Ezekiel 16:1-14 Commentary



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An Allegory of Unfaithful Jerusalem (NIV)
God's Unfaithful Bride (NET)
God's Grace to Unfaithful Jerusalem (NASB)
Jerusalem the Unfaithful (Good News Bible)

Ezekiel 16:1-14 The Lord's Loving kindnesses to Jerusalem
Ezekiel 16:15-34 Unfaithful Jerusalem's Harlotry
Ezekiel 16:35-50 God's Judgment on Jerusalem
Ezekiel 16:51-63 Sodom & Samaria Will be Restored (53-58) (GNB)
Jerusalem Will Be Ashamed (53-58) (CEV)
Covenant that Lasts Forever (59-63) (GNB)


Ezekiel 16:1-14 Commentary

Ezekiel 16:1 Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying,  (NASB: Lockman)

Whereas the preceding parable of the vine wood emphasized unfruitfulness, in this chapter the allegory of a wife emphasizes unfaithfulness.  Believers today as the bride of Christ are to be both fruitful and faithful for as Paul instructed the Romans

my brethren, you also were made to die to the Law through the body of Christ, that you might be joined to (KJV/NKJV = married to) another, to Him who was raised from the dead, (in order) that we might bear fruit for God. (which fulfills our purpose for true spiritual fruit brings glory to God) (see note Romans 7:4)

Paul goes on to explain that before we were born again,

while we were in the flesh, the sinful passions, which were aroused by the Law, were at work in the members of our body to bear fruit for death. But now we have been released from the Law, having died to that by which we were bound, so that we serve in newness of the Spirit (the only way to bear the fruit of the Spirit!) and not in oldness of the letter. (see notes Romans 7:5; 7:6)

Wesley's plea was

Lord, let me not live to be useless.

This is the longest chapter in Ezekiel and closely parallels the indictment of Judah in Ezekiel 23 (2 sisters). In this chapter God describes Israel’s sin and unfaithfulness to His love in such frank and indicting terms that some of the ancient rabbis refused to allow public reading of these passages verses! Expositor's adds

Some people are offended by the stark realism of this chapter. However, God is always straightforward about life. The realism of Israel's history demands an accurate and vivid analogy.


Ezekiel 16:2 Son of man, make known to Jerusalem her abominations    (NASB: Lockman)

Amplified: Son of man, cause Jerusalem to know, understand, and realize her [idolatrous] abominations [that they] are disgusting, detestable, and shamefully vile.  (Amplified Bible - Lockman)

make known  to Jerusalem her abominations (Ezekiel 20:4; 22:2; 23:36; 33:7-9; Ho 8:1)

The KJV translates it more "forcefully" as cause Jerusalem to know.

NET Bible translates it as confront Jerusalem.

The English translation of the Septuagint (LXX)(Greek translation of the Hebrew) has "testify to Jerusalem" where the Greek word for testify is diamarturomai which means to solemnly witness or bear witness This is an interesting opening because Ezekiel is in exile in Babylon and not in Jerusalem. One explanation is that although Jerusalem does refer to the city, in context the term is being used also in a "broader" sense as representative of the Jewish people. 

The Amplified Version translates it with this thought (verse 2) as "Jerusalem [representing Israel]".

Ezekiel was to give an uncompromising message, and like Isaiah was to

Cry loudly, do not hold back. Raise your voice like a trumpet, and declare to (God's) people their transgression and to the house of Jacob their sins. (Isa 58:1)

As God told Hosea, Ezekiel was to

Put the trumpet to your lips! Like an eagle the enemy comes against the house of the LORD (in the context of Hosea that enemy was Assyria, and for Ezekiel of course was Babylon), because they have transgressed (broken, rejected) My covenant, and rebelled against My law.

Quoting the NLT of Isaiah 57:12

Now I will expose your so-called good deeds that you consider so righteous. None of them will benefit or save you.

This allegory of Jerusalem serves to expose her so-called good deeds and should also serve as a dramatic warning to anyone who says they are saved and yet continues to live in their "abominations", for

by this the children of God and the children of the devil are obvious: anyone who does not practice righteousness is not of God, nor the one who does not love his brother. (1Jn 3:10)

Abominations (tow'ebah) ("loathsome practices" NJB, "loathsome sins" NLT; "detestable practices" NIV) refers to that which causes one to disgust, abhor, loathe or detest and in context the one who abhors Jerusalem's ("Israel's") conduct is God. One of the most striking, sad and powerful examples of their abominations is found in Ezekiel 8 where God had instructed His prophet to

"Go in and see the wicked abominations that they are committing (in the Holy Temple)....every form of creeping things and beasts and detestable things, with all the idols of the house of Israel, were carved on the wall (of the Temple area) all around. And standing in front of them were seventy elders of the house of Israel...each man with his censer in his hand, and the fragrance of the cloud of incense rising...the elders of the house of Israel...in the dark, each man in the room of his carved images" totally deceived saying "The LORD does not see us; the LORD has forsaken the land." God went on to tell Ezekiel that he would "see still greater abominations which they are committing...(at) the entrance of the gate of the LORD'S house which was toward the north... women...sitting there weeping for Tammuz." But God was not finished with this horrid picture, declaring to Ezekiel that he would "see still greater abominations than these... and behold, at the entrance to the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about 25 men with their backs to the temple of the LORD and their faces toward the east; and they were prostrating themselves eastward toward the sun." (backs to the Creator, bowing to the creation as "sun worshippers"!) (Ezekiel 8:9-17)

This Hebrew word (tow'ebah) is used to describe a variety of specific "abominations" including

idolatry (Dt 7:25)

human sacrifice (Dt 12:31),

engaging in occult activities (Dt 18:9-14),

conducting one's business dishonestly (Dt 25:13-16),

practicing ritual prostitution (1Ki 14:23ff),

and similar acts of disobedience (Pr 6:16-19 lists seven abominations).

Jerusalem was guilty of practicing all of these abominations, any one of which would have been enough to justify God's wrath on them. It is also notable that on occasion this Hebrew word translated abominations (tow'ebah) is also used as a synonym for "idol" (eg, Isa 44:19) or even for specific pagan false gods, for example, referring to the idol Milcom as

"the abomination of the Ammonites" (in 2Ki 23:13)

At the other end of the spectrum,

he who turns away his ear from listening to the law, even his prayer is an abomination" (Pr 28:9).

And so in Isaiah God says to Israel

So when you spread out your hands in prayer, I will hide My eyes from you. Yes, even though you multiply prayers, I will not listen. Your hands are covered with blood." (Isa 1:15)


Ezekiel 16:3 and say, 'Thus says the Lord GOD to Jerusalem, "Your origin and your birth are from the land of the Canaanite, your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite.  (NASB: Lockman)

Amplified: And say, Thus says the Lord God to Jerusalem [representing Israel]: Your [spiritual] origin and your birth are thoroughly Canaanitish; your [spiritual] father was an Amorite and your [spiritual] mother a Hittite.  (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Brenton: and thou shalt say, Thus saith the Lord to Jerusalem; Thy root and thy birth are of the land of Chanaan: thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Chettite. (English translation of the
Septuagint LXX)

Thus says the Lord GOD to Jerusalem

Lord God - NIV more accurately translates it sovereign LORD

God had appointed (Ezekiel) a watchman for the house of Israel" and so when he head a message from (God's) mouth" he would "give them warning" (Ezek 33:7)

The IVP Bible background commentary has a well reasoned comment stating that

This passage operates on two levels. First, it is correct to tie Jerusalem, at least the Jebusite city, to Amorite and North Syrian Hittite political origins. This is established by its mention in the El Amarna texts. However, on a symbolic level, in confronting Jerusalem with its mixed ancestry (tying it to three of the seven major inhabitant groups of Canaan listed in Ex 3:8), God identifies the place and the people as utterly corrupt. When the land was conquered, it was the responsibility of the Israelites to purify it of its idolatrous traditions (Dt 7:1–5), but instead the people became just like the nations they were supposed to displace. (Matthews, V. H., et al, The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press)

Your origin and your birth are from the land of the Canaanite(Ezekiel 16:45; 21:30; Ge 11:25,29; Joshua 24:14; Neh 9:7; Isa 1:10; 51:1,2; Mt 3:7; 11:24; Lu 3:7; Jn 8:44; Eph 2:3; 1Jn 3:10)

Origin - ancestry, parentage, lineage, family line with a focus on the origin

Birth - family, relatives, kindred

The land of the Canaanite - The physical location of Jerusalem is in the "land of Canaan", but as noted above, God is also alluding to the moral condition of Jerusalem.

your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite

The Amorites elsewhere is Scripture were used by God to represent the epitome of evil, in Genesis God declaring that

in the fourth generation (Abraham's offspring) shall return here (to Canaan), for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet complete. (Ge 15:16)

Was Jerusalem's "father" literally an Amorite and her "mother" literally a Hittite? In Isaiah God declares to his people (once in this same chapter identifying them as synonymous with Jerusalem, see Isa 51:17)

Listen to me, you who pursue righteousness, who seek the LORD: Look to the rock from which you were hewn, and to the quarry from which you were dug. Look to Abraham your father, and to Sarah who gave birth to you in pain, when he was one I called him, then I blessed him and multiplied him. (Isa 51:1-2)

This verse begs the question -- What then is God saying with this description of Jerusalem?

I agree with Morris' comment, where he notes that

Both Amorites and Hittites were prominent in Canaan when Abraham arrived there from Ur of the Chaldees. Neither Abraham, Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, nor Leah had any Amorite or Hittite blood in their personal heritage, but these pagan influences had infiltrated Jerusalem long before David captured it, and such influences had infected the children of Israel as soon as they returned there from Egypt under Joshua. (Morris, Henry: Defenders Study Bible. World Publishing)

And I would add that these pagan influences came into "full bloom" after Joshua died (see the detailed discussion below).

Mother a Hittite - see related note Ezekiel 16:44

Ryrie agrees with this interpretation commenting that this verse refers to

Jerusalem's moral genealogy included the Amorite (Canaanite) and Hittite (a non-Semitic pagan people). (The Ryrie Study Bible: New American Standard Translation: 1995. Moody Publishers)

John MacArthur agrees noting that

These names (Canaanite...Amorite...Hittite) identify the residents of Canaan who occupied the land when Abraham migrated there (cf. Ge 12:5,6). Jerusalem had the same moral character as the rest of Canaan." (MacArthur, J.: The MacArthur Study Bible Nashville: Word or Logos)

In preparation for entering the promised land, Moses had given Israel clear instructions that

When the LORD your God shall bring you into the land where you are entering to possess it, and shall clear away many nations before you, the Hittites and the Girgashites and the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Hivites  and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and stronger than you, and when the LORD your God shall deliver (give) them before you, and you shall defeat (strike severely, slay, smite) them, then you shall utterly destroy them. You shall make no covenant with them and show no favor (no mercy) to them. Furthermore, you shall not intermarry with them; you shall not give your daughters to their sons, nor shall you take their daughters for your sons.  For they will turn your sons away from following Me to serve other gods; then the anger of the LORD will be kindled against you, and He will quickly destroy you. But thus you shall do to them: you shall tear down their altars, and smash their sacred pillars, and hew down their Asherim, and burn their graven images with fire. (Why?) For you are a holy (separated, set apart) people to the LORD your God; the LORD your God has chosen you to be a people for His own possession (treasured possession) out of all the peoples who are on the face of the earth. For you are a holy people to the LORD your God; the LORD your God has chosen you to be a people for His own possession out of all the peoples who are on the face of the earth.  The LORD did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number than any of the peoples, for you were the fewest of all peoples, but because the LORD loved you and kept the oath which He swore to your forefathers, the LORD brought you out by a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of slavery, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt." (Dt 7:1–8)

Moses specifically declared that

The graven images of their gods you are to burn with fire; you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them, nor take it for yourselves, lest you be snared by it, for it is an abomination to the LORD your God. And you shall not bring an abomination into your house, and like it come under the ban; you shall utterly detest it and you shall utterly abhor it, for it is something banned." (Dt 7:25-26)

Israel conquered Canaan under the leadership of Joshua and generally obeyed the Lord's command but after Joshua died Judges records that the tribes of Israel did not "drive out the Canaanites" (see note Judges 1:29) and that "the Canaanites lived among (in the midst of) them" (see note Judges 1:30)

Judges records that

the people served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders who survived Joshua, who had seen all the great work of the LORD which He had done for Israel." (see notes Judges 2:7)

After Joshua and all of his generation had died

there arose another generation after them who did not know the LORD, nor yet the work which He had done for Israel. Then the sons of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and served the Baals, and they forsook the LORD, the God of their fathers, who had brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods from among the gods of the peoples who were around them, and bowed themselves down to them; thus they provoked the LORD to anger. So they forsook the LORD and served Baal and the Ashtaroth." (see notes Judges 2:10-13)

Perhaps the sad story of Israel's being chosen by God and then choosing to reject His love and His Law can be summed up in the words of the Psalmist who records

Then (after the Red Sea deliverance) they believed His words. They sang His praise. They quickly forgot His works. They did not wait for His counsel. But craved intensely in the wilderness, and tempted God in the desert." (Ps 106:12-14)

They believed His words but soon forgot His works and pursued their will not God's. Ezekiel 16 is a summary in story (allegory) form of Israel's forgetting and forsaking, and should serve as an example for all of us regarding the importance of remembering God's love in choosing us and His works of grace and mercy in all of our lives.

Although I feel the context favors the above interpretation, in fairness one should be aware that some respected commentaries like Expositor's Bible Commentary interpret this passage more as a physical birth of the city of Jerusalem without any spiritual implications. Thus Expositors comments that

The reference to Jerusalem's father as an Amorite and her mother as a Hittite has stirred much debate among expositors. However, the thrust of the passage is to show how the city came into being. This was accomplished by the Amorites and the Hittites, for the land of Canaan was also known biblically as the land of the Amorites and the land of the Hittites. (Gaebelein, F, Editor: Expositor's Bible Commentary OT 7 Volume Set: Books: Zondervan Publishing)


Ezekiel 16:4 As for your birth, on the day you were born your navel cord was not cut, nor were you washed with water for cleansing; you were not rubbed with salt or even wrapped in cloths.  (NASB: Lockman)

Brenton: And as for thy birth in the day wherein thou wast born, thou didst not bind thy breasts, and thou wast not washed in water, neither wast thou salted with salt, neither wast thou swathed in swaddling-bands. (Greek Septuagint)

As for your birth, on the day you were born (Ezek 20:8,13; Ge 15:13; Ex 1:11-14; 2:23,24; 5:16-21; Dt 5:6; 15:15; Josh 24:2; Neh 9:7-9; Hos 2:3; Acts 7:6,7)

Ezekiel describes the procedures and treatment that would ordinarily be administered by the attendant at any normal newborn delivery (and which is still the practice of modern oriental midwives). The attendant (midwife) would cut and tie off the umbilical cord, rinse the blood of birth (most of which originates from the placenta separating from the uterus) from the newborn, clean the skin with salt water and wrap it in a blanket. The child would then normally be presented to the parents to be named. The clear implication in God's description of Jerusalem's birth is that she had no one to carry out the expected and necessary birth procedures. In other words Jerusalem was born in a helpless state.

your navel cord was not cut - Referring to not being cut from it's attachment to the placenta. Clearly this is one of the first maneuvers carried out for any newborn given proper attention. God is almost speaking in hyperbole here to exaggerate the effect that Jerusalem's birth without His rescuing hand would not have been a reality.

nor were you washed with water for cleansing (La 2:20; La 2:22; Lu 2:7,12)

you were not rubbed with salt Rubbing the skin with salt was supposed to make it firm and clean. Some feel this practice had antiseptic purposes.

Net Bible Note states that...

Arab midwives still cut the umbilical cords of infants and then proceed to apply salt and oil to their bodies.

even wrapped in cloths ("nor wrapped in swaddling cloths" ESV, "nor swaddled at all" KJV)

Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary describes the cloth with which newborns were wrapped as a

swaddling band (which) was a long, narrow strip of cloth used to wrap a newborn baby. To swaddle a child was to wrap an infant in strips of cloth, much like narrow bandages. This was believed to ensure the correct early development of the limbs. Thus, swaddling was a mark of parental love and care, while the need for swaddling symbolized the humble, dependent position of the newborn child...Although she could offer Jesus no better crib than an animals manger, Mary showed her mothers love by wrapping her baby in swaddling clothes (Luke 2:7, 12). The baby Jesus in swaddling bands reminds us of the great humility of our Lord in becoming a human being for our sakes." (Youngblood, R. F., Bruce, F. F., Harrison, R. K., & Thomas Nelson Publishers. Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary)

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915 edition) adds that

The oriental swaddling-clothes consist of a square of cloth and two or more bandages. The child is laid on the cloth diagonally and the corners are folded over the feet and body and under the head, the bandages then being tied so as to hold the cloth in position. This device forms the clothing of the child until it is about a year old, and its omission (Ezek 16:4) would be a token that the child had been abandoned. (Orr, J, et al: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: 1915)

Believer's Study Bible adds that

Customarily, when a child was born, the midwife cut the umbilical cord, rubbed the newborn child with salt, water, and oil, and then wrapped it in swaddling cloth for seven days. This was repeated every seven days for 40 days. The picture here is of a child abandoned by its mother and neglected by all from its birth. The identification of Israel with pagan parents was a most impressive way to mark their depraved and sinful nature. (Criswell, W A. Believer's Study Bible: New King James Version. 1991. Thomas Nelson


Ezekiel 16:5 No eye looked with pity on you to do any of these things for you, to have compassion on you. Rather you were thrown out into the open field, for you were abhorred on the day you were born.  (NASB: Lockman)

Brenton: Nor did mine eye pity thee, to do for thee one of all these things, to feel at all for thee; but thou wast cast out on the face of the field, because of the deformity (crookedness, perversity) of thy person, in the day wherein thou wast born. (Greek Septuagint)
GWT: No one who saw you felt sorry enough for you to do any of these things. But you were thrown into an open field. You were rejected when you were born.  (
NLT: No one had the slightest interest in you; no one pitied you or cared for you. On the day you were born, you were dumped in a field and left to die, unwanted.  (
NLT - Tyndale House)
Tanakh: No one pitied you enough to do any one of these things for you out of compassion for you; on the day you were born, you were left lying, rejected, in the open field.

No eye looked with pity on you to do any of these things (the "things" in v4) for you (Ezekiel 2:6; Isa 49:15; La 2:11,19; 4:3,10)

The Hebrew word for pity (02347) (chuwc/chus) literally means to cover and figuratively to be compassionate, take pity, show mercy, the focus being on sparing or delivering one from great punishment. It conveys the basic meaning of to look with pity and often has the added nuance of a feeling which goes out toward one who is in trouble.

to have compassion on you - This is not the usual word translated compassion (racham) but is the Hebrew word here (02550) (chamal) connotes the emotional response which results or may result in an action to remove the recipient from impending difficulty. Chamal refers to the emotion leading one to spare another or have pity on them.

In context this point is a reminder to  Jerusalem that only God pitied and had compassion on her as on a baby, saving her from certain destruction, similar to what God did for the baby Moses who was placed in a basket in the Nile (same word chamal is used in Ex 2:6).

Net Bible adds that...

These verbs, “pity” and “spare,” echo the judgment oracles in Ezekiel 5:11; 7:4, 9; 8:18; 9:5, 10.

you were thrown out into the open field (Ge 21:10; Ex 1:22; Nu 19:16; Jer 9:21,22; 22:19)

Open - literally "the face of"

This phrase describes "infanticide" which was a widespread custom in the ancient near east used to eliminate unwanted children.

Moses records this same thought in a parallel passage...

He (God) found him (Israel) in a desert land, and in the howling waste of a wilderness; He encircled him, He cared for him, He guarded him as the pupil of His eye. (Deut 32:10) (Comment: God found Israel in a barren, desert land with no one to care for her and called Israel to be His own chosen people. His blessings came to the nation in a remarkable and unlimited way. He was patient with His people. When everyone else abandoned her, God still cared for Israel and provided for her. He had a father's undying love for his children. His love for His people does not mean that He is blind to their sins when they turn aside from Him. Nor does God's love mean that He never brings suffering to His people. The love of God means that God must chastise His people, on occasion, because He loves them. When God's love is expressed in wrath or judgment, it is wrath from a broken heart of love and with a purpose of bringing His people to obedience and maturity. Disciple's Study Bible)

The IVP Bible background commentary adds the historical note that there is

graphic evidence of (infanticide) from the Roman-Byzantine period... found in recent excavations at Ashkelon, where the remains of a hundred infants who had been disposed of in a sewer drain were uncovered. Infanticide was usually employed to get rid of female or malformed children. This was done as a means of either population control or economic necessity, since many villages were barely able to feed and care for healthy children and adults. The fact that the infant’s parents “cast it out” into a field has legal implications as well. They are renouncing all legal claims to the child and leaving it up to God and/or another person to “adopt” and thus save the child’s life. (Matthews, V. H., et al The IVP Bible background commentary : Old Testament  Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press)

you were abhorred on the day you were born

Abhorred (01604) (go'al) is derived from a root which indicates intense aversion which is expressed often in punitive or adverse action). It means hated, loathed, greatly disliked with idea of disgust or intolerance


Ezekiel 16:6 When I passed by you and saw you squirming in your blood, I said to you while you were in your blood, 'Live!' Yes, I said to you while you were in your blood, 'Live   (NASB: Lockman)

Brenton: And I passed by to thee, and saw thee polluted (defiled) in thy blood; and I said to thee, Let there be life out of thy blood: (Greek Septuagint)
And when I passed by thee, and saw thee polluted in thine own blood, I said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, Live; yea, I said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, Live.
: "But I came by and saw you there, helplessly kicking about in your own blood. As you lay there, I said, 'Live!'
: I passed by you, and saw you flailing about in your blood. As you lay in your blood, I said to you, "Live!
Tanakh: When I passed by you and saw you wallowing in your blood, I said to you: "Live in spite of your blood." Yea, I said to you: "Live in spite of your blood."

When I passed by you and saw you squirming in your blood...I said...Live! (Ex 2:24,25; 3:7,8; Acts 7:34) (Isa 14:19; 51:23; Mic 7:10; Mt 5:13; Heb10:29; Rev 14:20) (20:5-10; Ex 19:4-6; Dt 9:4; Ps 105:10-15,26-37; Jn 5:25; Ro 9:15; Ep 2:4,5; Titus 3:3-7)

The Greek Septuagint (and the KJV) translation helps one understand that "in your blood" refers to pollution or defilement ("saw thee polluted in thy blood").

Jerusalem is portrayed as a helpless babe, cast out, loathed and polluted and would have perished had not God passed by and bestowed His mercy and kindnesses upon her.  It is notable that in ancient times (and even in some oriental countries today) female babies were considered undesirable and thus were exposed to the elements, thrown out on the rubbish heap to die. God's kindness of undeserving Jerusalem was not to be a source of pride but a reminder of His bountiful grace, in which He takes the worthless and the unwanted, and not only calls out, Live! but makes the unlovely lovely!. Every believer's life can and should give such radiate such a gutter to glory testimony to the praise of the glory of God's grace.


Ezekiel 16:7 I made you numerous like plants of the field. Then you grew up, became tall and reached the age for fine ornaments; your breasts were formed and your hair had grown. Yet you were naked and bare  (NASB: Lockman)

Amplified: I caused you [Israel] to multiply as the bud which grows in the field, and you increased and became tall and you came to full maidenhood and beauty; your breasts were formed and your hair had grown, yet you were naked and bare. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NJB: and I made you grow like the grass of the fields. You developed, you grew, you reached marriageable age. Your breasts became firm and your hair grew richly, but you were stark naked. (
NLT: And I helped you to thrive like a plant in the field. You grew up and became a beautiful jewel. Your breasts became full, and your hair grew, though you were still naked.  (
NLT - Tyndale House)
Young's Literal: A myriad -- as the shoot of the field I have made thee, And thou art multiplied, and art great, And comest in with an excellent adornment, Breasts have been formed, and thy hair hath grown -- And thou, naked and bare!

I made you numerous like plants of the field (Ge 22:17; Ex 1:7; 12:37; Acts 7:17)

 Again showing God's undeserved amazing grace.

Then you grew up, became tall, and reached the age for fine ornaments (10-13,16; Ex 3:22; Dt 1:10; 4:8; 32:10-14; 33:26-29; Ne9:18-25; Ps135:4; 147:20; 148:14; 149:2-4; Is 61:10; 62:3)

Here Jerusalem is described as a young woman who had reached marriageable age.

your breasts were formed and your hair had grown

you were naked and bare (22; Job 1:21; Song 4:5; Ho2:3,9,10; Rev 3:17,18)


Ezekiel 16:8 Then I passed by you and saw you, and behold, you were at the time for love; so I spread My skirt over you and covered your nakedness. I also swore to you and entered into a covenant with you so that you became Mine," declares the Lord GOD (NASB: Lockman)

Amplified: Now I passed by you again and looked upon you; behold, you were maturing and at the time for love, and I spread My skirt over you and covered your nakedness. Yes, I plighted My troth to you and entered into a covenant with you, says the Lord, and you became Mine. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
GWT: "'I went by you again and looked at you. You were old enough to make love to. So I spread my robe over you, and covered your naked body. I promised to love you, and I exchanged marriage vows with you. You became mine, declares the Almighty LORD. (
NIV: "'Later I passed by, and when I looked at you and saw that you were old enough for love, I spread the corner of my garment over you and covered your nakedness. I gave you my solemn oath and entered into a covenant with you, declares the Sovereign LORD, and you became mine. (
NLT: And when I passed by and saw you again, you were old enough to be married. So I wrapped my cloak around you to cover your nakedness and declared my marriage vows. I made a covenant with you, says the Sovereign LORD, and you became mine. (
NLT - Tyndale House)
NRSV: I passed by you again and looked on you; you were at the age for love. I spread the edge of my cloak over you, and covered your nakedness: I pledged myself to you and entered into a covenant with you, says the Lord GOD, and you became mine.

Then I passed by you and saw you (6; Dt 7:6-8; 1Sa 12:22; Isa 41:8,9; 43:4; 63:7-9; Je 2:2,3; Je 31:3; Hos 11:1; Mal 1:2; Ro 5:8; 9:10-13)

Although this section is an allegorical description, God's passing by speaks of His sovereignty over all of the details of Jerusalem's birth.

behold you were at the time of love -- refers to her attaining marriageable status. Behold is the Hebrew word hinneh which indicates becoming aware of something.

Net Bible Note - See similar use of this term (time of love) in Ezek 23:17; Prov 7:16; Song of Songs 4:10; 7:13.

I spread My skirt over you and covered your nakedness ("spread my wing over you" NKJV) reflects the ancient custom of espousal as depicted in the book of Ruth. There we read of the encounter between Boaz and Ruth where Boaz awakes at night finding a woman lying at his feet and saying "Who are you?" to which Ruth answered

I am Ruth your maid.

She then beseeches Boaz

So spread your covering over your maid, for you are a close relative (a goel or kinsman redeemer) (see note Ruth 3:9)

In Ezekiel the same phrase correlates with the time when God entered into a covenant with the young nation at Mt. Sinai (see Ex 19:5-8).

The Hebrew word (kanaph) for skirt, means "extremity" and is used to describe the skirt or flap of a garment. In addition this word can be translated "wings" (as of a bird) and is a beautiful figurative picture in Scripture of God's "wings" protecting His own. David writes

How precious is Thy lovingkindness, O God! And the children of men take refuge in the shadow of Thy wings (kanaph).

Boaz uses this metaphorical (figurative) meaning in his beautiful beatitude on Ruth, declaring to her

May the LORD reward your work, and your wages be full from the LORD, the God of Israel, under whose wings (kanaph) you have come to seek refuge." (see note Ruth 2:12)

I spread my skirt - See Net Bible Note  - Heb “wing” or “skirt.” The gesture symbolized acquiring a woman in early Arabia (similarly, see Deut 22:30; Ruth 3:9).

I also swore to you and entered into a covenant with you (Ex 4:1-8; 32:13; Ho 2:18-20)

God's Word Translation has "I exchanged marriage vows with you", which is an good paraphrase for in the context the making of a covenant signifies marriage, and emphasizes the figure of Jerusalem as God's wife. (See Covenant: As It Relates to Marriage)

In Jeremiah God tells his prophet in Jerusalem to

Go and proclaim in the ears of Jerusalem, saying, ‘Thus says the Lord, ”I remember concerning you the devotion of your youth (how eager you were to please me as a young bride long ago, how you loved me and followed me even through the barren wilderness), the love of your betrothals, your following after Me in the wilderness, through a land not sown. Israel was holy to the Lord, the first of His harvest; all who ate of it became guilty; evil came upon them,” declares the Lord. (Jer 2:2,3)

God remembers the love which Israel professed to him in the early days of the covenant as they followed Him in the wilderness. Israel's agreement to serve God only is compared to a young girl's oath to know no other man as her husband.

Again in Jeremiah Jehovah declares

Behold, days are coming...when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them," declares the LORD." (Jer 31:31-32) (See  Covenant: Why the New is Better, New Covenant in the Old Testament)

In Isaiah God says to Israel that He will bring her back into fellowship with Him declaring that

your husband is your Maker, whose name is the LORD of hosts; and your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel, Who is called the God of all the earth." (Isa 54:5

Here Jehovah states that He is still her Husband and will not break His covenant promises. Yes (as shown in Ezekiel 16 and elsewhere) Israel had been an unfaithful wife, forsaking her Husband,  but Jehovah would not permanently abandoned her. He only gave her opportunity to see what it was like to live in a land where people worshiped false gods. God would call her back and woo her to Himself (see Hos 2:14–23). Specifically Hosea records Jehovah's declaration that

it will come about in that day (in the Day of the Lord and the end of the Great Tribulation)...that you will call Me Ishi ("My Husband" denotes affection and intimacy) and will no longer call Me Baali ("My Master" speaks of rulership and may be a reminder of Baal worship). Jehovah goes on to add that "I will betroth you to Me forever; Yes, I will betroth you to Me in righteousness and in justice, In lovingkindness and in compassion, and I will betroth you to Me in faithfulness. Then you will know the LORD." (Hos 2:19-20

So that despite her manifold "indiscretions" against her Husband Jehovah, Israel would no longer be called

a wife forsaken and grieved in spirit, even like a wife of one's youth when she is rejected (Isa 54:6). 

Can you not see the LORD's commitment to His covenant promises? He is a covenant keeping God and based on the unconditional covenant with Abraham which is fulfilled in the New Covenant in Christ, He will keep all of His promises to Israel.

Later Ezekiel records a similar passage in which the Lord God says

On the day when I chose Israel and swore to the descendants of the house of Jacob and made Myself known to them in the land of Egypt, when I swore to them, saying, I am the LORD your God, on that day I swore to them, to bring them out from the land of Egypt into a land that I had selected for them, flowing with milk and honey, which is the glory of all lands." (Ex 20:5,6)

God describes the mosaic covenant in Exodus declaring

You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings, and brought you to Myself. 'Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. 'These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel." So Moses came and called the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which the LORD had commanded him. And all the people answered together and said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do!" And Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD. (Ex 19:4-8) (See Covenant: Abrahamic versus Mosaic)

Moses also describes the Abrahamic covenant reminding Israel that

the LORD your God is a compassionate God; He will not fail you nor destroy you nor forget the covenant with your fathers (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) which He swore to them." (Dt 4:31)

Even Israel’s unfaithfulness would not invalidate God’s covenant with Abraham.

so that you became Mine in other words Jerusalem was now God's special treasured possession and a "living" testimony to His sovereign grace and lovingkindnesses for all to witness. Jerusalem was not her own but as described below, she rejected God's covenant love and became most unfaithful.


Ezekiel 16:9 Then I bathed you with water, washed off your blood from you and anointed you with oil  (NASB: Lockman)

Then I bathed you with water, washed off your blood from you, and

bathed you with water
(4; 36:25; Ps 51:7; Is 4:4; Jn 13:8-10; 1 Cor 6:11; 10:2; Heb 9:10-14; 1 Jn 5:8; Rev 1:5,6)

anointed you with oil (Ps 23:5; 2Cor 1:21; 1Jn 2:20,27)


Ezekiel 16:10 I also clothed you with embroidered cloth and put sandals of porpoise skin on your feet; and I wrapped you with fine linen and covered you with silk  (NASB: Lockman)

I also clothed you with embroidered cloth (Ezek 16:7; Ps 45:13,14; Isa 61:3,10; Lu 15:22; Rev 21:2) (13,18; Ex 28:5; 1 Pe 3:3,4)

put sandals of porpoise skin on your feet (Ex 25:5; 26:14)

In the ancient orient, ordinary sandals were made from woven fibrous material, secured with leather thongs. So the point here is that for their sandals to be entirely made of leather would be a luxury and a signifier of both wealth and power.

I wrapped you with fine linen (Ex 39:27,28; Rev 7:9-14; 19:8)

covered you with silk (Ge 41:42; Pr 31:22; Rev 18:12)


Ezekiel 16:11 I adorned you with ornaments, put bracelets on your hands and a necklace around your neck.  (NASB: Lockman)

I adorned you with ornaments, put bracelets on your hands (Ge 24:22,47,53)

necklace around your neck (Ge 41:42; Pr 1:9; 4:9; Song 1:10; 4:9; Isa 3:19; Da 5:7,16,29)


Ezekiel 16:12 I also put a ring in your nostril, earrings in your ears and a beautiful crown on your head  (NASB: Lockman)

I also put a ring in your nostril (Ge 35:4; Ex 32:2; 35:22; Nu 31:50; Jdg 8:24; Job 42:11; Pr 25:12; Hos 2:13)

earrings in your ears, and a beautiful crown on your head (Lev 8:9; Est 2:17; Isa 28:5; La 5:16; Rev 2:10; 4:4,10)


Ezekiel 16:13  Thus you were adorned with gold and silver, and your dress was of fine linen, silk and embroidered cloth. You ate fine flour, honey and oil; so you were exceedingly beautiful and advanced to royalty  (NASB: Lockman)

Thus you were adorned with gold and silver, and your dress was of fine linen, silk, and embroidered cloth. You ate fine flour, honey, and oil; so you were exceedingly beautiful and advanced to royalty:

You ate fine flour (Ezekiel 16:19; Dt 8:8; 32:13,14; Ps 45:13,14; 81:16; 147:14; Ho 2:5)

you were exceedingly beautiful (Ezekiel 16:14,15; Ps 48:2; 50:2; Is 64:11; Jer 13:20)

And advanced to royalty (Ge 17:6; 1Sa 12:12; 2Sa 8:15; 1Ki 4:21; Ezra 4:20; 5:11; Ps 50:2; Lam 2:15)

The point of this detailed description is that God's beloved wife, Israel, had been given grace upon grace and shown abundant favor so that "she" was lacking no good thing. Why would anyone want to abandon such a Loving Husband as the Almighty God? Such favor and blessing serves to make Israel's subsequent harlotry all the more tragic and all guilt all the greater. To whom much is given much is expected. Judgment will be proportional to the light received - greater light brings greater judgment.

Believers need to take heed lest we fall prey to spiritual harlotry for we have been blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in our Bridegroom Christ Jesus. Why would believers want to run to the pig pens of the world?

James is quite blunt when he warns...

You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God.

And John adds this command...

Do not love the world (stop this - implying that it was already occurring) nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. (you might want to read that again...parallel it with what Paul says in 2 Timothy 4:8 see notes) 16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world. 17 And the world is passing away, and also its lusts; but the one who does the will of God abides forever. (1 John 2:15-17)


Ezekiel 16:14 Then your fame went forth among the nations on account of your beauty, for it was perfect because of My splendor which I bestowed on you," declares the Lord GOD.  (NASB: Lockman)

Then your fame went forth among the nations on account of your beauty

Your fame - literally your name and so your reputation or renown .

My splendor which I bestowed on you (Dt 4:6-8,32-38; Joshua 2:9-11; 9:6-9; 1Ki 10:1-13,24; 2Chr 2:11,12; 2Chr 9:23; Lam 2:15)

Splendor (01926) (hadar) refers to the best quality which produces a beautiful appearance, majesty and glory. It describes that which is beautiful and instills awe and ascribing of high value or status to what is majestic. It is an appearance that is considered attractive.

The pagan nations were to behold Israel as God's special possession, holy and separate. She was to be a light unto the Gentiles that they might come to know the living and true God. And yet her abundant harlotries profaned Israel and she lost her purpose to be a light among the nations. Believers today need to be careful that God is just as serious about sin today as He was in the Old Testament and we jeopardize our usefulness to Him and His holy purposes when we walk in step with the world rather than in step with His Spirit.

Writing to believers in the sin sick city of Corinth Paul pleaded with (actually he commanded) them...

Do not be bound together (present imperative = stop this practice!) with unbelievers; for (note Paul's reasons believers as the Bride of Christ are not to be unequally bound) what partnership have righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship has light with darkness? 15 Or what harmony has Christ with Belial, or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever? 16 Or what agreement has the temple of God with idols? (Now Paul gives the positive motivation) For we are the temple of the living God; just as God said, "I WILL DWELL IN THEM AND WALK AMONG THEM; AND I WILL BE THEIR GOD, AND THEY SHALL BE MY PEOPLE. 17 "Therefore (based on such clear logic as just presented), COME OUT (aorist imperative = do this now! Don't delay! He is even conveying a sense of urgency!) FROM THEIR MIDST AND BE SEPARATE (aorist imperative)," says the Lord. "AND DO NOT TOUCH (present imperative = stop doing this!) WHAT IS UNCLEAN; And I will welcome you. 18 "And I will be a father to you, And you shall be sons and daughters to Me," Says the Lord Almighty. 7:1 Therefore, having these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. (2Cor 6:14-18, 2Cor 7:1)

Paul reiterated this principle in his last written communication, Second Timothy, explaining to Timothy...

Now in a large house there are not only gold and silver vessels, but also vessels of wood and of earthenware, and some to honor and some to dishonor. 21 Therefore, if a man cleanses himself from these things, he will be a vessel for honor, sanctified, useful to the Master, prepared for every good work. 22 Now flee from youthful lusts, and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace, with those who call on the Lord from a pure heart. (See notes 2 Timothy 2:20; 21; 22)

This splendor...bestowed on Israel was portrayed by Moses declaration that they were

a holy people to the Lord your God; the Lord your God has chosen you to be a people for His own possession out of all the peoples who are on the face of the earth. The Lord did not set His love on you nor choose you because you were more in number than any of the peoples, for you were the fewest of all peoples, but because the Lord loved you and kept the oath which He swore to your forefathers, the Lord brought you out by a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of slavery, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt. (Deut 7:6-8)

The glorious description of Israel in Ezekiel 16:10-14 recalls the splendor of the nation’s golden age under King Solomon, his monarchy marking the height of the nation's prestige on the world scene.

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Last Updated February 21, 2015