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ORIGINAL LANGUAGE TOOLS
GREEK, HEBREW & ENGLISH

TOOL DESCRIPTION

 Greek Word Studies Index         

On site in depth definitions.
E.g. see "Approve: (1381) dokimazo"

      Greek Quick Reference Guide

Tabular summary of Greek verbs

2    Utilizing Web Tools for Word Study

Greek Word study using Online Resources
3    Basics of Bible Interpretation Bob Smith - allegory, parables, et al
4  The Greeks Had a Word for It   Tables on tense, mood & voice
5   Helpful Hints on Hebrew What Every Bible Student Needs to Know about Hebrew
6   Figures of Speech Excellent tables on simile, metaphor, et al
7   A T Robertson's Word Pictures Notes on most NT verses (See also use in Gk word study)
8   Vincent's NT Word Studies Insights on Greek not in other resources
9   Vine's Expository Dictionary NT Greek Word definition  (See Use in Greek word study)
10  Webster's Dictionary (Ex in Gk word study)   Don't overlook in "Word Studies".
11  Webster's Dictionary (1828 edition) Short definitions with a Biblical worldview.
12  Dictionary.com Try this instead of Webster.
13  Septuagint (LXX)   What is it and why is of value in Bible Study?
14  Apostles' Bible Excellent offsite link for English translation of the LXX

15  Greek Alphabet

Chart of all Greek letters & pronunciation guide

16  Bible Versions Compared (how literal) Does it make any difference which translation one uses? (More info)

Click "Reference Search" for multiple Search Engines on Biblical resources on one page


Learn to Carefully Observe, Accurately Interpret and Assiduously Apply the Bible for yourself:

 

Inductive Bible study - Why study the Bible Inductively?

Observation

context
key words
mark key words
interrogate with the 5W/H questions
term of conclusion
term of explanation
term of contrast
expression of time
term of comparison// simile// metaphor

Interpretation

Observe With a Purpose
Keep Context King
Read Literally
Compare Scripture with Scripture
Consult Conservative Commentaries

Application

 

Overview to Inductive Bible Study - PowerPoint Presentation (2002) 

 

[1a] Greek Word Studies Index
 

This page contains on site in depth definitions of Greek words, alphabetized by the English word, followed by the Strong's number (which links to a brief definition) and the Greek word in depth definition. For example, take the English word "approve". Click and scroll down to "approve" where you will an entry like the one below. Click "dokimazo" for the in depth definition. This is a dynamic, ongoing project (even words that are listed are frequently updated/revised which is the advantage of "electronic printing" over printed material) so check back frequently for new words and updates of old words. As you study these definitions you will note that they differ from the usual Greek lexicon such as Vine's Lexicon and generally include the derivative root word or words, links to every NT use in the NASB, list of English words that translate the specific Greek word, illustration of use in representative verses, comments from traditional lexicons, use in the Septuagint, and at times even devotional thoughts, quotes, hymns, practical application, etc.
 

Approve (1381) dokimazo

 

[1b] Greek Quick Reference Guide
 

Simple explanations of the meaning of Greek verb tense, voice and mood with Scriptural examples
 

[2] Utilizing Web Tools to perform Word Study
 

Click for a step by step exercise in how to perform a simple Greek word study (without knowing any Greek) using as an example the wonderful word "redemption". You will learn how to utilize some of the excellent Reference material available free of charge on the WWW, including more than 20 Biblically oriented search engines on one page (For compilation of search engines click Reference Search).
 

[3] Basics of Bible Interpretation by Bob Smith
 

Entire book available online at Peninsula Bible Church which includes numerous sermons by Dr. Ray Stedman (click to search Dr. Stedman's excellent books and sermons) covering virtually every book in the Bible.
 

 

Related resource: Dr Stephen R Lewis' Hermeneutics - The Study of the Interpretation of Scriptures - 152 page Pdf - he has a very interesting overview of the history of Bible interpretation beginning on page 22. This synopsis gives you a good sense of how the Word has been handled over the last 2000 years beginning with the Early Church fathers (if you don't already know, you might be surprised at how they began to interpret the Word!), the Middle Ages (I sometimes think how God's Word of truth and life was handled and mishandled in this lengthy period had something to do with the "dark" in "Dark Ages"! Judge for yourself), the Reformation Era and then into the Modern era. A very enlightening and informative "trip".

 

[4] The Greeks Had a Word for It

 

This link is a practical discussion on the value of Greek Word Studies for the lay person (chapter from Basics of Bible Interpretation)


[5] Helpful Hints on Hebrew

 

What Every Bible Student Needs to Know About Hebrew from ("Basics of Bible Interpretation"). Smith quips

 

"The only Hebrew I know, as the saying goes, is the man who has the tailor shop around the corner. And this doesn't help much toward understanding the Hebrew language, because usually he doesn't know it either. But Strong's Exhaustive Concordance comes to my rescue for whatever I, personally, can gain of the meaning of Hebrew terms." In this same source Dave Roper adds that most of us have "never encountered anything quite like Hebrew. Certainly the script is peculiar. It reads from right to left, and there are a host of other rather obvious disparities. However, the real difference is less obvious, and it is this difference that is the real crux of the matter: Hebrew is a vehicle for expressing a uniquely Eastern viewpoint. The problem then, is not merely one of understanding another language, but of understanding another way of looking at life and things. It is this point that most English readers do not fully appreciate. There are many specialized language tools which can be used to define terms and better understand nuances of meaning, but these in themselves are inadequate, simply because they can't reproduce this cultural dimension. In fact, I don't know that it can be adequately reproduced. The only way to fully understand a people is to get fully involved in their language, literature, and customs. Unfortunately, that just isn't possible for most folks. Few have the time or inclination to learn the requisite number of dead Semitic languages and then immerse themselves in the literature. (Some who did, it appears, never came up!) There are, however, some basic perspectives which, when maintained, will enable anyone to more fully appreciate and more accurately interpret the Old Testament." (Click for discussion of 4 major areas that can provide insights into the OT Hebrew mindset).

 

[6] Figures of Speech

 

Chapter 7 in "Basics of Bible Interpretation" = Figures of Speech. Quoting from that source on the value of understanding figures of speech, specifically metaphors, Max Muller observes

 

"It is not too much to say...that the whole dictionary of ancient religion is made up of metaphors. With us these metaphors are all forgotten. We speak of spirit without thinking of breath, of heaven without thinking of sky, of pardon without thinking of a release, of revelation without thinking of a veil. But in ancient language every one of these words, nay, every word that does not refer to sensuous objects, is still in a chrysalis stage, half material and half spiritual, and rising and falling in its character according to the capacities of its speakers and hearers."

 

Related Resources:

 

(a) Hermeneutics by Stephen Lewis - scroll down to page 88 for "Methods for distinguishing between literal and figurative" - see also next page for topic "VIII FIGURES OF SPEECH"

 

(b) Discussion of Interpretation - see especially  Read Literally

 

(c) Excellent discussion by Dr Tony Garland on Interpreting Symbols

 

(d) 1895 textbook by Milton Terry (Caution: Amillennial) - Chapter X - Figurative Language

 

[7] AT Robertson's (ATR) Word Pictures studylight.org  or Crosswalk or
 

There are multiple choices on the Web for A T Robertson's Word Pictures but I prefer Studylight.org because it is (1) Faster and (2) the cross references links are to the NASB.

 

Robertson's 6 volume work offers insights on the Greek text of virtually every NT verse. Some knowledge of Greek is helpful for optimal utilization, but it is still useful even without that knowledge. The notes on many verses function much like a "commentary".  Click to download Greek fonts for Greek script to be properly displayed on your computer.

 

You should also be aware that Robertson is not a believer in a literal interpretation of the 1000 in Revelation 20, commenting that...

 

Here we confront the same problem found in the 1260 days. In this book of symbols how long is a thousand years? All sorts of theories are proposed, none of which fully satisfy one. Perhaps Peter has given us the only solution open to us in 2Pe 3:8 (see note) when he argues that “one day with the Lord is as a thousand years and a thousand years as one day.” It will help us all to remember that God’s clock does not run by ours and that times and seasons and programs are with him. This wonderful book was written to comfort the saints in a time of great trial, not to create strife among them. (Robertson's comment on Revelation 20:2-see lucid, logical, fair-minded discussion of Millennium by Dr Tony Garland) (Comment: The only problem with invoking 2Pe 3:8 [note] to "allegorically" or "spiritually" interpret the 1000 years is that John does not use the term of comparison "like" or "as" but flatly states 1000 years.)

 

[8] Vincent's New Testament Word Studies
 

Highly respected Greek word studies by Marvin Vincent covering all 27 NT books. Godrules.net is the only free online source for Vincent's on the Web as far as I am aware. Vincent is generally conservative and sound with interesting insights into Greek words that cannot be found in other resources. He is always worth checking but remember that he is a "commentary" so as always you need to be an Acts 17:11 Berean.
 

Note that Godrules.net does not have all the Greek words correctly transliterated. Marvin Vincent's notes often will make the statement:

 

"See (specific cross reference)"

 

This notation usually refers to another more detailed discussion of that specific Greek word. Unfortunately, clicking the reference will take you to Greek text but not to Marvin Vincent's cross reference. To see Vincent's cross reference notation,  you must return to the main menu of Vincent's NT Word Studies where the NT books and chapters are listed. Then go to the specific Book and chapter that you are interested in and scroll down until you come to the verse that corresponds to Marvin Vincent's cross reference.
 

Vincent's New Testament Word Studies requires more "keystrokes" but will occasionally yield an insight not found in Robertson's Word Pictures or Vines Expository Dictionary of the New Testament.

 

Another source for Vincent: See Individual Volumes at Archive.org


[9]  Vine's Expository Dictionary of the  NT
 

You can enter either English or Greek words in the Search Engine. Vines is thoroughly conservative and often has some very insightful comments (but keep in mind his lexicon also functions much like a commentary so be an Acts 17:11 Berean). An added advantage of this site is that the Scriptural cross references are all linked so that clicking the Scripture will open up the verse, albeit in the RSV.

 

Alternative (albeit slightly more cumbersome in my opinion) source for Vines is Blue Letter Bible (type verse, click "enter"). The displayed result includes a up to 6 small blue boxes in the left margin. Select box "D" for "Dictionary" to  determine if there is an entry for Vines for that verse. One nice feature that has been added is that Scriptures pop up when mouse is held over the reference.

 

[10]  Webster's Dictionary (see entry #12)
 

Don't overlook the value of the plain English dictionary when doing GREEK WORD STUDIES. Take a moment and do the following exercise - I guarantee you will derive some incredible insights on 2 words commonly found in Scripture. Click the link to Webster's above and look up "anxious". Note especially the comment regarding the "Etymology" of this word. Now type in "worry" and study the entry. What a vivid picture of what anxiety and worry can do to our psyche! Now you have some additional insight into why Jesus spent so much time (study Mt 6:25-34-note) exhorting us not to "worry" in the Sermon on the Mount. He knew the negative impact worry and anxiety could have on our spiritual life. So utilize Webster's frequently in your Word Studies and you will frequently be rewarded with similar picturesque insights.

 

Related Resource: Greek word study on worry = merimna 

 

[11]  Webster's Dictionary (1828 edition)
 

More "bibliocentric" or Scripture saturated than the more recent editions of Webster's Dictionary and worth searching to see if it has a specific definition for a word you are studying.

 

[12]  Dictionary.com
 

The distinct advantage of this site is that it produces a simultaneous search of several dictionaries including: American Heritage, Easton's Bible Dictionary, Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (this resource frequently using Scripture to illustrate the meaning!). In addition it will also give you a link to Roget's Thesaurus to check for synonyms. Another potentially useful resource is the web based encyclopedia Wikipedia

 

[13]   Greek Septuagint (LXX)

 

Preceptaustin.org makes frequent use of the Septuagint (LXX) which often provides useful insights on Old Testament passages that cannot be gleaned from other resources.

Ferdinand Hitzig, an Hebrew authority used to say to his class.

 

Have you a Septuagint? If not, sell all you have, and buy one.”

 

What is the Septuagint (usually abbreviated LXX)?
 

In simple terms the Septuagint (LXX) is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament.

 

The Hebrew scholar Gesenius explains that...

 

At the time when the old Hebrew language was gradually becoming extinct, and the formation of the O. T. canon was approaching completion, the Jews began to explain and critically revise their sacred text, and sometimes to translate it into the vernacular languages which in various countries had become current among them. The oldest translation is the Greek of the Seventy (more correctly Seventy-two) Interpreters (LXX), which was begun with the Pentateuch at Alexandria under Ptolemy Philadelphus, but only completed later. It was the work of various authors, some of whom had a living knowledge of the original, and was intended for the use of Greek-speaking Jews, especially in Alexandria. (Gesenius, F. W. Gesenius' Hebrew grammar. Page 17)

 

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia adds some interesting details regarding the importance of the Septuagint (LXX):

 

The Greek version of the Old Testament commonly known as the Septuagint holds a unique place among translations. Its importance is many sided. Its chief value lies in the fact that it is a version of a Hebrew text earlier by about a millennium than the earliest dated Hebrew manuscript extant (916 AD), a version, in particular, prior to the formal rabbinical revision of the Hebrew which took place early in the 2nd century AD. It supplies the materials for the reconstruction of an older form of the Hebrew than the Masoretic Text reproduced in our modern Bibles.

 

It is, moreover, a pioneering work; there was probably no precedent in the world’s history for a series of translations from one language into another on so extensive a scale.

 

It was the first attempt to reproduce the Hebrew Scriptures in another tongue.

 

It is one of the outstanding results of the breaking-down of international barriers by the conquests of Alexander the Great and the dissemination of the Greek language, which were fraught with such vital consequences for the history of religion. The cosmopolitan city which he founded in the Delta witnessed the first attempt to bridge the gulf between Jewish and Greek thought. The Jewish commercial settlers at Alexandria, forced by circumstances to abandon their language, clung tenaciously to their faith; and the translation of the Scriptures into their adopted language, produced to meet their own needs, had the further result of introducing the outside world to a knowledge of their history and religion.

 

Then came the most momentous event in its history, the starting-point of a new life; the translation was taken over from the Jews by the Christian church. It was the Bible of most writers of the New Testament. Not only are the majority of their express citations from Scripture borrowed from it, but their writings contain numerous reminiscences of its language. Its words are household words to them. It laid for them the foundations of a new religious terminology.

 

It was a potent weapon for missionary work, and, when versions of the Scriptures into other languages became necessary, it was in most cases the Septuagint and not the Hebrew from which they were made.

 

Preeminent among these daughter versions was the Old Latin which preceded the Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.), for the most part a direct translation from the Hebrew, was in portions a mere revision of the Old Latin; our Prayer-book version of the Psalter preserves peculiarities of the Septuagint, transmitted through the medium of the Old Latin.

 

The Septuagint was also the Bible of the early Greek Fathers, and helped to mold dogma; it furnished proof-texts to both parties in the Arian controversy. Its language gives it another strong claim to recognition.

 

Uncouth and unclassical as much of it appears, we now know that this is not wholly due to the hampering effects of translation. “Biblical Greek,” once considered a distinct species, is now a rather discredited term. The hundreds of contemporary papyrus records (letters, business and legal documents, etc.) recently discovered in Egypt illustrate much of the vocabulary and grammar and go to show that many so-called “Hebraisms” were in truth integral parts of the koine, or “common language,” i.e. the international form of Greek which, since the time of Alexander, replaced the old dialects, and of which the spoken Greek of today is the lineal descendant.

 

The version was made for the populace and written in large measure in the language of their everyday life. (Orr, J., M.A., D.D. The International Standard Bible encyclopedia: 1915 edition - if you are interested in further study read Click Septuagint-1 and Septuagint-2)
 

Why study the Septuagint (LXX)?

 

The Hebrew Masoretic text (mentioned above) is the original language text used by virtually all popular English versions when translating the Old Testament into English. Virtually all modern English Bible translations utilize the original Hebrew text rather than the Septuagint to translate the Old Testament. This fact however by no means depreciates the value of the Septuagint (LXX) in the study of the Old Testament Scriptures.

 

Remember that Jesus and his disciples most often used the Septuagint (LXX) manuscripts rather than the original Hebrew Old Testament scrolls. Why? First, the Septuagint (LXX) was widely available and secondly the majority of the culture used Greek as the common language. Without getting too technical, it is notable that when quoting OT passages in the NT the New Testament writers chose to quote the Greek text (Septuagint) over the Hebrew text approximately 93% of the time. One can conclude that the "men moved by the Holy Spirit (who) spoke from God" clearly were confident that the Septuagint (LXX) manuscripts were authentic and reliable resources in their writings.  It follows that the modern student can likewise use the Septuagint (LXX) with complete confidence.

 

To reiterate, the Septuagint (LXX) was the "version" most often quoted by Jesus and the New Testament writers. Stated another way, most of the New Testament quotes of the Old Testament are not taken directly from the Hebrew but the Greek translation of the Hebrew.

 

In view of the widespread use of the Septuagint (LXX) by Jesus and the NT writers, it is surprising that the value of the Septuagint especially for exposition and interpretation by pastors and teachers has been underestimated and underutilized. It would be interesting to know how many pastors routinely study the Septuagint when preparing expositional messages from the Old Testament.

 

Below are some specific ways the Septuagint (LXX) can be profitably utilized.

 

LXX in Greek Word Studies

 

Since many of the Greek Words in the Septuagint are also used in the Greek New Testament, by studying the Septuagint Greek, one can often glean wonderful insights not available by restricting one's study to the NT Greek. '

 

LXX as a "Mini-Commentary"

 

This aspect of the LXX will probably only apply to those who do more in depth Bible study and have some familiarity with the original languages. In my experience as a Bible teacher for over 20 years, when one studies the Old Testament in a modern version like the NASB and the parallel passages in the Greek Septuagint, the Septuagint often functions like a "mini-commentary", not altering the meaning of the verse but adding color, vibrancy and life that would otherwise go unnoticed and unappreciated. As an aside, I don't find simply using Brenton's English translation of the LXX to be helpful. One needs to go to the original Greek texts (which can be done with relative ease utilizing computer programs such as Logos Bible Software [Libronix] and Hermeneutika both of which have a Greek lexicon that defines words found only in the O.T). This type of ancillary study will of course take more time, but the reward in the form of instructive insights is worth the investment.  if you are a pastor/teacher of God's Word, it behooves you to consider utilizing these resources to supplement your sermon and lesson preparation.

 

What Do the Experts Say about the Value of the Septuagint (LXX)? 

 

Adolph Deissmann in his book "The Philology of the Greek Bible" makes the following statement regarding the significance of the Septuagint (LXX):

 

The daughter belongs of right to the mother; the Greek Old and New Testaments form by their contents and by their fortunes an inseparable unity. The oldest manuscript Bibles that we possess are complete Bibles in Greek. But what history has joined together, doctrine has put asunder; the Greek Bible has been torn in halves. On the table of our theological students you will generally see the Hebrew Old Testament lying side by side with the Greek New Testament. It is one of the most painful deficiencies of Biblical study at the present day that the reading of the Septuagint has been pushed into the background, while its exegesis has been scarcely begun"

 

Deissmann goes onto add that

 

A single hour lovingly devoted to the text of the Septuagint will further our exegetical knowledge of the Pauline Epistles more than a whole day spent over a commentary.

 

Related Resources...

 

Everett F. Harrison, "The Importance of the Septuagint for Biblical Studies, Part I," Bibliotheca Sacra 112: 448 (1955): 344-355 (HTML Format) (or here for Pdf)

 

Everett F. Harrison, "The Importance of the Septuagint for Biblical Studies, Part II," - The Influence of the Septuagint on the New Testament Vocabulary" - Bibliotheca Sacra 113: 449 (1956): 37-45 (HTML format). (or here for Pdf)

 

Where Can One Find Resources on the Septuagint (LXX)?

 

1) Study of the Septuagint (LXX) is most efficiently performed using one of the commercial Bible software products, especially Hermeneutika or Logos Bible Software- Logos 4/5 [Note: Libronix is no longer being updated]

 

2) English translation of the Septuagint (LXX) by Sir Lawrence Brenton is available online at Apostles' Bible. This translation is interesting but does not yield as many insights into the OT passage as can be gleaned from studying the original Greek translation of the Hebrew. If you use Internet Explorer, you might consider placing the "Apostles' Bible" as an icon on your toolbar. Here's how:

 

First, open Internet Explorer.

Click "View".

Click "Toolbars".

Place a check in front of "Links" which should activate a bar directly beneath "Address".

Open
Apostles' Bible.

Place your mouse pointer over the Explorer icon "e" (the icon directly in front of the http//... address), hold down the left mouse button and drag the "e" icon to the "Links" bar which should automatically place this shortcut to the Apostles' Bible on the Link for quick access.
 

To rename this icon (I usually shorten the name as I have links to multiple sites I use in Bible study) by placing your mouse over the "e" icon on the Link bar, holding down the right mouse button and selecting Rename. For example, I've renamed it as LXX. You can do the same for any website you frequently access.

 

Two other free programs that have Brenton's Translation are E-Sword and TheWord or (Main Page for TheWord) both of which include some excellent features and a ever growing library of free resources.

 

3) Logos has ceased producing new resources for Libronix as of Spring, 2012. While the links below still work and you can still make personal books with Libronix, Logos 4/5 personal books are far easier to compile and unlike Libronix personal books, Logos 4/5 personal books function like any purchased resource. There is an increasing number of books that you can compile into Personal Books in Logos 4/5 - click User Contributed Personal Books.

 

If you own Libronix and are looking for personal books to compile see Personal Book Builder at StillTruth. Here are a few examples of the works available

 

Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint

 

John Gill Collection

 

PD Theology Collection (books by Andrew Murray, A W Pink, F B Meyer, et al)

 

Works of Jonathan Edwards (2 Volumes)

 

John Owen Collection

 

Timeline: Life of Jesus

 

Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Old Testament

 

Treasury of David by C H Spurgeon

 

Who is D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones?

 

Albert Barnes’ New Testament

 

Click for the complete listing of books available

 

4) Online Interlinear Versions:

 

I don't find these resources as convenient as the commercial products mentioned above and therefore seldom use them. They will be described for completeness.

 

Interlinear for our purposes is the English translation + parallel version of either Greek New Testament or the Greek Old Testament (The Septuagint = "LXX") or the English translation + parallel version of the Hebrew .  Note that in order to properly display the Hebrew and Greek characters you will need to download the fonts which is very quick and simple (Click).


An
alternative source for Greek text of the LXX is the BlueLetterBible where  the LXX can be viewed by searching OT and clicking the box "C" to the left of the verse which in turn links with the Hebrew (parsed) and the LXX (not parsed).

 

1 Step Approach to Study of a Verse in the Septuagint (LXX)

Click HERE to go to search engine on this page or HERE for same search box on Reference Search page and enter Ps 1 and select Septuagint as shown below. Click enter to retrieve Psalm 1:1-6 with each verse in the NASB in parallel with the Greek (Septuagint). (Note: the Hebrew characters will only be displayed correctly if you have downloaded their Hebrew font -click here) Go down to Step (3) below to see comments on how this tool might aid your study of the OT.
 

                      OT Source
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS)
Septuagint (LXX)

 

OR

 

3 Step Approach to Study Verse
in the Septuagint (LXX)

(1) Click to open a new window and then type in Ps 1:1 in the "Look Up a Bible Verse" search box and you'll retrieve a result that looks like the example below.

(2) Now click on link above the verse "Original Hebrew" which opens up a window that looks like the one below and of course includes the English and the original Hebrew (the Hebrew characters will only be displayed correctly if you have downloaded their Hebrew font -click here)

 

Psalms 1:1

  in:using:
Manuscripts  OTBiblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) Septuagint (LXX)
NTNestlé-Aland 26 1894 Textus Receptus 1991 Byzantine
New Search | HELP 

(3) Select the button "Septuagint (LXX)" and also change "ps 1:1" to "ps 1" (which will retrieve the entire Psalm 1 in English and Greek). The result will appear as shown below but the Greek letters will only be displayed correctly if you have the fonts (click to download). Now even if you do not know how to read Greek you can click on the links of each word and read the Greek definition. To get a sense of how the LXX can help add to your understanding of an OT word click on loimwn below which translates the Hebrew word for "scoffers" which gives "scoffers" an interesting nuance. (Note: this is probably not the best example because the Hebrew word that is linked to "scoffers" in the studylight.org site is incorrect -- click "scoffers" in this note for the correct Hebrew word).

 

USE SEARCH ENGINE BELOW TO READ
Old Testament IN GREEK (SEPTUAGINT = LXX)
IN PARALLEL WITH NASB 
Note: All underlined Greek & English words are linked to definitions to aid your study even if you cannot read Greek!


Enter Scripture

                      OT Source
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS)
Septuagint (LXX)

                         NT Source
Nestlé-Aland 26 Greek Text
1894 Textus Receptus
1991 Byzantine Greek Text

 

[14] Greek Alphabet


Greek script, English transliteration & pronunciation guide.

 

 

BIBLE VERSIONS
COMPARISON OF LITERALNESS

MORE
LITERAL

LESS INTERPRETATIVE
MORE WORD FOR WORD

 

MORE
PARAPHRASE

MORE INTERPRETATIVE**
MORE CONCEPT FOR CONCEPT

Young's
Literal
NAS
ASV
CSB
Amp
   ESV
 KJV
    NKJV
       RSV
NRSV
   NAB
NIV
             NJB
NCV
ICB
NLT
  Phillips
GNT
   CEV
    
TLB Msg
NAS   = New American Standard
Amp   = Amplified Version
ASV   = Authorized Std Version 1901
ESV   = English Standard Version
CSB   = Homan Christian Standard
RSV   = Revised Standard Version
KJV   = King James Version
NKJV = New King James Version
NRSV = New Revised Std
NAB   = New American Bible
NJB    = New Jerusalem Bible
NIV     = New International Version
NCV    = New Century Version
ICB     = International Children's
NLT  = New Living Translation
Phillips = J B Phillips Paraphrase
GNT  = Good News Translation
CEV  = Contemporary English
TLB  = The Living Bible
Msg   = Message (Be a Berean!)

** MORE INTERPRETATIVE: For the most objective, non-biased and "pure" inductive study, do not use paraphrased versions as your primary resource for they provide no way to determine whether or not the translator's  interpretation of the original Greek and Hebrew is accurate. The more literal versions such as NAS, ESV, CSB KJV, NKJV more accurately  render the words of the original biblical authors and are therefore recommended for inductive Bible study. Although more literal, the Amplified is not recommended as your primary text, but can be helpful once you have done your study because in many verses it functions like a "mini-commentary". Consultation (after your own inductive study) with some paraphrases (e.g.,  NLT and Phillips) may also yield insights into the meaning of the passage. Note that the NIV is a thought-for-thought (dynamic equivalence) translation which can be helpful for new believers, but it is not recommended for in depth bible study because of the inconsistent way in which it renders the Hebrew and Greek texts. In some cases, the NIV includes significant interpretation which leaves the reader without any indication of the other possible ways to understand that particular verse. Although every translation has some degree of interpretation, the NAS is the least interpretative and has the advantage over the NIV in that it identifies words in italics that are not in the original language but which have been added by the translators to make the passage more readable and/or understandable. Do not base your interpretation on the words in italics.

 

DOWNLOAD InstaVerse for free. It is an easy to install and simple to use Bible Verse pop up tool that allows you to read cross references in context and in the Version you prefer. Only the  KJV is free with this download but you can also download a free copy of Bible Explorer which in turn offers free Bibles that work with InstaVerse, including  the excellent, literal translation, the English Standard Version (ESV). Other popular versions are available for purchase. When you hold the mouse pointer over a Scripture reference anywhere on the Web (as well as offline in Word for Windows, email, etc) the passage pops up immediately. InstaVerse can be disabled if the popups become distractive. This utility really does work and makes it easy to read the actual passage in context and not just the chapter and verse reference.

 

DISCLAIMER These links are listed for your convenience and their inclusion does not necessarily signify that I agree with everything written on each site. The best policy is to - Examine everything carefully. Hold fast to that which is good. Abstain from every form of evil. (1Th 5:21-22-note, cf Acts 17:11-note) (Note: All verbs in red are present imperative = command calling for continual action/attitude = Calls for this to be one's lifestyle, only possible as we dependent, yield, surrender to the Holy Spirit's enabling power.)

 


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Last Updated July, 2013

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