But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord, the Spirit. (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: hemeis de pantes anakekalummeno (RPPNSD) prosopo ten doxan kuriou katoptrizomenoi (PMPMPN) ten auten eikona metamorphoumetha (1PPPI) apo doxes eis doxan, kathaper apo kuriou pneumatos.

Amplified: And all of us, as with unveiled face, [because we] continued to behold [in the Word of God] as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are constantly being transfigured into His very own image in ever increasing splendor and from one degree of glory to another; [for this comes] from the Lord [Who is] the Spirit.  (Lockman)
ASV: But we all, with unveiled face beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image from glory to glory, even as from the Lord the Spirit.

Barclay: And we all, with no veil upon our faces, see as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, and we go on changing this image from glory to glory, even as it comes from the Lord who is the Spirit.  (Westminster Press)
Darby: But we all, looking on the glory of the Lord, with unveiled face, are transformed according to the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Lord the Spirit.
ESV:  And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another. For this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit. (ESV)

GWT: As all of us reflect the Lord’s glory with faces that are not covered with veils, we are being changed into his image with ever-increasing glory. This comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.
KJV
: But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.
NAB: All of us, gazing with unveiled face on the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, as from the Lord who is the Spirit.
NET: And we all, with unveiled faces reflecting the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another, which is from the Lord, who is the Spirit.
 (NET Bible)
NIV:  And we, who with unveiled faces all reflect the Lord’s glory, are being transformed into his likeness with ever-increasing glory, which comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.
(NIV - IBS)
NJB
:  since what we aim for is not visible but invisible. Visible things are transitory, but invisible things eternal.

NKJV: But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord.
NLT: So all of us who have had that veil removed can see and reflect the glory of the Lord. And the Lord—who is the Spirit—makes us more and more like him as we are changed into his glorious image. (
NLT - Tyndale House)
NRSV: And all of us, with unveiled faces, seeing the glory of the Lord as though reflected in a mirror, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another; for this comes from the Lord, the Spirit.
Phillips: But all of us who are Christians have no veils on our faces, but reflect like mirrors the glory of the Lord. We are transfigured by the Spirit of the Lord in ever-increasing splendour into his own image. (
Phillips: Touchstone)
TLB: But we Christians have no veil over our faces; we can be mirrors that brightly reflect the glory of the Lord. And as the Spirit of the Lord works within us, we become more and more like him.

Weymouth: And all of us, with unveiled faces, reflecting like bright mirrors the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same likeness, from one degree of radiant holiness to another, even as derived from the Lord the Spirit.
Wuest
: Now, as for us, we all, with uncovered face, reflecting as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are having our outward expressions changed into the same image from one degree of glory to another according as this change of expression proceeds from the Lord, the Spirit, this outward expression coming from and being truly representative of our Lord. (
Eerdmans
Young's Literal: and we all, with unvailed face, the glory of the Lord beholding in a mirror, to the same image are being transformed, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.

References

Henry Alford
Paul Apple
Albert Barnes
Brian Bell
Johann Bengel
J H Bernard
Joseph Beet
Bible.org Resources
Biblical Illustrator
Jim Bomkamp
John Calvin
Rich Cathers
Oswald Chambers
Oswald Chambers
Adam Clarke
Thomas Constable
W A Criswell
Ron Daniel
Bob Deffinbaugh
James Denney
Jonathan Edwards
Easy English
Charles Ellicott
John Gill
Doug Goins
Joe Guglielmo
Dave Guzik
Matthew Henry
David Hocking
Charles Hodge
F B Hole
David Holwick
IVP Commentary
Jamieson, F, B
S Lewis Johnson
William Kelly
Steve Kreloff
John J Lias
John J Lias
Alexander Maclaren
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur

John MacArthur

John MacArthur

John MacArthur
John MacArthur
J Vernon McGee
F B Meyer
F B Meyer
F B Meyer
J R Miller
Robert Morgan
Net Bible Notes
Our Daily Bread
Joseph Parker
John Piper
John Piper
John Piper

John Piper
Alfred Plummer
William S Plumer
Wil Pounds
Wil Pounds
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary

Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary

Ron Ritchie
A T Robertson
Rob Salvato
Charles Simeon
Ray Stedman
Ray Stedman
Sam Storms
Marvin Vincent
Bob Utley
Steve Zeisler
Precept Bible Study

2 Corinthians 3 Commentary
2 Corinthians Commentary

2 Corinthians 3 Commentary
2 Corinthians 3 Sermon Notes
2 Corinthians 3 Commentary
2 Corinthians 3 Expositor's Greek Testament
2 Corinthians 3 Commentary

2 Corinthians 3 Resources
2 Corinthians 3 Numerous Illustrations
2 Corinthians 2:17-3:7-18 Beholding The Image Of The Lord"
2 Corinthians 3:12-18 Commentary
2 Corinthians 3 Sermon Notes
2 Corinthians 3:18 Transformed by Beholding

2 Corinthians 3:18 The Light that Never Fails

2 Corinthians 3 Commentary

2 Corinthians Expository Notes
2 Corinthians 3:7-18 The Ministrations of Glory
2 Corinthians 3 Sermon Notes
2 Corinthians 2:12–4:6 The Sufficiency of God Through His Spirit

2 Corinthians 3 The Transfiguring Spirit (Expositor's Bible)
A Divine and Supernatural Light - highly recommended
2 Corinthians Commentary
2 Corinthians 3 Commentary
2 Corinthians 3 Commentary

2 Corinthians 3:12-18 The New Covenant Opposed from Within

2 Corinthians 3 Notes
2 Corinthians 3 Commentary
2 Corinthians 3 Commentary
2 Corinthians Alliterative Outline - see page 81 in Pdf
2 Corinthians 3:18 Commentary
2 Corinthians Commentary
2 Corinthians 4:7-16 Where Is the Power?
2 Corinthians 3 Superiority of the New Covenant Minister
2 Corinthians 3 Commentary
2 Corinthians 3:17-18 Freedom and Transformation by the Risen Lord

2 Corinthians Commentary
2 Corinthians 3:14-18 The Superior New Covenant - 3 - Mp3
2 Corinthians 3:18 Cambridge Commentary

2 Corinthians 3 Cambridge Commentary
2 Corinthians 3:18 Transformation by Beholding

2 Corinthians 3:18-4:6 The Glories of Gazing in the Face of Jesus

2 Corinthians 3:18 From Glory to Glory-- 1
2 Corinthians 3:18 From Glory to Glory-- 2

2 Corinthians 3:6-18 The Glory of the New Covenant, Part 1

2 Corinthians 3:16-18 The Glory of the New Covenant, Part 6

2 Corinthians 3:17-18 The Glory of the New Covenant, Part 7

2 Corinthians 3:18-4:4 Looking at the Face of Jesus, Part 1

2 Corinthians 3:18 Mp3  (See all Mp3's)
2 Corinthians 3:18 Our Daily Homily
2 Corinthians 3:18 Communion and Transformation
2 Corinthians 3:18 Transfigured Lives

2 Corinthians 3:18 Transfigured By Beholding
2 Corinthians 3:7-18  Glow-in-the-Dark Christians
2 Corinthians 3 Notes
2 Corinthians 3 Devotional Illustrations
2 Corinthians 3:10-23 The Fiery Test
2 Corinthians The Glory of Christ - goto p54 Pdf Recommended!
2 Corinthians 3:12-18 The Greatest of These Is Love

2 Corinthians 3:15-4:6 Seeing & Savoring Jesus
2 Corinthians 3:17-4:7 Seeing the Glory of Christ

2 Corinthians 3:18 Commentary (International Critical Commentary)
2 Corinthians 3:18 The Mystery of Sanctification

2 Corinthians Introduction - A Look at the Book
2 Corinthians 3:16-18 Transformed from Glory to Glory
2 Corinthians 3:18 Exposition
2 Corinthians 3:18 The Gospel as a Transcendent Benefactor
2 Corinthians 3:12-18 Homily - Boldness of Speech; Glory to Glory
2 Corinthians 3:18 Homily - The Glorious Transformation
2 Corinthians 3:18 Homily - The Great Change
2 Corinthians 3:18 Homily - The Christian Transfiguration
2 Corinthians 3:18 Homily - The Vision of God in Christianity

2 Corinthians 3:12-4:6 How Can We Attain a Transparent Lifestyle?

2 Corinthians 3:16 Word Pictures in the NT
2 Corinthians 3:18 Being Transformed

2 Corinthians 3:18 The Excellency and Efficacy of the Gospel

2 Corinthians 3:17, 18 Who Is That Masked Man?
2 Corinthians 3:12-18 Freedom To Remove The Mask - Devotional

2 Corinthians 3:1-18 Sermon Notes
2 Corinthians 3 Word Studies in the New Testament
2 Corinthians Commentary
2 Corinthians 3:11-4:6 Boldness and Liberty

2 Corinthians (Not PUP) - Lord Give Me a Heart for You

Overview of
Second Corinthians
2Co 1:1-7:16
Character
of Paul
2Co 8:1-9:15
Collection
for the Saints
2Co 10:1-12:21
Credentials
of Paul
Testimonial & Didactic Practical Apologetic
Past:
Misunderstanding & Explanation
Present:
Practical Project
Future:
Anxieties
Apostle's Conciliation, Ministry & Exhortations Apostle's Solicitation for Judean Saints Apostle's Vindication
of Himself
Forgiveness, Reconciliation
Gratitude
Confidence Vindication

Ephesus to Macedonia:
Change of Itinerary
Explained

Macedonia: Preparation for Visit to Corinth

To Corinth:
Certainty and Imminence
of the Visit

2Co 1:1-7:16

2Co 8:1-9:15

2Co 10:1-12:21

Adapted & modified from Jensen's Survey of the New Testament (Highly Recommended Resource) & Wilkinson's Talk Thru the Bible

2Corinthians written ~ 57AD - see Chronological Table of Paul's Life and Ministry

BUT WE ALL WITH UNVEILED FACE BEHOLDING AS IN A MIRROR THE GLORY OF THE LORD: hemeis de pantes anakekalummeno (RPPNSD) prosopo ten doxan kuriou katoptrizomenoi (PMPMPN)
: (2Co 3:13) (1Co 13:12 Jas 1:23) (2Co 4:4, 2Co 4:6 Jn 1:14 12:41 1Ti 1:11)

AN EXCITING TRUTH
HAVE YOU MISSED IT?

Warren Wiersbe comments that...

This verse is the climax of the chapter, and it presents a truth so exciting that I marvel so many believers have missed it—or ignored it. You and I can share the image of Jesus Christ and go “from glory to glory” through the ministry of the Spirit of God! (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary - New Testament. 1989. Victor or Logos or Wordsearch)

Comment: To make sure you do not "miss" or "ignore" the grand truth of 2Corinthians 3:18, may I encourage you to memorize this verse perfectly so that you might be enabled to meditate on it frequently and experience spiritual prosperity (Josh 1:8-note) and fruitfulness (Ps 1:2, 3-note).

I love Robert Morgan's (ref) title for this section, a title which pictures our privileged purpose as believers in this present evil age (Gal 1:4, Mt 5:16-note, Php 2:15-note)...

GLOW-IN-THE-DARK
CHRISTIANS

Robert M McCheyne described "glow in the dark" believers when he said that...

The Christian is a person who makes it easy for others to believe in God.

David Hocking alliterates the entire book of 2Corinthians (ref) and below is an outline based on his alliteration of chapter 3...

The COMMENDATION of God’s servant – 2Co 3:1-11

The CHANGE of the Spirit – 2Co 3:12-18

The CHANGE that He produces – 2Co 3:18

The Requirement - “with unveiled face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord”

The Result is a process -“are changed into the same image”

The Recognition of that change - “from glory to glory”

The Realization of our need of the Person and work of the Holy Spirit - “even as by the Spirit of the Lord”

John Stott wrote the following (convicting) poem...

Not merely in the words you say,
Not only in your deeds confessed.
But in the most unconscious way
Is Christ expressed.

Is it a beatific smile?
A holy light upon your brow?
Oh no! I felt His presence
When you laughed just now.

To me, ’twas not the truth you taught,
To you so clear, to me still dim.
But when you came you brought
A sense of Him.

And from your eyes He beckons me,
And from your heart His love is shed,
Till I lose sight of you and see
The Christ instead.

But  (de) - "This simple particle of transition links this verse to the previous one. The natural consequence of the freedom mentioned in 2Co 3:17 is what is stated here." (2 Corinthians 3 Commentary)

If you want to shine in the ever darkening night,
Keep your eye on Christ our eternally bright Light.

Have you read the instruction manual on how to keep your "light bright"?

A man returning from a journey brought his wife a matchbox that would glow in the dark. After he gave it to her, she turned out the light, but it could not be seen. Both thought they had been cheated. Then the wife noticed some French words on the box and asked a friend to translate them. The inscription said: “If you want me to shine in the night, keep me in the light.” So it is with us! We must expose ourselves to Jesus, delight in His Word, and spend time in prayer soaking up His rays. (Hughes, R. K. The Sermon on the Mount: Preaching the Word. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books or Logos)

They looked to Him and were radiant,
And their faces will never be ashamed.

(Psalm 34:5)

 Fixing our eyes on Jesus,
the Author and Perfecter of faith,
(Hebrews 12:2)

For my eyes are toward You, O God, the Lord;
In You I take refuge; do not leave me defenseless.

(Psalm 141:8)

We all (Greek = pas = all without exception) - This is Paul's way of describing all believers in the New Covenant, not just formal ministers but all who as believers are now priests of and to God (1Pe 2:9-note, Re 1:6-note, Re 5:10-note), "all whom the indwelling of the Spirit of the Lord has made free...delivered from the bondage of the law, the veil has been removed from their heart." (Hodge) Under the Old Covenant only Moses (and the Levitical high priest once per year on the Day of Atonement [or more succinct explanation here]) who has direct access to Jehovah, but all who have entered the New Covenant by grace through faith now and forever (see description of perfect tense of anakalupto) have access to God.

Guzik adds that...

Paul here gives an invitation to every Christian. He will speak of an intimacy of relationship and a transforming power that is not the property of just a few privileged Christians. It can belong to everyone, everyone who has an unveiled face. (2 Corinthians 3 Commentary)

The writer of Hebrews vividly describes the New Covenant saint's present (and everlasting) access to God exhort his readers (and us)...

Let us therefore draw near with confidence (parrhesia = literally all speech ~ bold speech, all freedom to speak) to the throne of grace (charis = receiving what we do not deserve!), that we may receive mercy (eleos = not receiving what we deserve!) and may find grace to help (boetheia = picture of one who upon hearing a cry for help, runs to give aid to assist or to succor!) in time of need (at the right time, "the nick of time"!). (Hebrews 4:16-note)

Since therefore, brethren, we have confidence (parrhesia) to enter the holy place (this refers to the Holy of holies, the throne room of God, the presence of Jehovah) by the blood of Jesus, 20 by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil (katapetasma), that is, His flesh, 21 and since we have a great priest over the house of God, 22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith (pistis), having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience (suneidesis) and our bodies washed with pure water. (Hebrews 10:19, 20, 21-note, He 10:22-note)

Comment: When Jesus was crucified on the Cross, the thick veil in the Temple separating the Holy Place from the Holy of holies was rent from top to bottom. God made a way through the rent flesh of His Son, the sacrificial Passover Lamb, so that sinful men who believed in the Messiah now might have bold access to the Holy of holies, the throne room of God. Amazing grace indeed! (See Mt 27:50,51 Mk 15:38 Lk 23:45).

Unveiled (343) (anakalupto from ana = back again + kalúpto = hide, conceal, cover, veil) to to uncover by drawing back the veil.

The root verb kalupto meaning to conceal or hide has several fascinating uses in the Septuagint (LXX) - of cloud covered Sinai = Ex 24:15; of darkness covering the earth Is 60:2; of iniquity David did not hide = Ps 32:5, cp Ps 31:5; of God covering or concealing the iniquity of His people Israel.

In context anakalupto is clearly a reference  to description of New Covenant believers (Jew and Gentile) who...

are not like Moses, who used to put a veil over his face so that the sons of Israel would not look intently at the end of what was fading away. 14 But their minds were hardened; for until this very day at the reading of the old covenant the same veil remains unlifted (anakalupto - the only other NT use - see Isa 29:10, Ro 11:8), because it is removed in Christ. 15 But to this day whenever Moses is read, a veil lies over their heart; 16 but whenever a person turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away.  (2 Co 3:13, 14, 15, 16)

Comment: Paul is referring to the events in Ex 34:33, 34, 35 where it is recorded that Moses put a veil over his face, because the Israelites feared the divine radiance which came from it (Ex 34:30; cp Nu 4:15, 20). Paul uses this OT example of Moses putting the veil on so that the Israelites might not see the end of the temporary radiance, to illustrate the passing glory (doxa) of the Old Covenant in contrast to the eternal glory of the new (2Co 3:11). In 2Co 3:14 Paul explains that a "spiritual veil" lies over the minds of the Jews who cannot comprehend the true meaning of the Old Covenant which as he explains in Gal 3 was to have been a tutor to lead them to their Messiah. The "spiritual veil" hinders seeing, and in the present context figuratively describes the understanding that the temporary Old Covenant is now obsolete. And just as Moses removed the veil when he went into the presence of God (Ex 34:34), so too would the veil be (spiritually) removed from any person in Israel who received Messiah as Savior.  Whereas Moses only reflected the glory of God, the transformed believer radiates the glory of God! How blessed are we to live on this side of Calvary! May God enable us to live in the light (and as lights) of our incredible privilege and potential in Christ. Amen

Anakalupto is in the perfect tense which pictures a past completed action (our day of salvation = past tense salvation [see Three Tenses of Salvation] = justification [see justified] - which Paul describes in 2Co 3:16 as "whenever a person turns to the Lord".) with ongoing effect or result. In other words the veil was taken off the day that the Spirit indwelt our body, His temple, and opened the eyes of our heart to see Jesus as our Lord and Savior (Acts 26:18 16:14).

In verse 16 Paul explains the "unveiling" declaring that...

whenever a man turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. (2Cor 3:16)

Then in 2Co 4:6 Paul what the unveiled face is enabled to see writing that it was...

God Who said, “Light shall shine out of darkness,” (and) is the One Who has shone in our hearts to give the Light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ. (2 Co 4:6-note)

Theological Lexicon of the NT records these ancient Greek uses of anakalupto...

It was agreed that once seated, “the conspirators (disguised as women) would strike immediately, throwing off their veils”; “unveil the sacred robe” (anakalypson ton hieron peplon, Pap.Graec.Mag. 57, 17).

TDNT says that anakalupto means...

To unveil...to undo a package...(healing vision of a woman at Epidauros)...to reveal something to someone...to disclose the character of someone, Philochorus Fragmenta, 20...with inner object: to remove (a veil).

While there is only one other use of anakalupto in the NT, there are 19 uses in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) - Job 12:22; 20:27; 28:11; 33:16; Ps 18:15; Isa 20:4; 22:8f, 14; 24:1; 26:21; 47:2f; 49:9; Jer 13:22; 49:10; Dan 2:22, 28, 29.

Read over a selection of the OT Lxx uses to help illustrate the meaning of the verb anakalupto...(What is revealed? Who reveals or opens?, etc)

Job 12:22 "He reveals (Lxx = anakalupto) mysteries from the darkness And brings the deep darkness into light.

Job 20:27 "The heavens will reveal (Lxx = anakalupto) his iniquity, And the earth will rise up against him.

Job 33:16 Then He opens (Lxx = anakalupto) the ears of men, and seals their instruction,

Psalm 18:15 Then the channels of water appeared, And the foundations of the world were laid bare (Lxx = anakalupto) At Your rebuke, O LORD, At the blast of the breath of Your nostrils.

Isaiah 22:14 But the LORD of hosts revealed (Lxx = anakalupto) Himself to me, "Surely this iniquity shall not be forgiven you Until you die," says the Lord GOD of hosts.

Daniel 2:22 "It is He who reveals (Lxx = anakalupto) the profound and hidden things; He knows what is in the darkness, And the light dwells with Him. 28 "However, there is a God in heaven who reveals (Lxx = anakalupto) mysteries, and He has made known to King Nebuchadnezzar what will take place in the latter days. This was your dream and the visions in your mind while on your bed. 29 "As for you, O king, while on your bed your thoughts turned to what would take place in the future; and He who reveals (Lxx = anakalupto) mysteries has made known to you what will take place.

Face  (4383)(prosopon from prós = toward + ops  = the eye or face) is literally the eye toward, the front part of one's head, the countenance (Latin ~ con = with + teneo = to hold, literally the contents of a body and then the outline which constitutes the whole figure, the face as expressing a person's character or mood).

One of the most notable uses of prosopon is found in the Septuagint translation of Numbers 6 in the famous Aaronic blessing...

The Lord make His face (Lxx = prosopon) shine on you, and be gracious to you  (Nu 6:25).

Dwight L Moody commenting on the Aaronic Blessing said: Here is a benediction that can go all the world over, and can give all the time without being impoverished. Every heart may utter it: it is the speech of God: every letter may conclude with it; every day may begin with it; every night may be sanctified by it. Here is blessing—keeping—shining—the uplifting upon our poor life of all heaven’s glad morning. It is the Lord Himself Who brings this bar of music from heaven’s infinite anthems

Comment: Indeed when Jehovah-Jesus makes His face to shine upon us as we mediate on His glory and beauty in His living and active Word, we are benefactors of His grace and experience a change in our face...from one degree of glory to another!

NIDNTT has this note on prosopon...

Originally it probably meant that which struck the eye (pros = towards, and ops = eye), that which one looks at. In secular Greek it meant face, death-mask, actor’s mask, then (figuratively) the part played by the actor. When used of things it meant surface, either the top one, or the one facing the observer. It is occasionally used for the face of the gods. When used as a part representing the whole, it meant the figure. The meaning person (not found before Polybius) is a borrowing from Latin usage. (Brown, Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan  or Computer version)

MacDonald has a thought worth pondering that although our faces are unveiled positionally because of our entrance into the New Covenant (at the time of our new birth), we need to daily keep them unveiled as we conduct ourselves worthy of the Gospel (Php 1:27-note) (practicing our position so to speak). He writes that....

We can keep our face unveiled by confessing and forsaking sin, by being completely honest with God and ourselves (1Jn 1:7, 9). As a veteran missionary to India once said, we must “drop the veils of sin, of make-believe, all play-acting, all putting up of unreal fronts, all attempts at compromises, all halfway measures, all Yes and No.” (MacDonald, W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson or Logos)

Clarke writes that...

The Jews were not able to look on the face of Moses, the mediator of the old covenant, and therefore he was obliged to veil it; but all we Christians, with face uncovered, behold, as clearly as we can see our own natural face in a mirror, the glorious promises and privileges of the Gospel of Christ; and while we contemplate, we anticipate them by desire and hope, and apprehend them by faith, and are changed from the glory there represented to the enjoyment of the thing which is represented, even the glorious image-righteousness and true holiness-of the God of glory.

Beholding - This verb has been translated with two different meanings, one to behold God's glory and the other to reflect God's glory. Consider the immediate context where Paul describes Moses' face becoming radiant after his "up close and personal" encounters with Jehovah and then reflecting that glory to the children of Israel. This would seem to justify both translations, for as was true with Moses, how can a New Covenant believer reflect God's glory if he has not been in the presence of God's glory? The English translations reflect both renderings, either beholding or reflecting God's glory. Below are representative translations of each view...

And all of us, as with unveiled face, [because we] continued to behold [in the Word of God] as in a mirror the glory of the Lord... (Amplified Version, cp also ESV, NAS)

Now, as for us, we all, with uncovered face, reflecting as in a mirror the glory of the Lord (Wuest's Translation, cp also NIV)

The New Living Translation seeks to avoid any argument by incorporating both interpretations...

So all of us who have had that veil removed can see and reflect the glory of the Lord.

The reader needs to be aware of this subtle difference for it will be reflected in the commentaries (including the one you are reading) and devotionals. For example here is Oswald Chambers' devotional interpretation...

The outstanding characteristic of a Christian is this unveiled frankness before God so that the life becomes a mirror for other lives. (Ed: Notice how he incorporates both meanings - to behold and to reflect!) By being filled with the Spirit we are transformed, and by beholding we become mirrors. You always know when a man has been beholding the glory of the Lord, you feel in your inner spirit that he is the mirror of the Lord's own character. Beware of anything which would sully that mirror in you; it is nearly always a good thing, the good that is not the best.

The golden rule for your life and mine
is this concentrated keeping of the life
open towards God.

Let everything else - work, clothes, food, everything on earth - go by the board, saving that one thing. The rush of other things always tends to obscure this concentration on God. We have to maintain ourselves in the place of beholding, keeping the life absolutely spiritual all through. Let other things come and go as they may, let other people criticize as they will, but never allow anything to obscure the life that is hid with Christ in God (Col 3:3).

Never be hurried out of the relationship
of abiding in Him.

It is the one thing that is apt to fluctuate but it ought not to. The severest discipline of a Christian's life is to learn how to keep "beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord."  (My Utmost for His Highest) (Bolding added)

Beholding as in a mirror  (2734) (katoptrizomai from kata = down, intensifier + optanomai = see, perceive w eyes, look at) means to look in a mirror (cp Katoptron = the most common term in secular Greek writings for mirror, looking glass). To see indirectly or by reflection as in a mirror. In middle voice as discussed below means to look at as in a mirror or to contemplate. In the active voice it conveys the idea of to produce a reflection.

The  present tense pictures this action or effect as continual - either beholding or reflecting the glory of the Lord. The middle voice signifies a reflexive sense (yourself) and could be rendered "you yourself look in the mirror". The Pulpit Commentary in fact feels the middle voice favors the interpretation of beholding as in a mirror rather than reflecting as a mirror...

No other instance occurs in which the verb in the middle voice has the meaning of “reflecting,” and the words, “with unveiled face,” imply the image of “beholding.” (2 Corinthians 3:18 Exposition)

Marvin Vincent comments that...

beholding expresses the fact from which the process of change into God’s image proceeds. When Moses beheld Jehovah’s glory, his own face reflected that glory. The mirror is the Gospel, which is called the Gospel of the glory of Christ, 2Co 4:4-note.

Hodge explains that...

The Greek verb means, in the active voice, “to show in a mirror” and in the middle voice (the form used here) generally “to see oneself in a mirror.” This is always the way it is used in the classics. But in Philo it is used to express the idea of seeing by means of a mirror. (2 Corinthians 3 Commentary - see also Hodges four arguments that lead him to favor beholding rather than reflecting as the best interpretation of katoptrizomai), where he concludes "We are transformed into the Lord’s likeness by seeing it, not by reflecting it.")

To facilitate gazing at the face of Christ see Ann Ortlund's wonderful devotional entitled Fix Your Eyes on Jesus

A T Robertson...

In Philo (Legis Alleg. iii. 33) the word means beholding as in a mirror and that idea suits also the figure in 1Co 13:12. There is an inscription of third century BC with egkatoptrisasthai eis to hudōr, to look at one’s reflection in the water. Plutarch uses the active for mirroring or reflecting and Chrysostom takes it so here. Either makes good sense. The point that Paul is making is that we shall not lose the glory as Moses did.

NAB note...

Gazing: the verb may also be translated "contemplating as in a mirror"; 2Cor 4:6-note would suggest that the mirror is Christ himself.

John MacArthur distinguishes between the glory of God in the creation (general revelation as in Ps 19:1,2) and the glory of God in the Creator, the Lord Jesus Christ (special revelation - see discussion of general vs special revelation)...

While the creation reveals certain truths about God (Ro 1:20-note), those truths are insufficient to save. A saving knowledge of God comes only through Jesus Christ (cf. Jn 14:6; Acts 4:12; Ro 1:16-note). Unlike old covenant believers, every new covenant believer can gaze into the face of Christ with an unveiled face....

All three aspects of salvation—justification, sanctification, and glorification—involve looking to Jesus. Believers’ new life in Christ begins when they look into His face and embrace Him as Lord and Savior. But just as they look to Him for justification, so also must they look to Him for sanctification, which involves “fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith” (He 12:2-note) and discerning the mind of Christ from Scripture (1Co 2:16), because “the one who says he abides in Him ought himself to walk in the same manner as He walked” (1Jn 2:6). Ultimately, at glorification Christ “will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the body of His glory, by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself” (Php 3:21-note). (MacArthur, J: 2Corinthians. Chicago: Moody Press or Logos or Wordsearch)

Henry Morris comments that...

We, like Moses when he entered the tabernacle to speak with God (Ex 34:34), also come into His presence with open (that is, unveiled) faces when we read His Word, which both reveals us for what we are, like a mirror (compare Jas 1:23, 24-note, Jas 1:25-note), and also reveals to us the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. In so doing, we (like Moses) can begin to reflect His own image in our lives and even our countenances, from one degree of glory to another. And just as we are changed "from glory to glory," we also receive "grace for grace" (Jn 1:16). Thus, we are gradually being restored to the full image of God in which we were created (Ge 1:26,27), being "renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him" (Col 3:10-note), for we indeed are predestined "to be conformed to the image of his Son" (Ro 8:29-note).

Warren Wiersbe notes that...

When the people of God look into the Word of God and see the glory of God, the Spirit of God transforms them to be like the Son of God  (Wiersbe, W. W. Wiersbe's Expository Outlines on the New Testament. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books or Wordsearch)

Hughes writes...

How much we allow the knowledge of Christ to fill our being will determine how much of the old dead things will fall away and how much new life will spring forth. We must know Jesus for that expulsive force to work within us. We must look long and intently at Jesus. (Hughes, R. K. John: That you May Believe. Preaching the Word. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books or Logos)

Samuel Davies...

Not that a mere speculative knowledge of Christ will suffice; no, it must not be a look of curiosity and speculation—but you must be affected with the object. Your eye must affect your heart; and by beholding the glory of the Lord in the looking-glass of the gospel—you must be changed into the same image, or conformed to him in holiness. 2Corinthians 3:18. A drowning man is not a mere curious spectator of his deliverer; but he views him with the tenderest passions. So you must look upon Christ.  (Looking unto Christ)

Sam Storms ...

But where exactly do we "see" or "behold" that glory? Paul saw the glory of God on the road to Damascus (cf. Acts 22:11 ["the glory of that light"]; 26:13). In 4:3-6 he suggests that God shines the glory of that light "in our hearts" through "the gospel." Thus as Barnett explains, "paradoxically, therefore, Paul's readers see the glory of Christ as they hear the gospel, which in turn gives the knowledge of God" (206). Beholding is a way of becoming. That is to say, you become like that which you behold! We will take on the characteristics, values, and qualities of that which we most cherish and to which we devote our hearts and minds.  (2 Corinthians 3 Sermon Notes)

Robert Morgan asks...

What does it mean to behold as in a mirror the glory of the Lord?  I think it means that we turn our eyes upon Jesus and look full in His wonderful face.  We keep our eyes on Him and contemplate Him and meditate on Him, because Jesus is the mirror image of God.
 
Years ago I read of a cathedral somewhere in Europe that had a high and lofty and beautiful ceiling.  But the room was so narrow and the ceiling was so exalted that it was difficult to gaze upon.  So the rectors placed a large mirror on the floor, tilted at the proper angle, and by gazing into the mirror they could see the ceiling.
 
And that’s what Christ is.  Our God is so holy and infinite and awesome and invisible and high and exalted and lifted up that we can’t very well take in His glory.  But Jesus is the image of the invisible God. (
2 Corinthians 3:7-18  Glow-in-the-Dark Christians)

Calvin on beholding as in a mirror -

it is true, has a double signification among the Greeks, for it sometimes means to hold out a mirror to be looked into, and at other times to look into a mirror when presented. (“It is made use of in the former sense by Plutarch/ It is more frequently employed in the latter signification. Thus Plato says, “He advised drunken persons to look at themselves in a mirror.” So also Diogenes Laert. [In Socrate] - He thought that young men should frequently look at themselves in a mirror.) The old interpreter, however, has correctly judged, that the second of these is the more suitable to the passage before us. I have accordingly followed his rendering.

Jerry Bridges in "The Practice of Godliness" (a book I highly recommend) lists principles related to taking on God's character and alludes to 2Cor 3:18 in his discussion of the second principle of godly character - the power for a godly life comes from the risen Christ...

Beholding the Lord’s glory in His word is more than observing His humanity in the gospels. It is observing His character, His attributes, and His will in every page of Scripture. And as we observe Him, as we maintain this relationship with Him through His Word, we are transformed more and more into His likeness; we are enabled by the Holy Spirit to progressively manifest the graces of godly character. So it is this relationship with Christ, expressed by beholding Him in His word and depending upon Him in prayer, that enables us to draw from Him the power essential for a godly life. The Christian is not like an automobile with a self-contained power source; rather, he is like an electric motor that must be constantly connected to an outside current for its power. Our source of power is in the risen Christ, and we stay connected to Him by beholding Him in His word and depending on Him in prayer. (Bridges, J. The Practice of Godliness. Page 61. Colorado Springs, CO: Navpress or Logos or Wordsearch - One reviewer wrote "I meant to read this book for several years before I actually got around to it. I can't believe I waited--it's one of the best Christian books I have read. ")

THE SECRET
OF HOLINESS

MacDonald comments that...

The mirror is the word of God. As we go to the Bible, we see the Lord Jesus revealed in all His splendor. We do not yet see Him face to face, but only as mirrored in the Word. And note that it is the glory of the Lord that we behold. Here Paul is not thinking so much of the moral beauty of Jesus as a Man here on earth, but rather of His present glory, exalted at the right hand of God. The glory of Christ, as Denney points out, is that:

He shares the Father’s throne, that He is the Head of the Church, possessor and bestower of all the fulness of divine grace, the coming Judge of the world, conqueror of every hostile power, intercessor for His own, and, in short, bearer of all the majesty which belongs to His kingly office.

As we are occupied with the glory of the risen, ascended, exalted Lord Jesus Christ, we are being transformed into the same image. Here, in a word, is the secret of Christian holiness—occupation with Christ. Not by occupation with self; that brings only defeat. Not by occupation with others; that brings disappointment. But by occupation with the glory of the Lord, we become more and more like Him. (Ibid)

Glory (1391)(doxa [word study] from dokeo = to think) in simple terms means to give a proper opinion or estimate of something and thus the glory of God expresses all that He is in His Being and in His nature, character, power and acts. He is glorified when He is allowed to be seen as He really is. To be where God is will be glory. To be what God intended will be glory. To do what God purposed will be glory.

HIS
GLORY

The saints in the Old Testament saw His glory...

These things Isaiah said because he saw His glory, and he spoke of Him. (John 12:41)

The disciples in the New Testament saw His glory...

And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.  (John 1:14)

Disciples today can see His glory...

For God, Who said, “Light shall shine out of darkness,” is the One who has shone in our hearts to give the Light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ.  (2Co 4:6-note, contrast 2Co 4:4-note)

BEHOLD YOUR GOD
Isaiah 40:9KJV

Jonathan Edwards exhorts us to look at "the light of the Gospel of the glory of Christ, Who is the image of God" that we might see and receive "the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ"...

All may hence be exhorted earnestly to seek this spiritual light. To influence and move to it, the following things may be considered.

1. This is the most excellent and divine wisdom that any creature is capable of. It is more excellent than any human learning; it is far more excellent than all the knowledge of the greatest philosophers or statesmen. Yea, the least glimpse of the glory of God in the face of Christ doth more exalt and ennoble the soul, than all the knowledge of those that have the greatest speculative understanding in divinity without grace. This knowledge has the most noble object that is or can be, viz., the divine glory or excellency of God and Christ. The knowledge of these objects is that wherein consists the most excellent knowledge of the angels, yea, of God himself.

2. This knowledge is that which is above all others sweet and joyful. Men have a great deal of pleasure in human knowledge, in studies of natural things; but this is nothing to that joy which arises from this divine light shining into the soul. This light gives a view of those things that are immensely the most exquisitely beautiful, and capable of delighting the eye of the understanding. This spiritual light is the dawning of the light of glory in the heart. There is nothing so powerful as this to support persons in affliction, and to give the mind peace and brightness in this stormy and dark world.

3. This light is such as effectually influences the inclination, and changes the nature of the soul. It assimilates the nature to the divine nature, and changes the soul into an image of the same glory that is beheld. 2 Cor. 3:18, "But we all with open face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." This knowledge will wean from the world, and raise the inclination to heavenly things. It will turn the heart to God as the fountain of good, and to choose him for the only portion. This light, and this only, will bring the soul to a saving close with Christ. It conforms the heart to the gospel, mortifies its enmity and opposition against the scheme of salvation therein revealed: it causes the heart to embrace the joyful tidings, and entirely to adhere to, and acquiesce in the revelation of Christ as our Saviour: it causes the whole soul to accord and symphonize with it, admitting it with entire credit and respect cleaving to it with full inclination and affection; and it effectually disposes the soul to give up itself entirely to Christ.

4. This light, and this only, has its fruit in a universal holiness of life. No merely notional or speculative understanding of the doctrines of religion will ever bring to this. But this light, as it reaches the bottom of the heart, and changes the nature, so it will effectually dispose to a universal obedience. It shows God's worthiness to be obeyed and served. It draws forth the heart in a sincere love to God, which is the only principle of a true, gracious, and universal obedience; and it convinces of the reality of those glorious rewards that God has promised to them that obey him. (
I strongly encourage to read Jonathan Edwards' entire message entitled A Divine and Supernatural Light)

And while we can behold His glory in the face of Christ today, the best is yet to come...

For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face; now I know in part, but then I will know fully just as I also have been fully known. (1Corinthians 13:12)

Hodge comments on the glory of the Lord...

That is (as the context evidently demands), Christ’s glory. The glory of Christ is his divine excellence. The believer is enabled to see that Jesus is the Son of God—God manifested in the flesh. This is conversion. “If anyone acknowledges that Jesus is the Son of God, God lives in him and he in God” (1Jn 4:15). The turning to the Lord mentioned in the previous verse involves recognizing Christ as Jehovah. This is not only conversion, it is the highest state of the human soul. It is eternal life (John 17:3). Hence our Lord prays that his disciples may see his glory, as the consummation of their blessedness (Jn 17:24). And the apostle John says of all who received Christ that they saw “his glory, the glory of the one and only Son” (Jn 1:14). The idea presented here is unfolded more fully at the beginning of the next chapter. (An Exposition of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians)

Lord (2962) (kurios from kuros = might or power) has a variety of meanings/uses in the NT and therefore one must carefully examine the context in order to discern which sense is intended by the NT author. For example, some passages use kurios only as a common form of polite address with no religious/spiritual meaning. Kurios is used over 9000 times in the Septuagint (LXX) and over 700 times in the NT.

Guzik explains that...

We can see the glory of the Lord, but we cannot see His glory perfectly. A mirror in the ancient world did not give nearly as good a reflection as our mirrors do today. Ancient mirrors were made of polished metal, and gave a clouded, fuzzy, somewhat distorted image. Paul is saying “We can see the glory of the Lord, but we can’t see it perfectly yet.” There may be another thought here also: “Now as mirrors, among the Jews, Greeks, and Romans, were made of highly polished metal, it would often happen, especially in strong light, that the face would be greatly illuminated by this strongly reflected light; and to this circumstance the apostle seems here to allude.” (Clarke) (2 Corinthians 3 Commentary)

The Pulpit Commentary comments on The glory of the Lord ...

Namely, Him Who is “the Effulgence of God’s glory” (He 1:2-note), the true Shechinah (see Shekinah glory cloud), “the Image of the invisible God” (Col 1:15-note). (2 Corinthians 3:18 Exposition)

A W Pink comments that...

as faith beholds in the mirror of the Word, the "glory of the Lord," the soul itself is "changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord" (2Corinthians 3:18). The world gains the victory over the unregenerate by captivating their affections and capturing their wills; but the Christian overcomes the world, because his affections are set upon Christ and his will yielded to Him. (Faith as an Overcomer)

J R Miller...

Where do we find the truest, noblest life? There is no smallest fragment of our humanity, which retains the absolute perfection and beauty that were in human life as it came first from the Creator's hand. If we would see life in its wholeness, unmarred, undebased—the highest, purest, truest life—we must look at Jesus. We are to become like Christ. We should never, therefore, lose sight of him. Keeping the ideal always before our eyes will, unconsciously yet powerfully, draw us toward it. "Let us fix our eyes on Jesus!" Hebrews 12:2.

Oswald Chambers exhorts each of us to...

Allow nothing to keep you from looking God sternly in the face about yourself and about your doctrine, and every time you preach see that you look God in the face about things first, then the glory will remain all through.

A Christian worker is one who perpetually looks in the face of God and then goes forth to talk to people. The characteristic of the ministry of Christ is that of unconscious glory that abides.

"Moses wist not (did not know) that the skin of his face shone while he talked with Him." (Ex 34:29KJV) We are never called on to parade our doubts or to express the hidden ecstasies of our life with God. The secret of the worker's life is that he keeps in tune with God all the time. (Excerpt from My Utmost for His Highest)

Thomas Vincent on beholding the glory of the Lord...

Christ is the glory of the Lord, the brightness of His Father's glory. Would you have much love to Him? Be often looking, viewing, and beholding Him in the looking-glass of the Scriptures! By much beholding of Him, you may be transformed more and more into the likeness of His holiness, and into the likeness of His love—which is glory begun.

The Scriptures have the image of Christ engraved upon them; the image of the Father is upon the Son, and the image of the Son is upon the Scriptures. There you may see the picture of Christ, the beauty of Christ; at least some lineaments are there drawn by the hand of God, although not fully, and to life. I mean, such you will see in Him when you come to behold Him face to face in heaven; yet His beauty is drawn is such proportions, and with such shadows, as you are now capable of beholding.

Would you have much love unto Christ, whom you have never seen? Look much upon His picture and image in the Scriptures. The Scriptures are Christ's love-letters. (Love to the Unseen Christ)

J Vernon McGee explains that...

 the Word of God is the mirror that we are to look at, and we are beholding Him—just looking at Christ. That is the reason we need to stay in the Word of God and behold the Lord Jesus. As you behold Him, you are transformed. In other words, the Word of God does more than regenerate you (we are regenerated by the Spirit of God using the Word of God). “Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever” (1Pe 1:23). Also the Word of God transforms us. Oh, this is so important! I wish I had spent more time looking in the mirror, beholding Him more. My friend, in the Word of God we see Him. He is not a super star; He is not just a man. In the Word of God we see the unveiled Christ. Oh, how wonderful He is!

Dr. H. A. Ironside told the story about an old Scot who lay suffering and, actually, dying. The physician told him he didn’t have very long to live. A friend came to spend a little time with him and said to him, “They tell me you’ll not be with us long.” That’s a nice thing to say to a man who is dying. Then he continued, “I hope you get a wee glimpse of the Savior’s blessed face as you are going through the valley of the shadow.” The dying man looked up when he gathered a little strength and answered, “Away with the glimpse, mon; it’s a full view of His blessed face I’ve had these forty years, and I’ll not be satisfied with any of your wee glimpses now.” How wonderful to behold Him today.

Perhaps some of you remember Nathaniel Hawthorne’s story about the great stone face. A little lad lived in a village where there was a mountain with a rock formation which they called the great stone face. The people had a legend that someday someone would come to the village who would look like the great stone face. He would do wonderful things for the village and be a means of great blessing. That story really took hold of the lad. During his lifetime he would gaze at the great stone face at every opportunity that he had, and he would dream of the time someone looking like the great stone face would come to the village. Years passed and as time went by, he became a young man, then an old man. He was tottering down the street one day when someone looked up and saw him coming and shouted, “He has come. The one who looks like the great stone face is here.” This man had looked at the great stone face for so long that now he bore its image.

Listen to me. Do you want to be Christlike? Then spend time looking at Jesus. I recall that Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer at the Dallas Theological Seminary used to stop us when we would sing the song, “Take time to be holy, speak oft with thy Lord” by William D. Longstaff. He would say, “Change that first line. Let us sing ‘Take time to behold Him.’” Do you want to be holy? Then behold Him.

Turn your eyes upon Jesus;
Look full in His wonderful face;
And the things of earth will grow strangely dim
In the light of His glory and grace.

I need this. I hope you, too, sense a need of seeing Jesus Christ on the pages of the Word of God so that you might grow more like Him. (2 Corinthians 3:18 Mp3)

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MAN IN THE MIRROR - Years ago, Walter A. Maier, an eloquent radio preacher, told about an African tribal chief who was presented with a mirror by a visitor. He peered curiously into the glass and commented on the ugliness of the person he saw. When he realized he was looking at himself, he became enraged and smashed the mirror on a rock.

The apostle James described God's Word as a mirror in which we can see ourselves reflected (Jas 1:23, 24). It shows us that although we were created to reflect God's character, in our fallen condition we are spiritually ugly and marred by sin.

But when we put our faith in Jesus Christ, we are spiritually reborn (Jn 3:3, 8). Then, as we look into God's Word, we see ourselves as God sees us—our ugliness has been transformed into the beauty of Christ's likeness. And we grow in His likeness from that point on (2Co 3:18). —V C Grounds

The Word of God is the only mirror
that can transform our appearance.

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Hughes says that...

Seeing God in life is the highest good—the summum bonum—because all those who see him become like him.

ARE BEING TRANSFORMED INTO THE SAME IMAGE FROM GLORY TO GLORY: ten auten eikona metamorphoumetha (1PPPI) apo doxes eis doxan : (2Co 5:17 Ro 8:29 12:2 13:14 1Co 15:49 Ga 6:15 Eph 4:22, 23, 24 Col 3:10 Titus 3:5 2Pe 1:5, 6, 7, 8, 9 )

THE GOAL
CHRIST-LIKENESS
A LIFELONG PROCESS

Are being transformed - As discussed in more detail below this phrase is synonymous with progressive sanctification (see dictionary defintion) = growth in holiness = growth in Christ likeness = present tense salvation (see Three Tenses of Salvation). Progressive sanctification is a frequent (important) theme in Paul's writings, e.g.,

And do not be conformed (suschematizo) to this world, but be transformed (metamorphoo = command in the present tense  = calls for a continual process, lifelong ~ progressive sanctification) by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will  of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect .  (Ro 12:2-note)

and have put on the new self who is being renewed (present tense  = a continual process ~ progressive sanctification) to a true knowledge according to the image of the One who created him (Col 3:10-note).

My children, with whom I am again in labor (present tense  = a continual process ~ progressive sanctification) until Christ is formed (morphoo = shaping of outward expression proceeding from and being truly representative of one’s inward character and nature ~ Col 1:27-note) in you (Ga 4:19).

Transformed (3339)(metamorphoo from metá = denotes change of place or condition +  morphoo = to form from morphe = form, shape referring to the essential form of a thing) has the basic meaning of changing into another form and is the term from which we get metamorphosis, which in biology denotes the amazing change of a lowly worm into a beautiful butterfly. So the change in view here is not a superficial fluctuation of fashion or conduct but a vital change revealing a new life.

Metamorphoo - 4x in NT - Mt 17:12, Mk 9:2, Ro 12:2, 2Co 3:18. Translated twice as transfigured and twice as transformed.

In this passage metamorphoo is in the present tense which indicates that this transformation is an ongoing process which will not be complete until we see Jesus. In addition, the passive voice indicates that the power that produces this transformation is external Source, the Holy Spirit of God. We cannot transform ourselves any more than we could save (justify) ourselves. Just as we began this race by faith, we must continue to run by faith, trusting in the Spirit's power to transform us. Is this just "let go and let God?" I think not, for we do have a responsibility continually "behold God's glory", which is most clearly revealed in His Word of Truth (cp Mt 4:4, 1Pe 2:2-note). As we take in His Word and live out His Word (obeying in the power of His Spirit), we proceed from glory to glory, growing in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2Pe 3:18-note).

As Wiersbe puts it...

Each day, you can have your own personal transfiguration as you worship the Lord and yield to the Spirit.

David Guzik encourages us that...

It doesn’t have to work from backsliding (see related quotes) to glory to backsliding to glory. God’s work in our lives can be a continual progression, from glory to glory.

CHANGED FROM
THE INSIDE OUT

Metamorphoo describes the process by which that on the inside shows forth to the outside such that that everyone can see.  In Romans 12:2-note it describes an inward renewal of our mind through which our inner spirit is changed into the likeness of Christ.

Metamorphoo describes Jesus' transfiguration in which His glory shined through His garments so that what Jesus really was on the inside was made manifest to Peter, John and James. Matthew writes...

And He was transfigured (metamorphoo) before them; and His face shone like the sun, and His garments became as white as light. (Matthew 17:2)

The verb morphoo does not refer to what is outward and transient, but to what is inward and real and thus that which produces an outward expression which proceeds from and is truly representative of one’s inward character and nature. Hence on the Mount of Transfiguration the glory which was Jesus' essential and eternal inner divine nature, shone outward,  for a brief time and to a limited degree. In a similar way, the believer's inner redeemed (divine - 2Pe 1:4-note) nature is to continually be manifest outwardly in our daily thoughts, words and deeds.

To be transformed describes a change on the outside that comes from the inside (an "inside job" so to speak). Paul is calling for an outward change in the character and conduct of the believer, which is to correspond with his or her inward spiritual condition. As someone has well said God loves us too much to let us stay as we are.

Sadhu Sundar Singh (the great Christian evangelist of India) once knocked on the door of a village home, and a little girl answered, running back to call her mother. Her mother asked, “Who is it?” The girl replied, “I don’t know, but he has such a lovely face, I think it must be Jesus.” (Hughes, R. K. John: That you May Believe. Preaching the Word. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books or Logos)

Robert Morgan...

This doesn’t mean that we will become omnipotent, omniscient, or omnipresent. It means that His character and attitudes should increasingly be reflected by our lives, the way a mirror reflects the image of a king or as the moon reflects the light of the sun. Someone put it this way: “God doesn’t want us to become a god; He wants us to become godly.” (God’s Guarantee: Worry Into Reassurance Romans 8:28) (See also his excellent message on The Evidence of Changed Lives - The Case Against Human Nature)

Tony Evans rightly says that...

If you ever catch hold of this principle of the glory of the Lord, you will be transformed. Do you want to transform yourself? Do you have things in your life that need to be changed? Catch hold of the glory of God. Do you want to change your mate? Don’t nag him or her. Point the person to the glory of God....When Jesus Christ saved you, He put a new covering on you so that when you’re exposed to the light of the glory of God, it will put a glow in your life. But when you remove yourself from God’s glory, your glow begins to diminish. When you find that happening, you need to wrap yourself around the light of God’s glory. Then the transforming work of God can begin to glow in you again.

David said that when he made the Lord the priority of his life, he had great gladness and joy (Psalm 16:8, 9). The way he got joy was not by looking for it. He exposed himself to the glory of God. If you get exposed to His glory, the light begins to shine; change begins to take place; you have power you didn’t have before; you have victory you didn’t have before. Why? Not because of you, but because of the glory cloud. It begins to transform you from within.

So what’s the bottom line? “Whether, then, you eat or drink or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God” (1Co 10:31). God says, “If you would just remember to thank Me every time you do anything, you will begin to shine and the glory cloud will transform your life.” If you want to be transformed, submit to God’s glory. Stop trying to share His glory, let Him be God, and let the light of the glory of God transform you. (Evans, A. T. Our God is awesome. Chicago: Moody Press)

Harry Ironside...

The secret of Christian holiness is heart-occupation with Christ Himself. As we gaze upon Him we become like Him. Do you want to be holy? Spend much time in His presence. Let the loveliness of the risen Lord so fill the vision of your soul that all else is shut out. Then the things of the flesh will shrivel up and disappear and the things of the Spirit will become supreme in your life. We do not become holy by looking into our own hearts. There we only find corruption. Instead we must look away from ourselves and “unto Jesus,” contemplating His holiness, purity, love, compassion, and devotion to the Father’s will. Then we shall be transformed, imperceptibly to ourselves perhaps but none the less surely into His blessed image. There is no other way whereby we may become practically holy, and be delivered from the power of the flesh and the principles of the world.

 If you want to be a radiant believer,
fix your eyes upon Christ.

John MacArthur reminds of the deception of legalism and ritualism writing that...

Ceremonial, sacramental religion offers nothing to new covenant believers. It does not provide justification, has no power to sanctify, and will not lead to glorification. The Christian life does not consist in rituals but in a relationship to Jesus Christ; not in ceremonies but in “the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ” (2 Cor. 11:3). As believers single-mindedly focus on the Scriptures, they will see God’s glory reflected in the face of Jesus and be transformed into His image by the powerful internal work of the Lord, the Spirit (cf. Eph. 3:16-note) (MacArthur, J: 2Corinthians. Chicago: Moody Press or Logos or Wordsearch)

David Guzik has an interesting discussion of this transformation...

When we spend time beholding the glory of the God of love, grace, peace, and righteousness, we will see a transforming growth in love, grace, peace, and righteousness. Of course, this is how you can know someone is really spending time with the Lord: they are being transformed into the same image. But much depends on what we “see” when we look into “God’s mirror.” In this analogy, “God’s mirror” is not a mirror that shows us what we are as much as it shows us what we will become, and what we will become is based on our picture of Who God is. If we have a false picture of God, we will see that false picture in God’s “mirror” and will be transformed into that image - much to our harm, both for now and eternity.

Not everyone sees the truth when they look into the mirror. Thirty year old David gets up every morning, and his morning routine only gets as far as the bedroom mirror, where he sees a horribly distorted face - a crooked, swollen nose covered with scars and a bulging eye. The pain from his deformities caused him to quit college and move in with his parents ten years ago. Since then, he has rarely left his room, afraid to let anyone see him. He has had cosmetic surgery four times, but with no progress. That’s because the problems with David’s appearance are only in his mind. Experts call it Body Dysmorphic Disorder (article from Mayo Clinic) or BDD. It causes people to imagine themselves as deformed, ugly people. Psychiatrists call it a hidden epidemic. One psychiatrist says

Patients are virtually coming out of the woodwork. I’m meeting with one new patient each week.

Most BDD suffers are convinced the problem is with their face. Those afflicted live with such an overwhelming sense of shame that they can barely function. One young teacher in Boston tried to continue her job but would run out in the middle of class, afraid that her imagined hideous appearance was showing through her thick makeup. A Denver businessman called his mother from the office 15 times a day for reassurance that he did not look grotesque and spent hours in the bathroom stall with a pocket mirror trying to figure out a way to improve his appearance. Some try to cope with harmful rituals, and cut themselves to “bleed” the damaged area. BDD sufferers are usually convinced that the problem is with their body, not their mind. They don’t want to see anybody but plastic surgeons and dermatologists for their problem.

But when we behold the picture of God as He is in truth, we will be transformed into His image. This is God’s great design in our salvation, for whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son (Ro 8:29-
note). Calvin speaks to this great design of God: “that the image of God, which has been defaced by sin, may be repaired within us . . . the progress of this restoration is continuous through the whole of life, because it is little by little that God causes His glory to shine forth in us.” (2 Corinthians 3 Commentary)

William Plumer...

There is a great mystery in sanctification. It is a mystery for the love it displays, for the power it manifests, for the method it employs, and for the work it accomplishes. When Moses looked upon that bright effulgence in the mount, he gradually caught some of the same glory, so that his face shone. When we behold the image of the invisible God, as it is presented in the person and character of Christ, we too are made like it, not indeed by a mere natural effect, but "by the Spirit of the Lord." Likeness to God alone is holiness. Growth in this likeness is growth in grace. It is all by Jesus Christ. (The Mystery of Sanctification)

R Kent Hughes...

The culminating effect of Paul’s ministry is transformation. “And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another. For this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit” (2Cor 3:18). When Moses removed his veil in the Tent of Meeting and spoke with the Lord face to face, he experienced a physical transformation when his face became luminous. At the same time he underwent a sanctifying moral transformation as, being exposed to God’s presence and revelation, his character and will became so marked with God’s image that he lived in profound obedience to God’s glorious revelation and in fact delivered the Ten Commandments to his people.

Moses’ temporary exposure to the glory of the Lord worked a mighty transformation in and upon him. But the new-covenant ministry of Paul is even more transforming because our exposure is constant and continuous (there is no veil). And more, it works in the reverse order of Moses’ experience, first by effecting a moral transformation into God’s image as all “are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another” (2Co 3:18). We express the image of God by living according to the commandments, which express his nature. The change is progressive, so that willing exposure to the sunlight of God’s presence will burn his image ever deeper into our character and will. And ultimately, at Christ’s appearance, we will undergo a physical transformation in glory. This is what Paul’s ministry offered, and this is the grand and great difference between his and Moses’ ministry. The old covenant had no such power. (Hughes, R. K. 2 Corinthians : Power in weakness. Preaching the Word. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books or Logos)

Sam Storms sees this "being transformed" as another way to describe the believer's sanctification process...

Sanctification comes as/because we behold the glory of God; the more we know him and behold him (cf. Ps. 27:4) in the splendor of his glory, the more we are changed into the very image of Jesus himself, in whose face God's glory has shined or is reflected (2Co 4:4-note, Co 4:6-note). Sanctification consists of inner transformation (the verb "transformed" used of the "transfigured" Christ in Mark 9:2; Mt. 17:2 = transformation of the inner, essential person; thus it consists of more than merely the doing of deeds; see Ro 12:2-note) Sanctification is progressive (from one stage of glory [first "seen" in the gospel when we turn to Christ] to another [that final glory of the glorified Jesus, whose glory we will see on the final day]) Sanctification is by grace (we "are being transformed", the agent of which is the Spirit of Christ)

The Homily - The great change.

What this change is. Into the Divine likeness. This, which was lost through the Fall, is recovered in the gospel. Believers become like Christ, who is the Brightness of the Father’s glory, and the express Image of his person (Heb 1:3-note). The change is not merely of opinion, or feeling, or even conduct, but a change of being. It is not something connected with ourselves, but our very selves which are changed, and changed so as to be like Christ. 1. A marvellous change. For before men believe, they are singularly unlike Christ. By nature like Satan; by grace like Christ. 2. An all-desirable change. For ennoblement, peace, joy, usefulness....

Progressive—“from glory to glory.” The change is often gradual. There is a great fundamental change at conversion. A condition of “glory” is reached, but there is a glory beyond this. We “grow in grace.” At first we are “babes in Christ,” but we develop into the stature of perfect men in him (Ep 4:13-note). Conversion is but the first stage. Many seem to think that it is the final one. Justification is enough for them; sanctification is not in their thoughts. But this is not the salvation of Christ. We are saved for holiness, for usefulness, for the service of God, and as continuously we gaze upon Christ in faith, and as his power falls upon us, we pass into a further “glory.” (2 Corinthians 3:18 Homily - The Great Change)

Thomas Brooks...

The naturalists observe that the pearl, by the often beating of the sunbeams upon it, becomes radiant. Just so, the often beating and shining of the Sun of righteousness, with His divine beams, upon the saints, causes them to glisten and shine in . . .holiness, righteousness, heavenly-mindedness, humbleness, etc. Divine light casts a general beauty and glory upon the soul; it transforms a man more and more into the glorious image of Christ!

Look! as the child receives his features from his parents; just so, the beams of divine light and knowledge shining into the soul, stamp the living image of Christ upon the soul.

Mere notional knowledge may make a man excellent at praising the glorious and worthy acts and virtues of Christ; but that transforming knowledge which accompanies salvation, will work a man divinely to imitate the glorious acts and virtues of Christ.

When a beam of divine light shined from heaven upon Paul, ah, how did it change and metamorphose him! How did it alter and transform him! It made his rebellious soul, obedient: "Lord, what will You have me to do?" Acts 9:6. Divine light lays upon a man a happy necessity of obeying God. Divine light makes . . .this lion--into a lamb, this persecutor--into a preacher, this destroyer of the saints--into a strengthener of the saints, this tormenter--into a comforter, this monster--into an angel, this notorious blasphemer--into a very great admirer of God, and the actings of His free grace.

Just so, when a spark of this heavenly fire fell upon the heart of Mary Magdalene, oh what a change, what a transformation does it make in her! Now she loves much, and believes much, and repents much, and weeps much. Oh what a change did divine light make in Zacchaeus, and in the jailor!

Truly, if your light, your Biblical knowledge does not better you, if it does not change and transform you; if, under all your light and knowledge you remain as vile and base as ever; your light, your knowledge, your notions, your speculations, will undo you. That knowledge which is not a transforming knowledge--will torment a man at last more than all the devils in hell; it will be . . .a sword to cut him, a rod to lash him, a serpent to bite him, a scorpion to sting him, and a vulture, a worm eternally gnawing him!

God at last will own no knowledge, but that which leaves  the stamp of Christ, the print of Christ, the image of Christ upon the heart; but that which changes and transforms the soul, which makes a man a new man, another man than what he was before divine light shined upon him. (A vulture, a worm eternally gnawing him!)

J R Miller...

The character of every true believer is being transformed. If Christ dwells in you, He will produce in you the same kind of life which He himself lived when He was on the earth. This change does not come in its completeness, or instantaneously the moment one believes in Christ. But it does begin then.

Life is large. Life's lessons are many and hard to learn! Paul was an old man when he said, "I have learned, in whatever state I am, therein to be content." (Php 4:11 12-
note cp Php 4:13-note) It had taken him many years to learn this lesson of contentment.

Likewise, it takes us years to get life's lessons learned. But nothing is clearer, than that a believer's life-mission —is to be transformed into the likeness of Christ. There is to be a transformation of character. Holiness must become the every-day dress of the Christian. We are called to be saints, even in this sinful world. (Life's Byways and Waysides)

While His servants look upon the brightness of their Master's face—its beauty is imprinted upon them. That is what the beloved disciple says in one of his epistles, "We shall be like Him—for we shall see Him even as He is." Looking upon Christ—makes us like Him.

Paul teaches the same remarkable truth in 2Corinthians 3:18. This transformation is not a heavenly matter alone—it will be completed there, when, all veils removed—we shall look directly into the face of Christ; but it is something for our earthly life too. It begins here, and it goes on, the likeness coming out ever more and more fully and clearly—as we know more and more about Christ.

Companionship with Him, communion with Him, looking into His face—prints upon us His likeness! Every day, if we live as we should—some new line of His beauty comes out on our faces!

One day we shall slip away from these scenes of earth. Our eyes shall be closed on all familiar things. Next moment—O rapture! they will be opened on the unveiled face of Jesus Christ! That is what 'death' will be to you—if you are God's child. You may now dread death—but it is only going to look at your Redeemer's face! (Our New Edens)

The privileged purpose of the believer's life is to let others see what God is like as they watch and experience His love through us. What a profound privilege it is to reflect the glory of Christ and His love, mercy, grace, justice, and righteousness to a world whose heart is “veiled” to the truth of the Gospel! (cp 2Co 4:3, 4). If we are going from glory to glory, it follows that our purpose on earth is to show others less of us and more of Him. Are you living on purpose with this purpose!

So Let Our Lips and Lives Express
The holy gospel we profess,
So let our words and virtues shine
To prove the doctrine all divine.

Thus shall we best proclaim abroad
The honors of our Savior God,
When the salvation reigns within,
And grace subdues the power of sin.

Our flesh and sense must be denied,
Passion and envy, lust and pride;
While justice, temperance, truth, and love,
Our inward piety approve.

Religion bears our spirits up,
While we expect that blessèd hope,
The bright appearance of the Lord,
And faith stands leaning on His Word.
—Isaac Watts

Image (1504)(eikon [word study]) expresses two ideas, first a likeness, as in the image on a coin or the reflection in a mirror and secondly, manifestation, as used in the sense that God is fully revealed in Jesus.

Robertson comments that believers are being transformed "into the likeness of God in Christ" a process that will be consummated in the future as alluded to in several glorious (pun intended) NT Scriptures...

 Beloved, now we are children of God, and it has not appeared as yet what we will be. We know that when He appears, we will be like Him, because we will see Him just as He is. (1 Jn 3:2).

When Christ our life, is revealed, then you also will be revealed with Him in glory. (Col 3:4).

As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly. 49 Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly. 50 Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51 Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, 52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 53 For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. (1Co 15:48-53)

and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him so that we may also be glorified with Him. (Ro 8:17).

For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that He would be the firstborn among many brethren  (Ro 8:29).

CHRISTLIKENESS:
A PROCESS
NOT A CRISIS!

From glory to glory - In other words the change is from one degree of glory to another, the bondservant gradually becoming more and more like the Master (another translation of kurios), Christ Jesus. Looking at Him (today in His Word) we become like Him! Amazing, miraculous grace! This is a gradual, progressive process and is not an instant change. Beloved, there is no experience in the believer's life that will reproduce the image of the glory of Christ in a moment. The Christian life is often likened to a race, not a short dash but a lifelong "marathon", calling for daily discipline and persistent perseverance. Do not be discouraged by your "bad days". Confess, repent, seek His face in His Word and by prayer and move forward, forgetting what lies behind and pressing on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus (Php 3:13-note, Php 3:14-note). It is too soon to quit dear believer! Remember that Christlikeness is a process, not a crisis. It takes a lifetime but it is oh so worth it for the resultant glory bestowed by our Lord will last forever! In short, the fading glory under the Old Covenant (2Co 3:13), dramatically contrasts the saint's ever-increasing glory in the New Covenant.

I like Alfred Plummer's comment on glory to glory...

There is no fading away, as in the case of Moses, for it is no superficial glory. It penetrates to the spiritual nature of the inner man and makes that, like the Lord from Whom it comes, a source of light (cp Col 1:27). Yet it is no sudden change, completed, as if by magic, in an instant; that might end in stagnation. It is a continual and gradual progress, ‘from strength to strength’ (Ps 84:7), ‘shining more and more unto the perfect day’ (Pr 4:18).

It passes on from this world to the next,
from what is temporal to what is eternal.

(2 Corinthians 3:18 Commentary - The Critical & Exegetical Commentary)

As Matthew Henry said we are being transformed...

from one degree of glorious grace unto another, till grace here be consummated in glory for ever. How much therefore should Christians prize and improve these privileges! We should not rest contented without an experimental knowledge of the transforming power of the gospel, by the operation of the Spirit, bringing us into a conformity to the temper and tendency of the glorious gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

The more time you spend with Christ,
the more you will be like Christ.

Glory (1391)(doxa [word study] from dokeo = to think) in simple terms means to give a proper opinion or estimate of something and thus the glory of God expresses all that He is in His Being and in His nature, character, power and acts. He is glorified when He is allowed to be seen as He really is. To be where God is will be glory. To be what God intended will be glory. To do what God purposed will be glory.

Believers today have the holy privilege of living in such a (supernatural, inexplicable to natural thinking) way, that others (believers and unbelievers alike) see this supernatural life which gives a proper opinion of the unseen, supernatural Father in heaven (Mt 5:16-note where the verb doxazo is used). As someone has well said a concern for the glory of God is the ultimate motive for Christian living. J Gresham Machen has a similar thought remarking that "The ultimate end of all things that come to pass, including the ultimate end of the great drama of redemption, is found in the glory of the eternal God." The very fact that the chief aim of God is to glorify Himself, makes it all the more incredible that He would choose to use redeemed sinners to be His lights as windows of His glory in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation (Php 2:15)!

Doxa is used repeatedly in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) to describe the (Shekinah) glory of God. For example at Mt Sinai

the appearance of the glory (LXX = doxa) of Jehovah was like a consuming fire on the mountain top (Ex 24:17)

The Pulpit Commentary comments that...

Our spiritual assimilation to Christ comes from his glory and issues in a glory like his (1Co 15:51; comp. “from strength to strength,” Ps 84:7). (For the thought, compare 1Jn 3:2.)...

Christ-like glory. “But we all, with open face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord,” etc.

1. The glory of Christ was the glory of moral excellence. He was the “brightness of his Father’s glory.”

2. The glory of Christ is communicable. It comes to man through transformation “changed into the same image.”

3. The glory of Christ which comes to man is progressive: “from glory to glory.” The gospel alone can make men glorious. (2 Corinthians 3:18 Exposition)

Homily - Glory to Glory -

We are changed “from glory to glory.” “The righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith,” so that we realize more and more clearly the consistency of the Divine righteousness in our justification, and the righteousness formed in our souls by the Spirit. We know why we are pardoned and by whom renewed, and, as we advance into new stages of experience, the past work of grace is rendered more and more intelligible. Current experiences leave much unexplained. Infancy, childhood, youth, in religious life are not fully comprehended till the interpretative light of manhood is thrown back upon them.

“From glory to glory” -- this is true of every Christian virtue. At first we are timid in confessing Christ before the world; the cross is heavy; self-denial is often very painful; the remains of the carnal mind are yet strong enough to resist when some onerous task is put upon us; but in time we gain strength, and in time are able to run and not weary, to walk and not faint. It is “from strength to strength,” as the psalmist sang long ago. Take the virtue of patience; what years are needed to acquire it in any large degree! St. Peter says, “Add to your faith, virtue,” (2Pe 1:5-note) etc.; keep up the supply, and exercise all diligence in building up one virtue by means of another. Again, “Grow in grace” (2Pe 3:18-note) if growth stops, grace stops.

“From glory to glory” -- Temptations that had to be fought against, and sometimes ineffectually, twenty years ago, trouble us no longer. Infirmities are less infirm. Mysteries that used to perplex have ceased to disturb. People whose presence was an annoyance can be borne with. Irritations, recurring daily, have lost their power to ruffle the temper. Many a crooked way has been made straight, many a rough place smooth, many a darkened spot bright, to our steps.

“From glory to glory” --  Grace has worked its way down into our instincts and begun their fuller development. Thence comes the white light so grateful to sight and so helpful. It is reflected upon the intellect, the sense-organs, the outward world, and dissipates the occasional gloom that falls upon us when Satan’s “It is written” obscures our perceptions, or when the logic of the sense-intellect gathers its mists about our pathway. Blessed hours of illumination are those which attend the later stages of grace penetrating the depths of instinct. Doubts are over; for we know whom we have believed.

“From glory to glory” --  Gradually our hearts are detached from the world, and, while its beauty and love and tenderness are none the less, they are seen as parts of a higher life and a remoter sphere. Afflictions, once “grievous,” yield “the peaceable fruit of righteousness;” for the “afterward” has come, and what an “afterward”! To be reconciled to the cross of pain; to glory in the cross of the Divine Sufferer; to die to self as we die when the Man of sorrows becomes the Christ of our instincts; to say, “Thy will be done” with no half-way utterance, but from the heart, and submit not only willingly but gladly to whatever it may please Providence to ordain;—this indeed is proof that we have advanced “from glory to glory.”—L. (2 Corinthians 3:12-18 Homily - Boldness of Speech; Glory to Glory )

Homily - The Glorious Transformation.

An exulting joy seems to have moved the soul of the apostle, when he meditated upon the present immunities and honours, and upon the prospects of future blessedness and glory which, through Christ, belong to all true believers and followers of the Lord. A kind of spiritual exhilaration pervades and exalts his spirit, and adds eloquence and poetry to his enraptured language.

I. Uninterrupted vision. The figure of the veil continues to haunt the mind of the inspired writer, even after it has answered the purpose of its first introduction. Associating his brethren in the faith with himself, he affirms, concerning Christians, that the veil was in their case removed, so that for them was actually realized a wonderful approach to the unseen Saviour. Before their enlightenment by the Spirit of God, the scales were upon their eyes and the veil was before their countenance. Now, in Heaven’s light they see light. The sin, the prejudice, the unbelief, which hid the Saviour from their view, have been removed, and nothing comes between the soul and its Saviour.

II. Spiritual reflection. Instead of the countenance being concealed by a veil, it is, in the case of true Christians, converted into a mirror, which receives and then reflects the rays of light. Thus the glory of the Lord, which is ever manifested in nature, and which shone in the face of our incarnate Redeemer, is gathered up and given forth by the renewed and purified character of the Christian. This is a moral process. A spiritual nature alone is capable of attracting and receiving such light, alone is capable of giving it forth in uncontaminated, though reflected, rays. Thus the disciple mirrors the Teacher and the servant mirrors the Lord. We are living representatives of the Divine Head.

III. Glorious transformation. Faith in Christ and fellowship with Christ are the forces which produce assimilation to Christ. The image which is beheld seems to infix itself upon the mirror-like soul that receives it. The life of faith thus serves to carry on a gradual process of spiritual assimilation. The progression is denoted by the phrase, “from glory to glory,” by which we understand, not earthly splendour, but spiritual excellence and perfection. And the agency is indicated by the expression here used, “as by the Lord the Spirit.” Because he is the Spirit, the Lord has access to the heart, and renews, hallows, and glorifies the nature to which he makes himself graciously and divinely known. And there seems to be no limit to this most blessed process. In fact, the future state appears to offer the most amazing scope for its continuation: “We shall be like Christ; for we shall see him as he is.”—T. (2 Corinthians 3:18 Homily - The Glorious Transformation )

Excerpt from Homily - The Christian Transfiguration...

III. The transforming power of such contemplation. “Changed into the same image.”

A moral metamorphosis is wrought, not magically as by a spell or charm, but in the manner proper to a moral nature, by the moulding influence of a new habit of thought and affection. This proceeds on the well-known principle that,

Whatever we look upon with frequency and with congenial feeling,
stamps itself on our minds and characters.

He who looks upon evil becomes evil. He who occupies himself with trifles grows trivial. He who associates with the wise grows wise. He who admires the good himself becomes good.

So likewise he who beholds the pure and gracious image of God in the face of Jesus Christ is changed insensibly into that image, learns to think the thoughts of God and to exhibit the mind of Christ. Two important features of this great change are indicated in the text.

1. It is a progressive one. “From glory to glory.” No doubt, if we could abide continually under the radiance of Christ, his glory would transform us more rapidly and completely than is the experience of average Christians. And we must not dwell on the idea of gradualness so as to excuse a low level of Christian attainment. But the truth lies here, that, as we receive out of Christ’s fulness grace for grace, so are we transformed into his likeness from glory to glory, the light of the Lord gaining upon us and dispelling all the darkness until we are “light in the Lord.”

2. While this change follows a law of moral influence, it is produced by the active operation or a Divine power—“as by the Lord the Spirit.” The reference is to the Lord Jesus as “a quickening Spirit,” who is here brought into contrast with Moses, the minister of the killing “letter.” At the same time, we know from other Scriptures that the Lord pervades his Church on earth and renews men in His own image by the gracious presence and work of the Holy Ghost. Without this doctrine of spiritual operation, both direct and indirect, we fail to apprehend the transforming power of a pure Christianity. (2 Corinthians 3:18 Homily - The Christian Transfiguration)

A FACE LIKE
AN ANGEL

J N Darby describes the change in Stephen (Ac 6:15) as he beheld the glorified Lord Jesus...

We see it in Stephen when he is stoned, and he looks up and sees the glory of God and Jesus (Acts 7:55, 56). Christ had said, “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do”; and the view of Jesus in the glory of God draws from Stephen the prayer, “Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.” (Acts 7:60) And again on the cross, Christ says, “Father, into Thy hands I commend my spirit”; and Stephen says, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” (Acts 7:59) He is changed into Christ’s image.

Kenneth Chafin in his notes on 2Cor 3:18 writes that...

There is always the danger of legalism for each of us. We are tempted to love the Bible and not the God to whom it witnesses. We can join the church, whatever the process, without entering into a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. Often an individual will conform to what is called a “Christian lifestyle” and never have his or her heart changed. Consequently, there is always the danger that one would have all the trappings of religion and not know the love and joy and freedom that is in Christ. (Chafin, K. L., & Ogilvie, L. J. . Vol. 30: The Preacher's Commentary Series, Volume 30 : 1, 2 Corinthians)

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Making a Face - In her book about the history of plastic surgery, Holly Brubach writes: “I myself subscribe to the notion that by the time you’re 50, you have the face you deserve. . . . After 5 decades of repetitive scowling or laughter or worry, one’s attitude toward life is etched on one’s face.” That’s a vivid reminder that every day we are making a face that tells the world a great deal about us.

Although the Bible doesn’t mention cosmetic surgery, it does present the startling concept that if we know Christ and spend time with Him in prayer and in His Word, it can affect our appearance.

When Moses came down from Mount Sinai after meeting with God, his face shone so brightly that the children of Israel could not look steadily at him (Exodus 34:29-30; 2 Corinthians 3:7). Paul compared that glory with the even greater glory that is experienced by those who have a personal relationship with Christ. He said that we are being transformed by the Holy Spirit, who lives within us, and we are becoming more like our Lord Jesus (2 Corinthians 3:18).

While fellowship with Christ won’t give us a perfect face, it can replace the cause of frowns and furrowed brows with an inner peace that shows Christ’s beauty through us. —D C McCasland (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

Let the beauty of Jesus be seen in me,
All His wonderful passion and purity;
Oh, Thou Spirit divine, all my nature refine
Till the beauty of Jesus be seen in me.
—Orsborn


No cosmetic for the face
can compare with God's transforming grace.

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Mirror Image - Years ago, an elderly businessman asked me, “What is your biggest problem?”

I pondered this for a while before replying: “When I look in the mirror every morning, I see my biggest problem staring at me.”

Today’s Scripture reading teaches me that Christians are to be like mirrors. Paul said that our faces are not to be veiled. This is logical. No one installs a mirror and then places a curtain over it. A covered mirror will not fulfill the purpose of reflecting the objects before it.

In 2 Corinthians 3:18, we are described as “beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord.” When we behold His glory, we will be “transformed into the same image”—that is, the likeness of Christ.

We may wonder why we are still so far from being like Christ in our thinking and behavior. Perhaps this question will help: “Whose life do we mirror?”

God’s people must reflect God’s glory. To do that we must make it our habit to behold His glory. We must read and meditate on His Word. We must pray and trust God’s Holy Spirit to work in our hearts. Only then can we obey His commands and depend on His promises.

Whose glory are you reflecting today? — by Albert Lee (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

Lord, may our walk and service be
An image bright of things above,
As we reflect the unity
Of Father, Son, and Spirit's love.
—Anon

The face is a mirror of the heart—
do people see Jesus in yours?

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A Vision That Transforms -- In one version of the mythical tale of King Arthur, the young king is hiding in a tree, nervously awaiting his betrothed. After falling, he felt he had to explain himself to the princess. So he recounted how he mysteriously was able to pull a sword out of a stone, entitling him to be king.

“That’s how I became king,” Arthur told her. “I never wanted to be. And since I am, I have been ill at ease in my crown—until I dropped from the tree and my eye beheld you. Then suddenly, for the first time, I felt I was king. I was glad to be king. And most astonishing of all, I wanted to be the wisest, most heroic, most splendid king who ever sat on any throne.” Simply gazing at his beloved brought about a change in character and purpose.

As we reflect on our beloved, the Lord Jesus, we too experience a transformation. Paul wrote, “We all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord” (2Co 3:18).

By gazing at our Lord in the pages of Scripture, and by yielding to the Holy Spirit, we become different people. We will want to become more like Him. And our highest desire will be to please Him. — by Dennis Fisher (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

Every day more like my Savior,
Every day my will resign,
Till at last Christ reigns supremely
In this grateful heart of mine.
—Brandt

Only Jesus can transform your life.

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Restoring God's Image -- As a young boy, theologian Alister McGrath enjoyed experimenting with chemicals in his school’s laboratory. He liked to drop a tarnished coin into a beaker of diluted nitric acid. He often used an old British penny bearing the image of Queen Victoria. Because of the accumulated grime, Her Majesty’s image couldn’t be seen clearly. But the acid cleansed away the grime and the Queen’s image reappeared in shining glory.

We know, to be sure, that we were created in the image of God (Ge 1:26), but that image has been defaced by our sin. We are still His image-bearers, however.

Once we invite Jesus to enter our lives as Savior, He goes to work to restore the original image. He transforms us to make us like Himself (2Corinthians 3:18). This process is described as putting off some behaviors and putting on others. For example, we are to “put off all these: anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy language” (Col 3:8) and to “put on love” (Col 3:14).

Unless and until our sin-tarnished souls are cleansed by Jesus’ forgiveness, God’s image is obscured in our lives. But when we trust Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross, we are forgiven and the restoration begins. — by Vernon C. Grounds

Restore in me Your image, Lord,
So tarnished by my sin and shame;
And cleanse whatever may conceal
The shining glory of Your name. —D. De Haan

Growing close to Christ
produces a growing Christlikeness.

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Getting in Shape - A woman went to a diet center to lose weight. The director took her to a full-length mirror. On it he outlined a figure and told her, “This is what I want you to look like at the end of the program.”

Days of intense dieting and exercise followed, and every week the woman would stand in front of the mirror, discouraged because her bulging outline didn’t fit the director’s ideal. But she kept at it, and finally one day she conformed to the image she longed for.

Putting ourselves next to Christ’s perfect character reveals how “out of shape” we are. To be transformed into His image does not mean we attain sinless perfection; it means that we become complete and mature.

God often works through suffering to bring this about (James 1:2-4). Sometimes He uses the painful results of our sins. At other times, our difficulties may not be caused by a specific sin, yet we undergo the painful process of learning to obey our Father’s will.

Are you hurting? Perhaps a shaping-up process is in progress. Jesus was perfect, yet He had to learn obedience through the things He suffered (Hebrews 5:8).

If you keep on trusting Jesus, you’ll increasingly take on the image of His loveliness. — by Dennis J. De Haan (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

God has a purpose in our heartache,
The Savior always knows what's best;
We learn so many precious lessons
In each sorrow, trial, and test. -Jarvis

The difficulties of life are to make us better-not bitter.

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The Heart of the Gospel - When E. Stanley Jones, well-known missionary to India, had the opportunity to meet with Mahatma Gandhi, he asked a searching question of India’s revered leader: “How can Christianity make a stronger impact on your country?” Gandhi very thoughtfully replied that three things would be required.

First, Christians must begin to live more like Jesus. Second, the Christian faith should be presented without any adulteration. Third, Christians should emphasize love, which is at the heart of the gospel.

These insightful suggestions are the key to effective evangelism around the world. As messengers of God’s love, we are to be human mirrors who reflect without distortion a growing likeness to our Lord; we are not to walk in “craftiness” (2Co 4:2). If our lives reflect an image that is spiritually blurred, the truth of saving grace may not be clearly communicated (2Co 4:3, 4, 5). We are also to share the biblical essentials of our faith clearly. We must not handle the Word of God “deceitfully” (2Co 4:2). And our lives are to be marked by love for God and others (1Jn 5:1, 2).

Let’s be sure that we reflect a clear image of Jesus’ likeness, the truth of God, and love. — by Vernon C. Grounds (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

Called to be salt and light in this world,
Called to preserve and to shine,
Called to reflect the glory of God—
Oh, what a calling is mine! —Fitzhugh

The primary reason for living in this world
is to reflect the likeness of Christ
.

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Rosebud Potential - My wife and I adore miniature roses. Recently, we planted several bushes, but one did not survive. We returned it to the nursery and asked for an exchange. It was midsummer and the mini roses section was limited.

I looked at one that had a picture showing its potential when in full bloom. But the rose plant itself looked rather plain. My wife offered some good advice. “Don’t look at the full blossoms. Look at how many healthy new rosebuds are starting to form.”

Following her advice, we selected, brought home, planted, and tended the plant with the most rosebuds. In only a week, it had blossomed beautifully!

When our Lord chose His apostles, He selected imperfect men (Mark 3:13-19). One had a history of shady business practices, others had violent tempers. Yet Jesus looked not at their imperfections but at their potential.

Jesus uses the same approach with us. He loves us so much that He chose us despite our imperfections (2Th 2:13). Through the Holy Spirit’s work in our lives, He nurtures and transforms us into His glorious image (2Co 3:18). Next time you are with family, friends, and co-workers, don’t focus on imperfections. Instead, look for rosebud potential.— by Dennis Fisher (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

God, help us see in those we meet
The likeness of Christ’s image there,
And may those traits that are like His
Grow stronger from our love and care. —D. De Haan

The Spirit develops in us the clear image of Christ.

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Champion Marksman - Matt Emmons, Olympic gold medalist in rifle shooting in 2004, was set to win another event at Athens. He had a commanding lead and hoped to make a direct bull’s-eye on his last shot. But something went wrong—he hit the target, but he was aiming at the wrong one! That wrong focus dropped him to eighth place and cost him a medal.

In Paul’s letter to the Philippians, he expressed the importance of focusing on the right target in our Christian life. “I press toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus,” he said (Php 3:14-
note).

Paul used the term “goal” in an illustration of an athlete running a race. Interestingly, the same word was also used of a target for shooting arrows. In both cases, the prospect of winning depends on being focused. For the believer that focus should be a lifetime pursuit of becoming more like our Savior Jesus Christ (Ro 8:28, 29; Gal. 5:22-
note, Gal 5:23-note).

What is your focus today? Are you preoccupied with getting ahead and making life more comfortable? If you’re a believer, the right target to shoot for is to become more like the Son of God (2Co 3:18). Today make sure you are aiming at the right target!— by Dennis Fisher (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

I have one deep supreme desire,
That I may be like Jesus.
To this I fervently aspire,
That I may be like Jesus.
—Chisholm

To make the most of your life,
make God’s goals your goals.

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Is That Jesus? - As I walked into church one Sunday morning, a little boy looked at me and said to his mother, “Mom, is that Jesus?” Needless to say, I was curious to hear her response. “No,” she said, “that’s our pastor.”

I knew she would say no, of course, but I still wished she could have added something like, “No, that’s our pastor, but he reminds us a lot of Jesus.”

Being like Jesus is the purpose of life for those of us who are called to follow Him. In fact, as John Stott notes, it is the all-consuming goal of our past, our present, and our future. Romans 8:29 tells us that in the past we were “predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son.” In the present, we “are being transformed into the same image” (the likeness of Christ), as we grow from “glory to glory” (2Co 3:18). And, in the future, “we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is” (1Jn 3:2).

Being like Jesus is not about keeping the rules, going to church, and tithing. It’s about knowing His forgiveness, and committing acts of grace and mercy on a consistent basis. It’s about living a life that values all people. And it’s about having a heart of full surrender to the will of our Father.

Be like Jesus. You were saved for it! — by Joe Stowell (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

Be like Jesus—this my song—
In the home and in the throng;
Be like Jesus all day long!
I would be like Jesus.
—Rowe

Live in such a way that others see Jesus in you.

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F B Meyer - Our Daily Homily - Moses veiled his face, and the veiled lawgiver was characteristic of the dispensation he inaugurated. It was a partial revelation, gleaming through a veil, expressing truths in rites and types and symbols. But Christ has torn away the vail, removed the fences of the mount of vision, and revealed to babes the deepest secrets of God’s heart. The apostle’s phrase is characteristic of Christianity, “Behold, I show you (i.e., unveil) a mystery.”


The object of visions. — “The glory of the Lord.” Concerning which we may accept the statement of a trustworthy commentator, that the reference is not to the incomprehensible, incommunicable luster of the absolute Divine perfectness; but to that glory which, as John says, tabernacled in the Lord Jesus Christ, full of grace and truth — the glory of loving, pitying words and lovely deeds; the glory of faultless and complete manhood; the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.


The nature of the vision. — “We behold.” It is true that we cannot see. “Whom, not having seen, ye love.” But it is also true that the heart has eyes, by which it looks away unto Jesus. “Seeing is believing” is a familiar proverb among men; but “believing is seeing” is a true aphorism of the spirit which clings to the Lord by its faith and love.


The effect of the vision. — First, we reflect. The beauty of his face glancing on ours will be mirrored, as a man’s eye will contain a tiny miniature picture of what he is beholding. Then we shall be changed. If you try to represent Jesus in your character and behaviour, you will become transfigured into his likeness. Love makes like. Imitation produces assimilation. Reflect and resemble.

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F B Meyer - COMMUNION AND TRANSFORMATION -  Ex 34:29. 2Co 3:18.

MOSES, AS he returned from the mountain of vision, where he had beheld as much of God's glory as seems possible to man, caught some gleam of the Light which he beheld. There was a strange radiance on his face, unknown to himself, but visible to all. He remained long enough in the presence of God to become saturated with the light and glory of the Lord. What wonder that he sparkled with it and was compelled to cover his face with a veil!

St. Paul refers to this incident, and show that the light which shone upon the face of Moses is the symbol of the lustre of character which shines from those who behold or reflect the glory of the Lord. As we behold the glory shining in the face of Jesus Christ, we are changed into His likeness.

There are two laws for Christian living: keep looking at Jesus until you become like Him, and beholding are changed into the same image; then reflect Him to others, and as you endeavour to reflect Him, the work of transformation goes on. "Tell me the company a man keeps, and I will tell you his character"; so runs the old proverb. We might go further and say, tell us what are the subjects of his habitual consideration--art, literature, theology, law, commerce, Philanthropy--and we shall be able to anticipate the expression that will come upon his face.

If we desire to be pure and good, Christ-like and God like, we must live in fellowship with Christ; beholding and reflecting His glory, even the lowliest and most sinful may become changed into His image. How different to Moses is the unveiled glory of Christ. Let us beware of anything that might bring a veil between Him and us, and nothing will so soon do this as sin, and inconsistency. Moses wist not that his face shone, and Samson wist not that the Lord had departed from him (Judges 16:20). There is a tragic as well as a blessed unconsciousness. Let us see to it that we watch and pray, that we may not be taken unawares, and deprived of our purity and strength whilst wrapt in unconsciousness.

PRAYER - We long to be holy as Thou art holy; to love as Christ also loved us; to be patient and unmurmuring as He was, and so to resemble Him that men may love Him for what they see of His likeness in us. AMEN

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F B Meyer - TRANSFIGURED LIVES -- Ro 12:2, 2Co 3:18. -

IN OUR texts the word rendered transformed, or changed, is the same as is used in Mt17:2; and this must have been in the mind of the Apostle when he said, "Be ye transfigured," and "we are transfigured into the same image." How can this transformation be effected? First, from within, by the renewing of the mind; and second, by beholding the glory of the Lord.

The renewing of the mind. This is no matter for emotion or ecstasy, but of bringing our minds into close and constant contact with the truth as contained in the Holy Scripture. You have not to study yourself in the mirror, to see whether you are becoming transfigured; but as day by day you steep your mind in God's Word, without your realising it, you will become transfigured. Moses wist not that his face shone. It was for the crowd that waited for him at the mountain-foot to see it, not for him.

Our Lord said: "Abide in Me and I in you." This is somewhat mystical and profound; but He said again: "If ye abide in Me, and My words abide in you"--that is surely within our reach. "It is not too high, not too deep, not too inward, not too mystical," said Dr. Whyte on one occasion; "and when the Master asks that His words shall abide in me, He can mean nothing else than that I shall often recall and recollect His words, and shall repeat them to myself at all times."

As a man thinketh in his heart so is he; and if we think those thoughts of self-giving, which characterised our Lord's forecast and determination on the Mount of Transfiguration--if we are animated by the resolve to present ourselves as living sacrifices, holy and acceptable to God; as we steep our minds in His mind--the transfiguring glory of that high resolve will insensibly pass into our faces, thus irradiating our meanest actions, our simplest speech.

Beholding and reflecting the Glory of the Lord. The mirror again is Holy Scripture. We find there the reflection of our Lord's highest glory, which is patent, not in His Creative but in His Redemptive work. As we gaze on Him who, for our salvation hid not His Face from shame and spitting, but became a willing Sacrifice on our behalf, we shall be changed.

PRAYER - O Lord Jesus Christ, grant me such communion with Thyself that my soul may continually be athirst for that time when I shall behold Thee in Thy glory. In the meanwhile, may I behold Thy glory in the mirror of Thy Word, and be changed into the same image. AMEN.

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A W Tozer on (2 Corinthians 3:18)...

God wants us to recognize that human nature is in a formative state and that it is being changed into the image of the thing it loves. Men and women are being molded by their affinities, shaped by their affections and powerfully transformed by the artistry of their loves. In the unregenerate world of Adam this produces day by day tragedies of cosmic proportions! For His own children, our heavenly Father has provided right moral objects for admiration and love. They are not God but they are nearest to God; we cannot love Him without loving them. I speak of His righteousness; and the heart drawn to righteousness will be repulsed in the same degree by iniquity. I speak of wisdom, and we admire the Hebrew prophets, who refused to divorce wisdom from righteousness. I speak also of truth as another object of our Christian love. Our Lord Jesus Christ said, “I am the truth” and in so saying He joined truth to the Deity in inseparable union. Thus, to love God is to love the truth!

JUST AS FROM THE LORD THE SPIRIT: kathaper apo kuriou pneumatos: (Ro 8:4,7)

David Guzik writes that Paul uses the  phrase from the Lord the Spirit to emphasize two ideas...

First, this access to God and His transforming presence is ours by the New Covenant, because it is through the New Covenant we are given the Spirit of the Lord.

Secondly, this work of transformation really is God’s work in us. It happens by the Spirit of the Lord, not by the will or effort of man. We don’t achieve or earn spiritual transformation by beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord. We simply put ourselves in a place where we can be transformed by the Spirit of the Lord. (Ed: This begs the question "Are you putting yourself in the place where the Spirit can transform you?")

Lord (2962) (kurios from kuros = might or power) has a variety of meanings/uses in the NT and therefore one must carefully examine the context in order to discern which sense is intended by the NT author. For example, some passages use kurios only as a common form of polite address with no religious/spiritual meaning. Kurios is used over 9000 times in the Septuagint (LXX) and over 700 times in the NT.

Paul had just described the Holy Spirit writing...

Now the Lord is the Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. (2Co 3:17)

NAB note...

the life-giving Spirit, the distinctive gift of the new covenant, is already present in the community (cf 2Cor 1:22, the "first installment"), and the process of transformation has already begun. Into the same image: into the image of God, which is Christ (2Cor 4:4-note).

Spirit (4151)(pneuma from pneo = to blow, to breathe) in context (cp use 2Co 3:17-note) is most consistent with the Holy Spirit, the third Person of the Trinity.

Craig Blomberg writes that...

The Spirit is God's agent for bringing people to himself and helping them to mature spiritually. Only through his power can individuals first receive God's Word as divine (1Th1:5, 6). Those who convert are "saved … through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit" (Titus 3:5). The Spirit "justifies" them, acquitting them of sin (1Co 6:11). He then initiates the lifelong process of sanctification (Ro 15:16; 2Th 2:13), producing attributes such as love, righteousness, peace, joy, and hope. These are well-epitomized as the "fruit of the Spirit" (Gal 5:22, 23).

In sharp contrast stand the works of the flesh (Gal 519, 20, 21), reflecting a characteristic Pauline opposition between a Spirit-controlled life and attempts to live under one's own power, variously attributed to the flesh, body, sin, or law (Ro 2:29; 7:6; 8:1-14; 2Col 3:1-18; Gal 3:1, 2, 3, 4, 5; 5:16-26). In short, Paul is closing the door on a past reliance on one's own accomplishments (and, arguably, for Jews, on their national identity) which is incompatible with the new covenant and the endowment of the Spirit. But believers should want to "walk by the Spirit" (Gal 5:25), in this new sphere of existence, because he alone provides true freedom, glory (2Co 3:17, 18), and mastery over sin (Ro 6:1-14). The distinctive and characteristic form of ministry for each believer is then described in terms of the diverse "gifts" of the Spirit (Ro 12:1-8; 1Cor 12:1-14:40; Ep 4:7-14). (see lengthy article on the
Holy Spirit in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology)

Garland writes that...

Many Christians have lost or never learned a sound doctrine of regeneration. They believe that the only thing that matters is their standing with God or with the church. They assume that a past decision for Christ or a decision to affiliate with a congregation determines their standing with God. Having made that decision, they make no effort to allow the Spirit to renew them. The Spirit is not imposed upon us, and Christians must engage in spiritual disciplines that make the Spirit’s work possible in changing our lives at the fundamental level. God’s Spirit empowers us to do what we want to do and makes what we want to do to be what is right so that Christlikeness flows from us naturally. (Garland, D. E. 2 Corinthians. The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers)

Calvin...

When he adds, — as by the Spirit of the Lord, he again reminds of what he had said — that the whole excellence of the gospel depends on this, that it is made life-giving to us by the grace of the Holy Spirit. For the particle of comparison — as, is not employed to convey the idea of something not strictly applicable, but to point out the manner. Observe, that the design of the gospel is this — that the image of God, which had been effaced by sin, may be stamped anew upon us, and that the advancement of this restoration may be continually going forward in us during our whole life, because God makes his glory shine forth in us by little and little.

Sam Storms - The final phrase has been variously translated, the last option being the most likely:

· "even as by the Spirit of the Lord"

· "even as from the Spirit which is the Lord"

· "even as from sovereign spirit"

· "even as from the Lord who is spirit"

· "even as from the Lord of the spirit"

· "even as from the Lord (who is) the Spirit"

William MacDonald summarizes chapter 3...

Consider then the transcendent glory of the New Covenant. Whereas only one man had the glory on his face in the Old Covenant, today it is the blood-bought privilege of every child of God. Also, instead of merely reflecting the glory of God in our faces, we all in the New Covenant are actually being transformed (lit., metamorphosed) into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord. Whereas Moses’ face reflected glory, our faces radiate glory from inside. Thus Paul brings to a close his rather mystical and deeply spiritual exposition of the New Covenant and of how it compares with the Old. (Ibid)

James Smith...

THE SPIRIT TRANSFORMING US -  2 Corinthians 3:18  - The gospel is the mirror that reflects the likeness of Christ—and Jesus is the mirror that reflects the likeness and glory of the Father. He stands before us—not as Moses did before the Jews, with a veil on his face—but unveiled; and in his unveiled face we behold the glory of God.

The Holy Spirit enlightens the mind, directs the eye to Jesus, points out the excellences of Jesus, and keeps the eye fixed on Jesus. And as the face of Moses caught and reflected some rays of the glory of God on the Mount, so we are changed into the likeness of God in Christ. We are changed into the image of his holiness, love, truthfulness, mercy, justice, and compassion. We become spiritual and God-like, and all who observe us perceive that there is a great and growing change in us. Our humility deepens, our patience strengthens, and our benevolence becomes more pure and expansive.

Every man is more or less assimilated to the likeness of his god; and the Christian, the more he has to do with God, the more communion he holds with God, the more the eye of his mind is fixed on God—the more he resembles God. Man by nature is altogether unlike God; man by grace is being gradually conformed to the image of God; but man in glory will exactly resemble God. We shall then be like him, for we shall see him as he is. The sight of Christ makes us like him.

O Holy Spirit, fix my eye on God in Jesus; daily may I behold his glory; and may all who know me bear witness about me—that I am changed into the image of God! O change me from glory to glory, until I am all glorious within and without, for Jesus' sake!

"And just as we have borne the likeness of the earthly man, so shall we bear the likeness of the man from heaven." 1 Corinthians 15:49 (Our Comforter)

J C Philpot devotionals on 2Cor 3:18...

A view of Christ's glory, and a foretaste of the bliss and blessedness it communicates, has a transforming effect upon the soul. We are naturally proud, covetous, and worldly, often led aside by, and grievously entangled in various lusts and passions, prone to evil, averse to good, easily elated by prosperity, soon dejected by adversity, peevish under trials, rebellious under heavy strokes, unthankful for daily mercies of food and clothing, and in other ways ever manifesting our vile origin. To be brought from under the power of these abounding evils, and be made "fit for the inheritance of the saints in light," we need to be "transformed by the renewing of our mind," and conformed to the image of Christ.

Now this can only be by beholding his glory by faith, as the Apostle speaks, "But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." It is this believing view of the glory of Christ which supports under heavy TRIALS, producing meekness and resignation to the will of God. We are, therefore, bidden to "consider him who endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest we be wearied and faint in our minds;" and to "run with patience the race that is set before us, looking unto Jesus."

SICKNESSES, also, sometimes befall us, when we need special support; the sands of our time are fast running out, and there is no turning the glass; our "days are passing away as the swift ships, as the eagle that hastens to the prey;" and death and eternity are fast hastening on. When the body sinks under a load of pain and disease, and all sources of happiness and enjoyment from health and strength are cut off; when flesh and heart fail, and the eye-strings are breaking in death, what can support the soul or bear it safe through Jordan's swelling flood, but those discoveries of the glory of Christ, that shall make it sick of earth, sin and self, and willing to lay the poor body in the grave, that it may be forever ravished with his glory and his love?

Thus we see how the glory of Christ is not only in heaven the unspeakable delight of the saints, whose glorified souls and bodies will then bear "an exceeding and eternal weight of glory;" but here on earth, in their days of tribulation and sorrow, this same glory, as revealed to their hearts, supports and upholds their steps, draws them out of the world, delivers them from the power of sin, gives them union and communion with Christ, conforms them to his image, comforts them in death, and lands them in glory.

We thus see Christ, like the sun, not only illuminating all heaven with his glory, the delight of the Father, the joy of the spirits of just men made perfect, and the adoration of all the angelic host, but irradiating also the path of the just on earth, casting his blessed beams on all their troubles and sorrows, and lighting up the way wherein they follow their Lord from the suffering cross to the triumphant crown. (April 7 Devotionals)

When our desires and affections ascend to where the Lord Jesus Christ now is, when raised out of all the smoke and fog, din and strife, noise and bustle, cares and anxieties, pursuits and pleasures, sins and sorrows of this earthly scene, we can in faith and hope, in love and affection, live above and beyond all things here below, and beholding with unveiled face the glory of the Lord, "are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord"--this is being made to sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus.

When the Lord Jesus went up on high he entered into his glory. As then we behold him in his glory in faith and love, there is the reflection of his glory, and saints thus favored enter into heaven when still upon earth, and have the foretaste of the glory which is to be revealed at the Lord's coming before they are forever clothed with it. There are indeed comparatively few who are so highly favored, and even they only at rare intervals, and for short moments; but that does not affect the truth and certainty of the fact. It is a most blessed truth that if we are members of the mystical body of Christ, the deficiency of our experience, though it deprives us of much of the enjoyment, does not deprive us of our interest in, or union with, our great covenant Head, and of the fruits which spring out of it. (October 3 Devotional)

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