But He gives a greater grace:
de didosin (3SPAI) charin: (Is 54:7, 8; Mt 13:12)
the context in James 4...
What is the source of quarrels and
conflicts among you? Is not the source your pleasures that wage war in
your members? 2 You lust and do not have; so you commit murder. And
you are envious and cannot obtain; so you fight and quarrel. You do
not have because you do not ask. 3 You ask and do not receive, because
you ask with wrong motives, so that you may spend it on your
pleasures. 4 You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with
the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a
friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. 5 Or do you think
that the Scripture (referring to the OT) speaks (the specific OT
Scripture is not clear) to no purpose: "He jealously desires the
Spirit (Ed: or "spirit" with little s - see
below) which He has made to dwell in us"?
James 4:4-6 in the
Phillips Paraphrase ...
You are like unfaithful wives,
flirting with the glamour of this world, and never realizing that to
be the world's lover means becoming the enemy of God! Anyone who
deliberately chooses to love the world is thereby making himself God's
enemy. Do you think what the scriptures have to say about this is a
mere formality? Or do you imagine that this spirit of passionate
jealousy is the Spirit he has caused to live in us? No, he gives us
grace potent enough to meet this and every other evil spirit, if
we are humble enough to receive it. That is why he says: 'God resists
the proud, but gives grace to the humble.'
comments that as we study James 4:6-10, we need to...
Keep in mind that the overall
context is about resolving conflicts in the church (or home). Here
James zeroes in on God’s way of conflict resolution, which deals with
our hearts before Him. Conflict with God is often behind conflicts
with others. First and foremost in any conflict, we must get right
with God (Sermon)
summarizes the context of James 4 as follows...
If we are living for lust
gratification (Jas 4:1NLT, Jas 4:2NLT, Jas 4:3NLT), then we cultivate
friendship with the world for the world furnishes us with the
pleasures which (temporarily) gratify our lusts (“the world” is the
present kosmos, which is under the headship of Satan, 2Co 4:4) If we
cultivate the friendship of the world (Jas 4:4-note), we do four things:
(1) We make ourselves to be spiritual adulterers. The church is the
Bride of Christ, 2Co 11:2. Just as all unfaithfulness to Jehovah by
Israel was called adultery, Jer 3:8, even so all unfaithfulness to
Christ by the church is called adultery; (2) we make ourselves to be
the enemies of God. The world is God’s enemy, Jn 15:18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 24. If we love the world and court the friendship of the world
(cp 1Jn 2:15, 16, 17), we have joined the ranks of God’s enemies and
have made ourselves the enemies of God; (3) we make ourselves to be
the objects of God’s jealousy. The Scripture does not speak in vain
when it says “The Spirit which He made to dwell within us yearns over
us jealousy.” God is jealous when He sees the affections of His people
set on anything other than Himself; and (4) we make ourselves to be
the objects of God’s resistance (Jas 4:6 "opposes the proud"). God
asks us to do the difficult thing of being faithful to Himself in the
midst of this world’s allurements and attractions. If we remain humble
and obedient before Him. He gives us grace ("greater grace") to be
faithful to Himself but if we become proud and rebellious before Him,
He resists (opposes) us that He might turn us back to humility,
obedience, and faithfulness to Himself (see Jas 4:7, 8, 9, 10).
(Gingrich, R. E. The Book of James. Memphis, TN.: Riverside Printing)
Roy Gingrich’s Commentaries in
Outline Form 100 Volumes)
explains the contextual passages (Jas 4:4, 5-note)
(James 4:4) Compromising with the
present world-system--whether in philosophy, dress or behavior --is
surely one of the most prevalent characteristics of modern
Christianity, even evangelicalism. This indictment of such compromise
urgently needs emphasis today (1Jn 2:15-17; Gal 1:4; Jn 15:19; 17:14;
Ro 8:6, 7, 8; 2Co 6:14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 2Co 7:1).
James 4:5 is a difficult passage,
and interpretations have varied widely. There is no single Old
Testament Scripture from which James is quoting, and he could not be
referring to any New Testament Scripture, because the other New
Testament books had not yet been written. He must, therefore, be
referring to the general prophetic sense of those passages in the Old
Testament that speak of God's Spirit as desiring the faithful love of
His people and as opposed to any spirit of covetousness or adultery
(whether spiritual or physical) in their hearts. Exemplifying this are
such Scriptures as Ge 6:3; 2Sa 23:2; Ps 51:11; Isa 63:10,11; Ezek
36:26,27; Mic 2:7; Zech 7:12; 12:10; and others of the same general
import. The verse can probably be best paraphrased as follows: "Do ye
think that the Scriptures are speaking in vain when they testify that
God's Holy Spirit [who is now actually dwelling in us] is longing for
us to envy [that is, to covet after] God's love and friendship, rather
than that of the world?" This rather free paraphrase seems to fit the
entire context best, but, in view of the wide variety of translations
and interpretations of this verse, it is not feasible to be dogmatic.
Henry: Defenders Study Bible. World Publishing - Highly Recommended
W A Criswell
"Adulterers and adulteresses" (Jas
is a strong metaphor for those who have been spiritually unfaithful to
God and who have engaged in an affair with the "world" (that evil
organized system under the rule of the devil which opposes God and His
will). This unfaithfulness results in: (1) experiencing hostility from
God and (2) becoming God's enemy.
(Jas 4:5) The precise OT text James
has in mind is unclear, as is the correct translation. NKJV
translators understand "the Spirit" to be the Holy Spirit and
not the human spirit (contra KJV). This judgment is probably
correct, and it should be noted that if this is the proper
translation/interpretation, it is the only reference to the Holy
Spirit in this epistle. The verse then is best understood as saying
that the Holy Spirit, Who indwells believers, intensely desires their
loyalty, love, and faithfulness.
Ryrie Study Bible: New American Standard Translation: 1995. Moody
has these comments on Jas 4:4, 5-note...
(Jas 4:4-note - You adulteresses)
Symbolic language for unfaithful people, as often in the OT.
friendship with the world. The Greek word is philia,
indicating a reciprocal relationship. Unfaithful people love the
world, and the world loves them.
(Jas 4:5) The thought may also be
expressed thus: Do you imagine there is no meaning to the Scripture
that says, "The Spirit that dwells in us longs jealously over us"? The
Spirit does not want us to have divided allegiance.
W A. Believer's Study Bible: New King James Version. 1991. Thomas
(de) introduces a "change of direction". The interpretation of
this portion of Jas 4:6 is somewhat controversial. What is James
contrasting? What is God's grace greater than? Context
is always king in interpretation. Read the previous 5 verses again.
What is the "thrust" of those passages? What is James describing? Is
he not focusing on the wicked old nature, the
Compare - quarrels, conflicts, wage war, lust, commit murder,
envious, fight quarrel, ask with wrong motives, your pleasures,
adulteresses, friendship with the world, hostility toward God, enemy
of God. Clearly the focus is on the evil propensity of the "anti-god"
energy of the
Unfortunately this interpretation is not as straight forward as one
would like, because there is some disagreement over whether Jas 4:5
refers to the Holy Spirit or the spirit within men.
And so the UBS
Handbook comments that...
(1) If the subject of Jas 4:5 is
taken to be divine jealousy (God’s or the Spirit’s), then the point
may be that God’s grace is more than adequate to meet the requirements
of His jealousy. (Ed: A holy jealousy which calls us to be
in the world but not of the world [Jn 15:19],
not seeking the passing pleasures of this world which is fading away,
but instead seeking the will of God, 1Jn 2:17)
(2) If the reference in Jas 4:5 is
seen to be to the evil desires of the human spirit (Ed:
E.g., Jas 4:5ESV, Jas 4:5KJV), then the contrast
is that God’s grace is greater and stronger than this human tendency
United Bible Societies' New Testament Handbook Series
(didomi) means to give, to bestow, to confer, to make a present
of something, to put something into another's possession. The 1828
Noah Webster's Dictionary has an excellent definition of give
as "to pass or transfer the title or property of a thing to another
person without an equivalent or compensation" (Ed: What a
great description of grace - unmerited favor).
Note that in Jas
4:6, the verb
didomi is in the
present tense which
signifies this giving is not just a one time gift but pictures God's
desire to continually bestow grace upon the humble person! The
present tense in this
context can also convey the idea of a fact which is always true ("He
always gives greater grace"). Whichever meaning one prefers, the point is that our benevolent God ever seeks to bless
us with His grace, despite the widespread opinion held by many
unbelievers that He is out to get us! No, in fact "He is out to
give to us"! He continually gives amazing grace.
Augustine once said "God gives what He demands."
And in context He demands our love and loyalty to Himself instead of
to the evil, "anti-god" world system, which exerts a powerful pull on
all men, specifically on the
of both the unsaved and the saved
(who still possess the
now in Christ and "under grace" [Ro 6:14-note]
have the power to say "no" to the pleasures of the world - Gal 6:14,
cp Ro 6:11-note,
Ro 6:12, 13-note)
(Note that this strong "magnetic" pull of worldly pleasures is the
emphasis in Jas 4:1, 2, 3,4). It is only by grace that the believer
can "resist" the attraction of the pleasures (albeit passing! cp He
the power of His grace always being greater than the attraction
of the world's pleasures. But the only way to be a benefactor of His
greater grace is by maintaining a humble attitude (Jas 4:6),
which is manifest by submission to Him and His will (His Word),
resistance to the allures of Satan (Jas 4:7), a drawing near to God
with clean hands and pure heart (Jas 4:8), and a heart attitude
which laments over sin (Jas 4:9).
Bible Commentary writes that...
The difficulties of living wholly
for God in a wicked world are many, but he giveth more grace,
which here seems to mean “gracious help.” And this gracious aid God
makes available, as Pr 3:34 declares, not to proud,
self-sufficient persons, but to humble, dependent men.
(meizon) is the comparative of megas which means great,
strong or large. The adjective meizon thus speaks of a kind
characterized by relative largeness or more remarkable in magnitude,
degree or effectiveness. Meizon expresses a larger, more
extensive or more unusual degree of any thing.
- As noted above there is some variation on how this phrase is
What did James mean by Jas 4:5b
("He jealously desires the Spirit which He has made to dwell in
us")—The spirit He caused to live in us envies intensely? Commentators
agree that this might be the most difficult sentence in the whole book
to translate and interpret correctly. There are two basic
(1) The Holy Spirit that God
has placed within us is jealous for our godliness and intensely yearns
for us to live godly lives; and as we humble ourselves we can draw
from the grace of God and overcome these sinful desires.
(2) The human spirits that
God placed within us have fallen into sin and are full of envy and
jealously; and we need to humble ourselves and draw on the grace of
God to overcome them.
The NIV comes down on the side of
the second option (Jas 4:5NIV, cp Jas 4:5ASV, Jas 4:5KJV, Jas 4:5ESV,
Jas 4:5NLT). Notice that the word spirit begins with a small
s. God made us body and soul. We have a spirit within us. It was
created by God who placed it with us. In the book of Genesis, we read
that God created Adam from the dust of the ground and breathed into
his nostrils the breath of life, and Adam became a living soul. But
this spirit within us—our human spirit and our human nature—is full of
envy and jealousy and evil desires. But God gives more grace! How do
we access it? How do we win the victory? How do we mature and grow in
Christ? James gives us a wonderful process here, which we’ll look at
in greater next Sunday. But let me just outline it for you. 1. Humble
yourself 2. Submit to the Lord (Jas 4:7) 3. Resist the devil
(Jas 4:7) 4. Draw near to God (Jas 4:8) (Fights
Steven Cole explains that...
Some (KJV, NIV) translate the
verse, “The spirit which He has made to dwell in us lusts with envy.”
In this sense, the verse is warning against the propensity of the
fallen human spirit towards the sin of envy. In favor of this view is
that the word translated “envy” is never used elsewhere of God.
Others (NASB) translate, “He [God]
jealously desires the Spirit which He has made to dwell in us.” A
variation of this translation takes “spirit” to refer to the human
spirit, not to the Holy Spirit (James has no other references to the
Holy Spirit). In this translation, James is referring to God’s holy
jealousy for His people. The Greek grammar and the context argue in
favor of this view (Douglas Moo) In Jas 4:4-note,
James has warned against spiritual adultery. Jas 4:5 would naturally,
then, refer to God’s holy jealousy as our Husband, which yearns for
our faithfulness in our spirits to Him...
So as I understand Jas 4:5, James
is saying that we must give total allegiance to God. He is a
righteously jealous Husband who tolerates no rivals (2Co 11:2). We
cannot dally with sin and follow Christ, too. We cannot live for self
and yet make claim of being Christians. We cannot claim to be the
bride of Christ and then run to the worldly “man next door” for
comfort in our trials and counsel with our problems. James is saying
that if we are having conflicts in our relationships, the place to
begin is to turn from all spiritual adultery and be exclusively
devoted to God. Living for self and seeking pleasure apart from God is
to commit spiritual adultery.
The flow of thought between Jas 4:5
and Jas 4:6 is, “If God’s demand of absolute fidelity seems
impossible, know that with the demand He gives the grace to obey it.”
In fact, He gives “greater grace” than we need (cp Ro 5:20-note).
But, we need to understand (here James cites Pr 3:34) that God does
not give grace to the proud, self-reliant, self-righteous person. He
opposes the proud. Rather, He gives grace to the humble, who admit
that they are empty and ask God to fill them. As Psalm 107:9 (note)
puts it, “For He has satisfied the thirsty soul, and the hungry soul
He has filled with what is good.”
If you have drifted from God into
any form of spiritual adultery, don’t miss James’ words, “He gives a
greater grace.” You may be thinking, “But you don’t know what I’ve
done!” True, but God
does, and His Word plainly states, “He gives a greater grace.”
As we often sing, it is “grace greater than all our sins.” And, it is
grace greater than all of our trials and burdens. It draws us to the
Lord Jesus Himself as our all in all. (Full
Annie Johnson Flint wrote,
He giveth more grace when the
burdens grow greater;
He sendeth more strength when the labors increase.
To added affliction He addeth His mercy;
To multiplied trials, His multiplied peace.
When we have exhausted our store of
When our strength has failed ere the day is half done,
When we reach the end of our hoarded resources,
Our Father’s full giving is only begun.
His love has no limit; His grace
has no measure;
His power has no boundary known unto men.
For out of His infinite riches in Jesus,
He giveth, and giveth, and giveth again!
Giveth More Grace)
If you’re in conflict in any
relationship, consider the shocking possibility that you’re living for
self, which is the essence of worldliness. Turn from such spiritual
adultery, humble yourself and entreat God’s grace. As Paul said when
addressing the conflicts between Jews and Gentiles, “For He Himself
is our peace” (Eph 2:14-note).
Let Christ be your peace in conflict!
The God who
says, 'Here is My grace to receive' says in the same breath,
'here are My commands to obey'" (Motyer,
J. A. The Message of James: The Tests of Faith. The Bible Speaks
Today. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill., U.S.A.: Inter-Varsity
Press or part of the 22 volume CD
The Bible Speaks Today New Testament on Logos
Software - excellent value) (Ed: Referring to the 10
commands in Jas 4:7-10)
Despite the natural, unbelieving,
worldly hearts of men, God nevertheless gives greater grace; but He
does not give it to His proud and ungodly enemies...“God is opposed
to the proud, but gives grace to the humble.” In other words, if a
person is consumed with worldly lusts, desires, ambitions, pride, and
love, he has no claim on this greater grace.
J. James. Moody or
Sixteenth-century German theologian
Zacharias Ursinus considered whether he was able to comply with what
God required of him. He concluded, “No. I have a natural tendency to
hate God and my neighbor.” The spirit of man longs for the pleasures
of this world and perversely seeks its friendship. Is there no hope,
then? Certainly! Note the contrast with the adversative but in the
next sentence (Jas 4:6). “But [God] gives us more grace.” God comes to
us in the redeeming love of his Son, who is full of grace. “From the
fullness of his grace we have all received one blessing after
another,” writes John in the prologue of his Gospel (Ro 1:16-note).
(Kistemaker, S. J., & Hendriksen, W. Vol. 14: New Testament commentary
: Exposition of James and the Epistles of John. Grand Rapids: Baker
ever increasing grace; the farther
ye depart from "envy" [BENGEL].
No, he gives us
grace potent enough to meet this and every other evil spirit,
A T Robertson
quoting Ropes says
"Greater grace in view of
the greater requirement" (Ropes), like Ro 5:20-note.
God does this.
commenting on greater grace says...
That is the kind of heavenly
husband we have. When we have gone the world's way and have become
adulterous he pours his grace out to us. And the rest of this passage,
from verse 6 through verse 10, is an account of how we can receive
He gives a grace—a gift greater
than you can receive by pursuing your passions on you own—a grace
greater than the world can give, a grace greater than any other
resource. He wants to give, and give, and give. That is the kind of
Lord we have. He does not want to withhold one good thing from you or
from me. He wants us to have everything good, worthwhile, valuable,
proper, and constructive. And he will give it. So why do we seek it
apart from God?—because we want it according to our time schedule. We
want it now. So we trample over people, and engage in arguments and
conflict with people because we want it now. God says, ‘‘Wait. I will
give it to you. Ask me, and I will give you the desires of you heart.”
TO HANDLE STRIFE)
Here is the promise of grace for
our need. The world may pull but God gives grace to resist: in our
daily need he gives daily grace, in our sudden need he gives sudden
grace, in our overwhelming need he gives overwhelming grace. Grace
stands "greater" that all that opposes us.
An art gallery was sent a painting
of Niagara Falls shortly before it was to open. With no title to the
work the gallery gave it a name, "More to follow." That aptly
describes the abundance of God's grace given to us: there is always
more to follow (Kent Hughes, Faith that Works, 179). (Walking
By Grace - James 4:6-10)
"greater grace"; than the
world can give, whose friendship is courted by men; the least measure
of grace, of faith, and hope, and love, and of a spiritual knowledge
of Christ, and interest in him, and of peace, joy, and comfort, is
more worth than all the world, and everything in it:
or greater grace, more favors than
the saints are able to ask or think; so Solomon had more favours given
him than he could think of asking for:
or greater grace, and larger
measures of it, even of spiritual light and knowledge, under the
Gospel dispensation, than under the former dispensation; or where God
bestows gifts qualifying for service and usefulness, and these are
made use of and employed for such purposes, he gives more:
or this may refer to internal grace
wrought by the Spirit of God, in the hearts of his people; more of
which he may be said to give, when he causes it to abound, as to its
acts and exercises; when faith grows exceedingly, hope revives, and is
lively, and abounds through his power and influence, and love to God
and Christ, and one another, abounds yet more and more; when there is
a growth in every grace, and in the knowledge of Christ Jesus, so that
this grace becomes a well of living waters, springing up into eternal
life, which at last will have its perfection in glory:
Regarding greater grace, Hiebert
Greater than what? Johnstone thinks
the comparative indicates that God's grace is "greater than the
strength of depravity, greater than the power of the spirit of
darkness, from whom temptations to envy and all forms of worldliness
come. "Mitton suggests that the comparative may be loosely used to
mean "more and more grace" or "abundant grace." But the expression
seems to point to a comparison with some other measure of grace.
Perhaps the thought is that because
of their worldliness, God graciously works in their lives so that they
actually experience a greater measure of His grace than they would
otherwise have been conscious of. "Where sin abounded, grace did
abound more exceedingly" (Ro 5:20b). "God's desire to forgive is a
precept upon which his [James's] whole book is based (Jas 5:19,20)."
Grace here seems to suggest
the thought of God's "gracious gift" of help (cf. Heb 4:16-note).
It may be understood in a very concrete sense as the practical
equivalent of His power. His grace works in them the desire and
ability to surrender completely to God's love and to serve Him with
their whole heart. This brief statement has been called "one of the
mostly comforting verses in Scripture. (D
Edmond Hiebert - James -
Highly Recommended Commentary
- Any commentary written by Hiebert
God has set a high standard of
wholehearted love and devotion for His people, but He gives grace
that is greater than His rigorous demand.
has some practical thoughts on "greater grace" which he
This is the grace we need to live
victorious lives as believers. James is talking about grace that is
greater than the mess you may be in right now. It doesn’t matter how
big the mess is or what you’ve been through, the grace that is
available to you in Christ is bigger than your mess. (Evans, A. T.
(1998). The Battle is the Lord's: Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press)
He gives more grace: The same Holy
Spirit convicting us of our compromise will also grant us the grace to
serve God as we should. But this grace only comes to the humble.
He giveth more grace when the
burdens grow greater,
He sendeth more strength when the labors increase,
To added affliction He addeth His mercy,
To multiplied trials His multiplied peace.
Therefore it says, "GOD IS
OPPOSED TO THE PROUD: dio legei, (3SPAI) O theos huperephanois
antitassetai, (3SPMI): (God opposes pride - Exodus 10:3,4;
15:9,10; 18:11; 1Samuel 2:3; Job 22:29; 40:10, 11, 12; Psalms 138:6;
Proverbs 3:34; 6:16,17; 29:23; Isaiah 2:11,12,17; 10:8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14; 16:6,7; Daniel 4:37; Daniel 5:20, 21, 22, 23; Matthew 23:12;
Luke 1:52; 14:11; 18:14; 1Peter 5:5)
Here are some of
the parallel cross references...
Pr 6:16 — There are six things
which the LORD hates, Yes, seven which are an abomination to Him: 17 —
Haughty eyes, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent
Pr 29:23 — A man's pride
will bring him low, but a humble spirit will obtain honor.
Ps 138:6 For though the LORD is
exalted, yet He regards the lowly (tapeinos = same word in Jas
4:6); but the haughty (Lxx = hupselos = literally = lofty, fig
= arrogant, proud) He knows from afar.
Though the Lord be high. In
greatness, dignity, and power, Jehovah is higher than the highest. His
nature is high above the comprehension of his creatures, and his glory
even exceeds the loftiest soarings of imagination.
Yet He has respect unto the lowly. He views them with pleasure,
thinks of them with care, listens to their prayers, and protects them
from evil. Because they think little of themselves He thinks much of
them. They reverence Him, and He respects them. They are low in their
own esteem, and He makes them high in His esteem.
But the proud He knows afar off. He does not need to come near
them in order to discover their utter vanity: a glance from afar
reveals to Him their emptiness and offensiveness. He has no fellowship
with them, but views them from a distance; He is not deceived, but
knows the truth about them, despite their blustering; He has no
respect unto them, but utterly abhors them. To a Cain's sacrifice, a
Pharaoh's promise, a Rabshakeh's threat, and a Pharisee's prayer, the
Lord has no respect. Nebuchadnezzar, when far off from God, cried,
"Behold this great Babylon which I have built"; but the Lord knew him,
and sent him grazing with cattle. Proud men boast loudly of their
culture and "the freedom of thought", and even dare to criticize their
Maker: but He knows them from afar, and will keep them at arm's length
in this life, and shut them up in hell in the next.
Da 4:37 — "Now I Nebuchadnezzar
praise, exalt, and honor the King of heaven, for all His works are
true and His ways just, and He is able to humble those who walk in
says - (because of this, for this reason) This phrase is a customary formula for introduction of a
quotation. James now quotes from the
Proverbs 3:34 with one change of the word Lord (in the Septuagint) to
God. In other words, James now introduces a scriptural verification of
the truth he has just presented.
goes on to comment that...
God's attitude toward an individual
is determined by the person's inner attitude. This involves both a
threat and a promise. The quotation aptly continues the previous
warning but also clearly states the good news of God's grace to those
with a humble attitude. In now quoting this double scriptural
assertion immediately after the blessed assurance "but he gives us
more grace," James reminds his readers, "Here is grace abundant, but
in order that you make it yours you need a certain kind of
receptacle." The experience of God's grace is conditioned by the
attitude of the human heart. (Ibid) (Bolding added)
First note the
English translation of the Hebrew...
Proverbs 3:34 Though
scoffs at the scoffers (Hebrew = those who deride or to boast so
as to express utter contempt), yet He gives grace to the afflicted
(Hebrew = anaw = poor, oppressed, afflicted, humble. They put
themselves after others in importance. They are not proud, haughty,
supercilious or self-assertive)
Here is the
English translation of the
Proverbs 3:34 The
resists (Lxx =
the proud (Lxx =
but he gives grace (Lxx =
to the humble (to those who are "low down", Lxx =
Here we see the principle of the "gravity of grace" = it flows down!
As we bow or are brought low at the foot of the Cross of Christ, His
amazing grace flows into our lives, cp 2Cor 8:9).
The UBS Handbook
The quotation is from Pr 3.34,
based on the text of the
the Greek translation of the Old Testament. The Hebrew has “he”
as the subject, the Septuagint has “the
Lord,” and James has “God.”
The function of the quotation seems to be to serve as a transition
from negative to positive, that is, to a call to humility and
repentance. It consists of a threat and a promise: God opposes the
proud, but gives grace to the humble.
United Bible Societies' New Testament Handbook Series
opposed to the proud - As explained below, God stands in continual
opposition to the proud. In other words, pride is the death of grace.
The proud person does not believe he or she needs grace. To draw upon the grace of God we must cultivate the attitude of
humility which continually recognizes its need. In the context of
James 4, the proud are those who have made themselves friends with the
godless (even "anti-God") world system.
says these are "like our vernacular "stuck-up folks" (Ro 1:30),
The proud man or
woman has a little altar in their heart where they bow down before
themselves and this causes their eyes to look at all others with a
silent contempt. Look out! This sin is subtly deceptive but ever
lurking to pounce (cp Ge 4:5, 6, 7. Cain failed to heed God's clear
warning - Ge 4:8)!
The proud man hath his tactics, and
God his anti-tactics
Lenski comments that...
The haughty are the friends of the
world, for the world promises to satisfy their pride, which God does
not do. The lowly or humble realize that they have nothing, and they
are happy to receive God’s rich grace which satisfies their souls.
They are like empty vessels which God can fill; the haughty are
full—how can God fill them? Least of all do they desire “grace” which
is intended only for the unworthy and the humble. (Lenski, R. C. H.
The Interpretation of the Epistle to the Hebrews and of the Epistle of
James. Page 630. Columbus, O. 1938)
- The story is told of a young
Scottish minister who walked proudly into the pulpit to preach his
first sermon. He had a brilliant mind and a good education and was
confident of himself as he faced his first congregation. But the
longer he preached, the more conscious everyone was that “the Lord was
not in the wind.” He finished his message quickly and came down from
the pulpit with his head bowed, his pride now gone. Afterward, one of
the members said to him,
“If you had gone into the pulpit the way you came down, you might have
come down from the pulpit the way you went up.”
- A small cathedral outside Bethlehem marks the supposed
birthplace of Jesus. Behind a high altar in the church is a cave, a
little cavern lit by silver lamps. You can enter the main edifice and
admire the ancient church. You can also enter the quiet cave where a
star embedded in the floor recognizes the birth of the King. There is
one stipulation, however. You have to stoop. The door is so low you
can’t go in standing up. The same is true of the Christ. You can see
the world standing tall, but to witness the Savior, you have to get
[down] on your knees. (Lucado, Max: The Applause of Heaven)
HOW SMALL ARE
YOU? - A
man who had just been elected to the British Parliament brought his
family to London and was giving them a tour of the city. When they
entered Westminster Abbey, his eight-year-old daughter seemed
awe-struck by the size and beauty of that magnificent structure. Her
proud father, curious about what was going on in her mind, asked, "And
what, my child, are you thinking about?" She replied, "Daddy, I was
just thinking about how big you are in our house, but how small you
Pride can creep into our lives without our awareness. From time to
time it's good for us to be "cut down to size." We need to be reminded
not to think of ourselves more highly than we ought to think. It's
easy to become proud when we stay in our own circles of life. But when
we are thrust into larger situations, with increased demands,
pressures, and competition, we come to the shocking realization that
"big fish in small ponds" shrink quickly in a large ocean.
One thing that stands out in the Word of God is that the Lord despises
the haughty. Under inspiration the psalmist said, "One who has a
haughty look and a proud heart, him I will not endure" (Psalm 101:5) .
And James said, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble"
If we ask the Holy Spirit to help us see ourselves as we really are,
He will enable us to control our foolish pride. —R W De Haan (Our
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by
permission. All rights reserved)
(antitasso from anti = against +
tasso = order, set) means to set an army in array against, to
arrange in battle order (to line oneself up against). Antitasso
was a military term found in the papyri meaning "to range in battle
against" and pictured an army arrayed against the enemy forces. It
means to oppose someone, involving a psychological attitude and also
corresponding behavior. It means to "to be an enemy of" or "to resist
with assembled forces." Antitasso in this context conveys the
idea of preventing the plans of the proud from succeeding.
Antitasso is in the
signifies that this is God's continual attitude of Himself against the proud
middle voice speaks of a
"reflexive" action, wherein the subject initiates the action and
participates in the carrying out of the action. The idea is that God
continually sets Himself against the proud. God is continually
in full battle array against the proud for pride is the basic sin from
which all others issue. This fact alone should be enough to cause us
to run for cover from the sin of pride! The upshot is that if
our life if filled with pride, we will find that God is actually
fighting against us (and guess who will win that struggle)!
It scares me to think that whenever
I am trying to live for myself, for my own advancement, that God is
lined up against me, he resists that kind of thinking.
Vincent writes that
A strong and graphic word. Lit.,
setteth himself in array against, as one draws out a host for battle.
Pride calls out God’s armies. No wonder, therefore, that it “goeth
writes that opposed literally means...
"sets Himself in array against"; even
as those like Pharaoh, set themselves against Him. God repays sinners
in their own coin. "Pride" is the mother of "envy" (Jas 4:5); it is
peculiarly satanic, for by it Satan fell.
God resisteth the proud:
or scorns the scorners; he rejects them that trust in themselves that
they are righteous, and despise others; that say, Stand by thyself, I
am holier than thou; that are proud of themselves, their enjoyments,
their gifts, their external righteousness, and holiness, and are full,
and rich, and increased with goods, and stand in need of nothing;
these he opposes, he sets himself against, he thrusts them away from
him, he sends them away empty, and scatters them in the imagination of
their own hearts; and in the things in which they deal proudly, he is
above them; he sits in the heavens and laughs at them, and frustrates
all their schemes:
“God resisteth;” it is a military
term: God sets himself, as in battle, against the proud, defying,
beating down, exposing to contempt, and destroying them; he is so far
from giving them more gifts, that he rather spoils them, as sworn
enemies, of what they have. (Matthew Poole's Commentary on the New
writes that God...
stands in battle-array or in direct
defiance and opposition against them. The proud man has his tactics,
and God has His anti-tactics.
The Word shows that there is a
mutual opposition between God and the proud. And I note this
particularly because in Proverbs it says, “He mocks proud mockers.”
They mock God, and God mocks them. God still counteracts the proud, as
he did Pharaoh. Mocking is a great sign of pride; disdain of others
comes from overvaluing ourselves. God has made everyone an object of
respect or pity; it is pride that makes them objects of contempt, and
in them their Maker (Pr 17:5). Wicked men “sit in the seat of mockers”
(Psalm 1:1). This is a sin so hateful to God that he takes notice of
disdainful gestures—“the pointing finger and malicious talk” (Isa
Why should God so expressly set himself against pride? Because of
all sins, He hates this sin (Pr 16:5). Other sins are more hateful to
men, because they bring disgrace and have more baseness in them,
whereas pride seems to have a kind of bravery in it. But the Lord
hates it because it is a sin that sets itself most against Him. Other
sins are against God’s laws; this is against His being and
sovereignty. Pride not only withdraws the heart from God
but lifts it up against God. It is a direct contention
as to who shall be acknowledged as the author of blessing and
excellence: “Because you think you are wise, as wise as a god…” (Ezek
28:6). Babylon speaks in the name and style of God, and so does
Nineveh: “I am, and there is none besides me” (Zeph 2:15). And as
pride rises against his being, so it rises against his providence.
(A Practical Exposition of
explains why God is so opposed to the proud writing...
All the sin of heathendom, all the
sin of Christendom, is but the outgrowth of the one root—God
dethroned, self enthroned in the heart of man.
A W Tozer put it
When we take to ourselves the place
that is God's, the whole course of our lives is out of joint.
Kistemaker put it
bluntly when he said...
Pride shuts out grace.
Until a man is nothing, God can
make nothing of him.
Pride is the primal evil in
the universe. The Lord leaves no doubt about how He feels about it: “Pride
and arrogance...I hate” (Pr 8:13). (From The Dangerous Duty of
Delight.: Multnomah Publishers)
The proud - Note that the
absence of the definitive article ("the" in Greek) which stresses the
character trait of pride rather than the identity of the proud people
from huper = over, above, +
phaíno = shine) is one who shines above or shows himself above
his fellows. The haughty person pictured with his head
held high above others. Feeling himself conspicuously above others,
the huperephanos person assumes an attitude of haughty
superiority and pride.
He shows himself above, not just above other men but on a
level equal to or higher than God Himself!
This man who because of his feeling
of personal superiority, regards others with haughtiness. He is puffed
up with a high opinion of himself, and thus regards others with
contempt, as if they were unworthy of any social interactions. The
proud disregard God’s claims and show contempt for him on the one hand
and despise others on the other. The noun
huperephania is usually
translated pride which is one of those sins which Jesus says proceeds
out of a man's heart (Mark 7.22 = only NT use of huperephania).
writes that huperephanos...
reflects a false self-estimate
which manifests itself in arrogance. The emphasis of the Greek word
falls on thought, not speech, as an attitude cherished in the secrecy
of the heart. (Richard Wolfe: General Epistles of James &Jude,
Gripped with a false sense of
self-sufficiency, he regards himself as the standard of excellence and
disdains those who fall short of the standard. It is an attitude of
self-glorification, an attempt to disown his dependence on God. "The
proud man cuts himself off from all the salutary effects of rebuke,
criticism, and counsel." (Ibid)
that with some people they feel
that their “pride” is a
necessity. They are afraid of appearing “weak” or “stupid”. They work
hard at showing everyone how much better they are. They are constantly
at work trying to “sell” you on how much you need them. (James
There are 5 uses
of huperephanos in the NT...
Luke 1:51 "He has done mighty
deeds with His arm; He has scattered those who were proud in the
thoughts of their heart.
Romans 1:30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful,
inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,
For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant,
revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy,
But He gives a greater grace. Therefore it says, "God is opposed to
the proud, but gives grace to the humble."
1Peter 5:5 You younger men, likewise, be subject to your elders; and
all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, for
God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble.
once said that...
As the first step heaven-ward
is humility, the first step hellward is pride.
C. H. Spurgeon
Let us be humble that we may
not need to be humbled, but may be exalted by the grace of God.
Barclay adds that
literally means one who shows
himself above other people. Even the Greeks hated this pride.
Theophrastus described it as “a certain contempt for all other
people.” Theophylact, the Christian writer, called it “the citadel and
summit of all evils.” The real terror of this pride is that it is
a thing of the heart.
It certainly means haughtiness, but the man who suffers from it might
well appear to be walking in downcast humility, while all the time
there was in his heart a vast contempt for all his fellow-men. This
pride shuts itself off from God for three reasons. (i) It does
not know its own need… It walks in proud self-sufficiency. (ii)
It cherishes its own independence. It will be beholden to no man; it
will not even be beholden to God… (iii) It does not recognize
its own sin… A pride like that cannot receive help, because it does
not know that it needs help, and, therefore, it cannot ask. It loves,
not God, but itself. (Barclay,
W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The
Westminster Press or
In his book New Testament Words,
words huperephania and huperephanos are not very common
in the NT, but they describe one of the gravest and most basic sins in
human nature... It does not so much mean the man who is conspicuous
and to whom others look up, as the man who stands on his own little
self-created pedestal and looks down. The characteristic of the man
who is huperephanos is that he looks down on everyone else, secure in
his own arrogant self-conceit....We can see already that huperephania
is an ugly sin; we must go on to look at it in two of its most
(i) Huperephania and wealth were apt to go hand in hand. Riches and
possessions have a way of begetting arrogance and pride. Stobaeus
preserves a fragment of a writer called Callicratides: 'It is
inevitable that those who have great possessions should become
inflated with pride; then that being inflated with pride they should
become boastful (alazon); then that being boastful they should be-come
arrogant (huperephanos), and think that there is no one like
themselves' (Stobaeus, 85.15)...
(ii) But huperephania can go even further than that. Huperephania can
become the pride and arrogance which in the end despise
God....Huperephania is the spirit which despises men and lifts itself
arrogantly against God. No wonder Theophylact called huperephania the
acropolis kakon, the peak of evils. This pride can come from
pride in birth, from pride in wealth, from pride in knowledge, from
aristocratic pride, from intellectual pride, from spiritual pride. It
is described by Trench as 'human nature in battle array against God'.
Alazon [word study]
describes the boaster, the man who shouts his claims and
pretensions so that all can hear. But huperephania is worse that that,
for the seat of huperephanoa is in the heart. The blustering, boasting
alazon is plain for all to see; but the huperephanos is the man who
might well go about the world with downcast eyes and folded hands and
with out-ward quietness, but with a silent contempt within his heart
for his fellow-men; the huperephanos is the man who might walk in
outward humility, but in inward pride. His basic sin is that he has
forgotten that he is a creature and that God is the Creator; for the
huperephanos has erected an altar to himself within his own heart, and
worships there. (William
Barclay. New Testament Words)
NIDNTT adds that...
The adjective hyperephanos (Hesiod
onwards) usually means arrogant, proud; occasionally, prodigal. It
also has a positive use (e.g. in Plato): magnificent. The writers of
the classical period also used the noun hyperephania in the sense of
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
is used much more frequently in the
Septuagint (Lxx)...where we
encounter 20 occurrences - Esther 4:17; Job 38:15; 40:12; Ps 18:27;
89:10; 94:2; 101:5; 119:21, 51, 69, 78, 122; 123:4; 140:5; Pr 3:34;
Isa 1:25; 2:12; 13:11; 29:20; Zeph 3:6. Here are most of the uses, a
study of which helps one discern the characteristics of
40:12 "Look on everyone who is
and humble him; And tread down the wicked where they stand.
For Thou dost save an afflicted people; but
eyes Thou dost abase.
Spurgeon: Those who look down on others with scorn shall be looked
down upon with contempt ere long. The Lord abhors a proud look. What a
reason for repentance and humiliation! How much better to be humble
than to provoke God to humble us in his wrath! A considerable number
of clauses occur in this passage in the future tense; how forcibly are
we thus brought to remember that our present joy or sorrow is not to
have so much weight with us as the great and eternal future!
looks: namely, the proud; the raising up of the eyebrows being a
natural sign of that vice. Psalms 101:5 Proverbs 6:17. John Diodati.
Rise up, O Judge of the earth; Render recompense to the
Render a reward to the proud, give
them measure for measure, a fair retaliation, blow for blow. The proud
look down upon the gracious poor and strike them from above, as a
giant might hurl down blows upon his adversary; after the same manner,
O Lord, lift up thyself, and "return a recompense upon the proud," and
let them know that thou art far more above them than they can be above
the meanest of their fellow men. The psalmist thus invokes the
retribution of justice in plain speech, and his request is precisely
that which patient innocence puts up in silence, when her looks of
anguish appeal to heaven.
Whoever secretly slanders his neighbor, him I will destroy; No one who
has a haughty
look and an arrogant heart will I endure.
Spurgeon: Proud, domineering, supercilious gentlemen, who look
down upon the poor as though they were so many worms crawling in the
earth beneath their feet, the psalmist could not bear. The sight of
them made him suffer, and therefore he would not suffer them. Great
men often affect aristocratic airs and haughty manners, David
therefore resolved that none should be great in his palace but those
who had more grace and more sense than to indulge in such abominable
vanity, Proud men are generally hard, and therefore very unfit for
office; persons of high looks provoke enmity and discontent, and the
fewer of such people about a court the better for the stability of a
throne. If all slanderers were now cut off, and all the proud
banished, it is to be feared that the next census would declare a very
sensible diminution of the population.
will sit and show itself in the eyes as soon as anywhere. A man is
seen what he is in oculis, in poculis, in loculis (in his eyes, his
cups, and his resorts) say the Rabbins. See Pr 6:17. --John Trapp.
Thou dost rebuke the
), the cursed,
who wander from Thy commandments.
Spurgeon: Thou hast rebuked
the proud that are cursed. This is one of God's judgments: he is sure
to deal out a terrible portion to men of lofty looks. God rebuked
Pharaoh with sore plagues, and at the Red Sea "In the foundations of
the world were discovered at thy rebuke, O Lord." In the person of the
naughty Egyptian he taught all the proud that he will certainly abase
them. Proud men are cursed men: nobody blesses them, and they soon
become a burden to themselves. In itself, pride is a plague and
torment. Even if no curse came from the law of God, there seems to be
a law of nature that proud men should be unhappy men. This led David
to abhor pride; he dreaded the rebuke of God and the curse of the law.
The proud sinners of his day were his enemies, and he felt happy that
God was in the quarrel as well as he.
utterly deride me, yet I do not turn aside from Thy law.
Spurgeon: The proud have had
me greatly in derision. Proud men never love gracious men, and as they
fear them they veil their fear under a pretended contempt. In this
case their hatred revealed itself in ridicule, and that ridicule was
loud and long. When they wanted sport they made sport of David because
he was God's servant. Men must have strange eyes to be able to see a
farce in faith, and a comedy in holiness; yet it is sadly the case
that men who are short of wit can generally provoke a broad grin by
jesting at a saint. Conceited sinners make footballs of godly men.
They call it roaring fun to caricature a faithful member of "The Holy
Club"; his methods of careful living are the material for their jokes
about "the Methodist"; and his hatred of sin sets their tongues
wagging at long faced Puritanism, and straitlaced hypocrisy. If David
was greatly derided, we may not expect to escape the scorn of the
ungodly. There are hosts of proud men still upon the lace of the
earth, and if they find a believer in affliction they will be mean
enough and cruel enough to make jests at his expense. It is the nature
of the son of the bondwoman to mock the child of the promise.
have forged a lie against me; With all my heart I will observe Thy
Spurgeon: The proud have
forged a lie against me. They first derided him (Psalms 119:51), then
defrauded him (Psalms 119:61), and now they have defamed him. To
injure his character they resorted to falsehood, for they could find
nothing against him if they spoke the truth. They forged a lie as a
blacksmith beats out a weapon of iron, or they counterfeited the truth
as men forge false coin. The original may suggest a common expression
-- "They have patched up a lie against me." They were not too proud to
lie. Pride is a lie, and when a proud man utters lies "he speaketh of
his own." Proud men are usually the bitterest opponents of the
righteous: they are envious of their good fame and are eager to ruin
it. Slander is a cheap and handy weapon if the object is the
destruction of a gracious reputation; and when many proud ones
conspire to concoct, exaggerate, and spread abroad a malicious
falsehood, they generally succeed in wounding their victim, and it is
no fault of theirs if they do not kill him outright. O the venom which
lies under the tongue of a liar! Many a happy life has been embittered
by it, and many a good repute has been poisoned as with the deadliest
drug. It is painful to the last degree to hear unscrupulous men
hammering away at the devil's anvil forging a new calumny; the only
help against it is the sweet promise, "No weapon that is formed
against thee shall prosper, and every tongue that riseth against thee
in judgment thou shalt condemn."
The proud. Faith humbleth, and
infidelity maketh proud. Faith humbleth, because it letteth us see our
sins, and the punishments thereof, and that we have no dealing with
God but through the mediation of Christ; and that we can do no good,
nor avoid evil, but by grace. But when men know not this, then they
think much of themselves, and therefore are proud. Therefore all
ignorant men, all heretics, and worldlings are proud. They that are
humbled under God's hands, are humble to men; but they that despise
God do also persecute his servants. --Richard Greenham.
May the arrogant
be ashamed, for they subvert me with a lie; But I shall meditate on
Spurgeon: Shame is for the
proud, for it is a shameful thing to be proud. Shame is not for the
holy, for there is nothing in holiness to be ashamed of.
Be surety for Thy servant for good; Do not let the
Our soul is greatly filled With the scoffing of those who are at ease,
And with the contempt of the
Spurgeon: And with the
contempt of the proud". The proud think so much of themselves that
they must needs think all the less of those who are better than
themselves. Pride is both contemptible and contemptuous. The contempt
of the great ones of the earth is often peculiarly acrid: some of
them, like a well known statesman, are "masters of gibes and flouts
and sneers", and never do they seem so much at home in their acrimony
as when a servant of the Lord is the victim of their venom. It is easy
enough to write upon this subject, but to be selected as the target of
contempt is quite another matter. Great hearts have been broken and
brave spirits have been withered beneath the accursed power of
falsehood, and the horrible blight of contempt. For our comfort we may
remember that our divine Lord was despised and rejected of men, yet he
ceased not from his perfect service till he was exalted to dwell in
the heavens. Let us bear our share of this evil which still rages
under the sun, and let us firmly believe that the contempt of the
ungodly shall turn to our honour in the world to come: even now it
serves as a certificate that we are not of the world, for if we were
of the world the world would love us as its own.
have hidden a trap for me, and cords; They have spread a net by the
wayside; They have set snares for me. Selah.
For the LORD of hosts will have a day of reckoning against everyone
who is proud
and lofty, And against everyone who is lifted up, That he may be
Isaiah 13:11 Thus I will punish the world for its evil, And the wicked
for their iniquity; I will also put an end to the arrogance of the proud
And abase the haughtiness of the ruthless.
Tony Evans gives an
interesting illustration of the deception of pride -
A little boy came to his father one
day and said, “Dad, I measured myself, and I’m eight feet, four inches
His father said, “Son, you know
you’re not eight feet tall.”
“Yes, I am,” the boy replied. “I
measured myself, and I’m more than eight rulers tall.” The father went
to see what the boy was measuring himself with and discovered it was a
six-inch ruler. You can always get taller if you’re using the wrong
A lot of us think more of ourselves
than we ought to think because we’re measuring ourselves against the
wrong people. We’re comparing ourselves with each other instead of
with God. We need to measure ourselves against the right standard.
(Evans, A. T. The Battle is the Lord's : Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press)
In its most base for pride
represents a denial of dependence upon the Almighty God.
As William Seeker said...
Pride is a sinner's torment, but
humility is a saint's ornament.
is an adversative (expressing antithesis or opposition) which
introduces a striking change of direction from the path of pride to
the walk of humility.
Pride shuts out grace. If a
patient refuses to take the medicine prescribed by the physician, he
will never recover. If a son rejects the wise counsel of his parents,
he can expect trouble. Pride enters the human heart because man
measures himself by human standards, not God’s standards. The believer
who lives in constant fellowship with God, who desires to do God’s
will in all things, and who demonstrates the love of the Lord Jesus is
the recipient of God’s abundant grace. (Kistemaker, S. J., &
Hendriksen, W. Vol. 14: New Testament commentary : Exposition of James
and the Epistles of John. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House)
God resists the proud: Grace and
pride are eternal enemies. Pride demands that God bless me in light of
my merits, whether real or imagined. But grace will not deal with me
on the basis of anything in me, good or bad, but only on the basis of
who God is.
once said that...
If we learned humility it might spare us humiliation.
In a famous OT
verse the prophet Habakkuk records God's assessment of pride
and humility writing...
Behold, as for the proud one, His
soul is not right within him, but the righteous will live by his
faith. (Hab 2:4)
Comment: The proud
individual's soul is not right while the righteous person lives by his
faith. When we as believers become angry or embittered over what God
has allowed into our life, we are choosing to walk by pride, not by
faith (2Co 5:7, 4:16, 17, 18, He 11:1-note).
On the other hand when we make the choice to walk by faith, we are
choosing to trust God's sovereignty and His "definition" of what is
good and beneficial to our growth in Christ-likeness. If we walk in
pride and arrogance, we will look only at a limited and even distorted
"definition" of what is best.
Pride and humility are the two
master-powers, the two kingdoms in strife for the eternal possession
The testimony of Scripture
concerning man's nature is manifestly true. We are by nature selfish
and envious; but grace will enable us to conquer our inbred sins, if
we humbly own them, and ask for help to overcome them.
Barton rightly remarks
Pride makes us self-centered and
leads us to conclude that we deserve all we can see, touch, or
imagine. It creates greedy appetites for far more than we need. Pride
can subtly cause us to no longer see our sins or our need for
forgiveness. But humility opens the way for God’s grace to flow into
B. B., et al. Life Application Bible Commentary. Romans: Tyndale House
BUT GIVES GRACE TO THE HUMBLE:
de didosin (3SPAI) charin: (2Chr 32:26; 33:12,19,23;
34:27; Job 22:29; Ps 9:12; Pr 15:33; 18:12; Pr 22:4;
what we need to escape the ever present, subtle snares of this evil
world system (aion),
and the wily
of the devil (diabolos)
(cp Jas 4:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7). Paul explains how grace
personified serves as our teacher, our schoolmaster and our
disciplinarian, empowering us to be victorious in the battle within
our minds and hearts...
For (explains Titus 2:10-note
how bondslaves were able to adorn the doctrine of God) the grace of
God has appeared (In the form of a Person, the Messiah - Jn 1:14,
16, 2Ti 2:1-note),
bringing salvation to all men,12 (the grace of God)
continually, so if we don't partake of this "instruction" and
"empowerment" it is not for lack of supply - cp 2Co 12:9-note,
= refers primarily to the
training or discipline of children) us to deny (Ed:
Beloved, do not try to "deny" these things in your own strength or by
trying to keep a set of "do's and don't's" which is simply a subtle
form of legalism and observe the effect of the Law on our old
- Ro 7:5-note].
We will always fail miserably. Grace and law are like oil and water -
they do not mix. Never! Admit you cannot deny the world, the
flesh and the devil in your own strength and cast yourself upon the
abundant, sufficient grace of God! E.g., In Jas 4:7 we see the pattern
of how one partakes of the grace of God and is enabled to defeat the
fiery missiles of the evil one) ungodliness (asebeia)
and worldly desires and to live (to live a graceful life we
must continually be grace filled) sensibly (sophronos),
and godly (eusebos)
in the present age,13 looking for (prosdechomai
= looking expectantly as our lifestyle [present
getting up each morning and asking "Could this be the day?" and then
living like it!) (What we are looking for will or should radically
impact what and Who we are living for! No longer our own possession -
see v14) the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great
God and Savior, Christ Jesus;14 Who gave Himself for (huper = in our
place = Our Substitute) us, that He might redeem ()
us from every lawless deed and purify (rizo
= same verb James uses to command us to cleans our hands! Jas
for Himself a people for His own possession (periousios,
cp 1Co 6:20, 7:23, 1Pe 2:9-note,
Lv 20:26, Dt 26:18, 19, Ex 19:6), zealous (Christians should be
. (Titus 2:11-note,
(didomi) as above is in the
present tense which
signifies God's giving is not just a one time gift but is a continual
bestowal from an infinite source, Christ Jesus (Jn 1:14 grace and
truth, Jn 1:16 grace "piled upon" grace).
Blanchard writes that...
The essence of grace is that God is
for us. (Truth for Life)
Grace Greater than Our Sin
Marvelous grace of our loving Lord,
Grace that exceeds our sin and our guilt,
Yonder on Calvary’s mount outpoured,
There where the blood of the Lamb was spilt.
Grace, grace, God’s grace,
Grace that will pardon and cleanse within,
Grace, grace, God’s grace,
Grace that is greater than all our sin.
[word study]) is God’s generous favor to undeserving
sinners and needy saints. When we depend on God’s grace, we can
endure suffering and turn trials into triumphs. Grace enables us
to serve God in spite of difficulties (1Cor 15:9,10).
Whatever begins with God’s
will always lead to glory (Ps 84:11 [note];
First Peter shows how the three themes of suffering, grace, and
glory unite to form an encouraging message for believers
experiencing times of trial and persecution. These themes are
summarized in 1Pe
(note) a verse we
would do well to memorize.
Grace is not license to
do as we please, but the power to do as we should. God’s
insures that those who have been truly regenerated will persevere
until the end of life. This aspect of the work of grace (cp, "the
gospel of grace of God", Acts 20:24) is called sanctification,
a work of God “whereby we are renewed in the whole man and are enabled
more and more to die daily unto sin and to live unto righteousness” as
stated by the Westminster Shorter Catechism (Ro 12:2
writes that God's giving of grace speaks...
spiritually of the help and grace
by which they may overcome their worldly desires; worldly desires
cannot be overcome without the assistance of grace. (A Practical Exposition of
The pastor and well known Christian writer Erwin
Lutzer wais that...
those who see themselves as utterly destitute can fully appreciate the
grace of God.
We can never be submissive to
each other until we are first submissive to our Lord and Master Christ
Jesus, a truth of which we need to be constantly mindful for we are no
longer our own but belong to Him (1Co 6:18, 19, 20, Titus 2:14-note). It
takes grace to submit to another believer, but God can and will give that
if we humble ourselves before Him.
believer Dietrich Bonhoeffer rightly reminds us that...
grace is costly because it calls us
to follow, and it is grace because it calls us to follow Jesus Christ.
It is costly because it costs a man his life, and it is grace because
it gives a man the only true life. It is costly because it condemns
sin, and grace because it justifies the sinner. Above all, it is
costly because it cost God the life of his Son: “ye were bought at a
price,” and what has cost God much cannot be cheap for us. Above all,
it is grace because God did not reckon his Son too dear a price to pay
for our life, but delivered him up for us.
Theologians speak of three types
(1) Common grace, that which
is given to everyone, e.g., air to breathe, warmth of the sun, etc.;
(2) Saving grace, that which
is the sovereign work of God in regenerating and calling sinners to
himself that they might believe the gospel and be saved;
(3) Sanctifying or sustaining or
"walking" grace, that which is given by God to assist the believer
in his spiritual maturity...
We do not dispense grace nor
manipulate it. It is not ours to demand of God but by its very nature,
a gift of God. Multitudes of examples are found in the Old Testament
of Israelites attempting to presume upon God's grace: e.g., manna
given by grace but this grace presumed upon by those who failed to
heed God's command to gather on Fridays enough for that day and the
Why do we need grace? We are limited by our own weakness, sinfulness,
and imperfections. We struggle with the pride that asserts our own
strength, our own ability, and our own wisdom to the neglect of
trusting the Lord. This does not mean that we are to fail to utilize
all that God has entrusted to us by way of mind, personality,
resources, and abilities. But it does mean that there is a difference
between leaning upon ourselves and learning to lean upon the resources
of our Lord. (Walking
By Grace - James 4:6-10)
Wuest explains that
(charis) as used by the pagan Greeks...
referred to a favor done by one
Greek to another out of the pure generosity of his heart, and with no
hope of reward. When it is used in the New Testament, it refers to
that favor which God did at Calvary when He stepped down from His
judgment throne to take upon Himself the guilt and penalty of human
sin. In the case of the Greek, the favor was done to a friend, never
an enemy. In the case of God it was an enemy, the sinner, bitter in
his hatred of God, for whom the favor was done. God has no strings
tied to the salvation He procured for man at the Cross. Salvation is
given the believing sinner out of the pure generosity of God’s heart.
The Greek word charis
referred to an action that was beyond the ordinary course of what
might be expected, and was therefore commendable. What a description
of that which took place at the Cross! The grace spoken of here is
sanctifying grace that part of salvation given the saint in which
God causes him to grow in Christ-likeness through the ministry of the
Holy Spirit... (Sanctifying grace is) the enabling grace for daily
Christian living which is given to the saint yielded to and
dependent upon the Holy Spirit. [Ed note: Grace equates in
essence with the Spirit of Christ indwelling me and enabling me to
overcome sin. I cannot overcome it...it will overcome me if I try. All
attempts to defeat the flesh in my own power will fail]. (Wuest,
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans)
To the humble
- To lowly persons, the very ones who realize their need for God's
grace. As with the proud, the Greek does not have the definite article
("the") which places emphasis on the trait of humility rather than
their actual identity per se.
A. W. Pink
Just as the sinner's despair of any
help from himself is the first prerequisite of a sound conversion, so
the loss of all confidence in himself is the first essential in the
believer's growth in grace.
put it this way...
The more we are humbled in grace,
the more we shall be exalted in glory...Humble hearts lie in the
valleys where streams of grace are flowing, and hence they drink of
Quarles adds that...
The best way to see divine light is
to put out thine own candle.
The “gravity of grace” works
like the earth’s water system, which always flows from the highest to
the lowest. Just as the waters of Niagara roll over the fall and
plunge down to make a river below, and just as that river flows ever
down to the even lower ranges of its course, then glides to still more
low-lying areas where it brings life and growth, so it is with God’s
grace. Grace’s gravity carries it to the lowly in heart, where it
brings life and blessing. Grace goes to the humble.
This is the spiritual law behind
Proverbs 3:34, which James has quoted in Jas 4:6: “‘God opposes the
proud but gives grace to the humble.’” The unbowed soul standing
proudly before God receives no benefit from God’s falling grace. It
may descend upon him, but it does not penetrate, and drips away like
rain from a statue. But the soul lying humbly before God is
immersed—and even swims—in a sea of grace. So while there is always
“more grace,” it is reserved for the lowly—the humble.
R. K. James : Faith that works. Preaching the Word. Crossway Books
God requires humility: "God is
opposed to the proud but gives grace to the humble."
--Humility recognizes our own spiritual poverty (cf. Mt. 5:3-note).
--Humility acknowledges consequently our desperate need of God's help.
--Humility submits to His commanding will for all our lives (Doug Moo,
TDNT, 150). (Walking
defines the humble as those...
who are sensible of their own
vileness and meanness, and acknowledge it; who think the meanest of
themselves, and the best of others; and do not envy the gifts and
graces of God bestowed upon others, but rejoice at them; and ascribe
all they have, and are, to the free grace of God; and ingenuously
confess the deficiency of their duties, and the insufficiency of their
righteousness to justify them before God; and that when they have done
all they can, or are assisted to do, they are but unprofitable
asked a probing question that demands a right response...
"Do you want to enter what people
call 'the higher life'?"
Then go a step lower down.
Just as water ever seeks and fills the
place, so the moment God finds you abased and empty, His glory and
power flow in.
John Flavel had it right
They that know God, will be humble,
and they that know themselves cannot be proud. (Woe,
An unknown saint wrote
Become nothing if you would become
something. In His rules of success, you must stoop to rise, go down to
get up, and shrink to grow. (cp John the Baptist's wise pattern
for grace filled ["graceful"] living = Jn 3:30)
A man can receive nothing (Greek = word meaning ABSOLUTELY
nothing!), unless it have been given him from heaven. (Jn 3:27)
person realizes that all that he or she has comes from God and must be
given back to God (cp Ro 11:36-note)
It isn't as if our humility earns
the grace of God. Humility merely puts us in a position to receive the
gift He freely gives.
F B Meyer
expands that thought writing...
I used to think that God's gifts
were on shelves one above the other, and that the taller we grew in
Christian character the easier we could reach them. I now find that
God's gifts are on shelves one beneath the other. It is not a question
of growing taller, but of stooping down, to get His best gifts.
The sure way to please God is to
submit to the dispensation of his grace and providence; and when a man
acknowledges him in all his ways, he will direct all his steps. The
covetous man grasps at the shadow, and loses the substance.
Spurgeon exhorts believers to gladly accept a prone position
(the root meaning of humility - see below) in order that grace might
flow down most efficaciously...
hearts seek grace,
and therefore they receive grace. Humble
hearts yield to the sweet influences of grace, and so grace is
bestowed on them more and more largely. Humble hearts lie in
the valleys where streams of grace are flowing, and hence they drink
of them. Humble hearts are
grateful for grace and give the LORD (Jehovah) the glory of it, and hence it is
consistent with His honor to give it to them.
Come, dear reader, take
a lowly place. Be little in thine own esteem, that the LORD may make
much of thee. Perhaps the sigh breaks out, "I fear I am not humble."
It may be that this is the language of true humility.
Some are proud
of being humble, and this is one of the very worst sorts of pride.
are needy, helpless, undeserving, hell-deserving creatures,
and if we
are not humble we ought to be.
Let us humble ourselves because of our
sins against humility, and then the LORD will give us to taste of His
favor. It is grace which makes us humble, and grace which finds in
this humility an opportunity for pouring in more grace.
(Ed: Read that again!)
Let us go down
that we may rise.
Let us be poor in spirit that God may make us rich.
Let us be humble that we may not need to be humbled but may be exalted
by the grace of God (Jas 4:10, 1Pe 5:6-note). (Faith's
Romaine (1770) in his paper entitled
Observe O my soul what an honor God
has put upon this grace, "Before honor—is humility" (Proverbs 15:33)!
Whom God honors—He first humbles. He gives grace to the humble,
because the humble give Him all the glory. The highest throne which He
has upon earth—is in the humblest heart. To it He vouchsafes His
constant presence and makes the greatest communications of His love,
"For thus says the high and lofty One who inhabits eternity, whose
name is Holy—I dwell in the high and holy place, with him also who is
of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble,
and to revive the heart of the contrite ones" (Isaiah 57:15).
O what an honor is here promised to the humble! The greatest they can
have on this side of Heaven. God will dwell with them—what a blessing!
And His temple shall be in the humble heart. The high and holy One
passes by what is in the highest esteem among men. He stains the pride
of human greatness and goodness. He does not vouchsafe to set up His
throne with the princes, nor to give His honor to the learned of the
world. But He puts honor upon the contrite and humble. He condescends
to visit them; yes, He delights to dwell with them, and in them—the
Highest above all heavens—in the lowest and humblest hearts. There He
communicates His choicest love and richest favors.
O my God! bestow upon me
this grace, which in Your sight is so precious. Humble me, that I may
be revived with Your presence, and refreshed daily with Your love.
Give me more humility, and fit me for nearer fellowship with You.
Bring down every proud thought, and let me find it true, that You
resist the proud—but give more grace unto the humble.
True poverty of spirit is needful, not only to bring the sinner to
Christ—but also to preserve the believer in communion with Him; for so
long as he walks by faith, everything will tend to promote this
communion. In the daily sense of his needs, he will go to his
bountiful Savior for a supply. In the feeling of his misery, He will
depend on his loving Savior for relief; whereby he will be led to more
fellowship with Him. What he finds wrong in himself—will bring him to
live more by faith, and as faith increases, so will his delight in
God. He will grow more sensible of his weakness—and that will make him
stronger in the Lord. He will know more of his own heart—which will
humble him, and keep him dependent on the grace of Jesus. He will see
reason not to lean to his own understanding—but ever to pray, Lord
guide me by Your Spirit.
Viewing spots and blemishes in his best doings, his triumph will be,
"I will make mention of Your righteousness, Lord Jesus, even of Yours
alone" (Psalm 71:16). Thus everything will humble him, and lead him to
live more by faith—by which means he will get faster hold of Christ,
live in nearer fellowship, and be receiving out of his fullness "grace
for grace". He will have two graces at once—the blessings needed and
thankfulness for them. Hereby a sweet fellowship will be kept open.
To the humble, God delights to give grace—and they delight to return
Him His glory. The more grace He gives—the more glory they gladly
return. And He does give more grace, and He receives it back again in
thanks and praise. Blessed grace! by which this holy fellowship is
maintained. Happy humility! by which the heart, being emptied of self,
is made capable of receiving the fullness which is of God.
Then is the promise fulfilled, "Blessed are the poor in spirit—for
theirs is the kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 5:3). It is theirs now—not
only in title—but also in possession, for the kingdom of God is within
them and they are partakers at present of its blessings and glories as
truly, though not so perfectly, as they will be in Heaven.
Meditate, O my soul, upon this Divine grace. You see the necessity of
it—O pray earnestly for it, and for more of it. The great idol SELF
must be dethroned where God reigns. You can not walk with Him—unless
you are humble in heart. And if you have been walking with Him, you
will be taught to stop, whenever you begin to look at SELF with
admiration. O beg of the Lord, then, to give you the true Gospel
poverty of spirit. It is to be in constant practice, and used for
everything; for you see how it keeps up fellowship with God, who makes
the greatest communications of Himself to His humblest child. And the
reason is plain; because they return Him all His glory. If therefore
you would have much grace in exercise—pray for much humility.
O my God! whatever You
give, give humility with it, that I may not seek SELF in it—but Your
honor, nor lay it out upon myself—but to Your glory. Meek and lowly
Jesus, make me like Yourself; keep me learning of You—until I am
perfectly like You. I would come always poor to You—to receive of Your
riches, and to receive with them a humble heart to praise You for
them. O let Your glory be my end and aim. May I be humbled—and You
exalted. Let Your graces and gifts bring You in a constant revenue of
praise. And may Your increasing goodness—be joined with a constant
increase of my humility, that my heart may bless and praise Your holy
name, today and forever. Amen.
And let this appear in my whole behavior to others. This is another
blessed fruit of humility—it has an influence over the believer's
fellowship with mankind, and renders his tempers and manners loving
and amiable. Pride was not made for man, and yet it is in all men, and
is the chief parent of human woe. It sets people above their place,
and makes them think they could support the greatest fortunes, and are
able to manage the most difficult affairs. Others, as proud as they,
deny them their fancied superiority. Hence come wars and fightings,
public and private.
The sweet grace of humility is sent from Heaven to relieve those
distresses; for into whatever bosom it enters, it renders men kind to
one another, tender-hearted, ready to perform every good word and
work. Thus runs the Divine exhortation, "Be devoted to one another in
brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves" (Romans 12:10).
This is heart-humility, which the Holy Spirit requires, and which He
bestows. He brings His disciples into humble subjection to God, then
to one another; this has the most happy effects upon public, social,
and private happiness. These would greatly flourish, if all men were
of a meek and quiet spirit! But there is none of this among the
unconverted; and, alas, how little is there among believers! How often
are they found in the proud spirit of the world! acting contrary to
the humble spirit of Jesus.
And yet it is not for lack of precepts, nor for lack of promised help;
but it is because they are not walking by faith, as befits the Gospel;
nor out of love to God's glory, studying to recommend humility by
Observe, O my soul, the remedy provided of God for the subduing of all
selfish tempers, and pray that it may be effectual in your heart and
life. Do you think that the Scripture, says in vain, "The spirit that
dwells in us lusts to envy. But He gives more grace. That is why
Scripture says, God resists the proud—but gives grace unto the humble"
(James 4:5, 6). This Scripture cannot speak in vain; for fallen man is
certainly such as he is here described. The spirit that dwells in him,
in his own nature, lusts to envy—a passion made up of pride and
discontent, offended with God, and displeased with the blessings which
He bestows upon men. Envy is an enemy to the love both of God and man,
and transgresses the Law of both tables. Pride brought it into Heaven,
and the fallen angels brought it into this world. Ever since it
entered by sin, natural corruption breaks out very much in envy. But
God gives more grace to conquer this passion, than sinful nature has
to put it forth. He not only gives grace to pardon it—but also more
grace to subdue it; so that envy loses its dominion in the reign of
grace. We cannot subdue it, any more than we can pardon envy, pride,
and such passions; but grace is almighty. He gives more grace, when
the creature is humbled enough to take it out of the hands of His
mercy. Thus he overcomes envy; "for He resists the proud" —He is at
open war with them, and they with Him.
Pride lifts up the creature against the Creator, and puts it upon
seeking happiness outside of God; this is resisting His sovereignty,
attacking His providence, and opposing His Law. God is concerned to
pull such rebels down, and He says their pride goes before
But "He gives grace unto the humble"—He gives them grace to humble
them, and being emptied, He delights to fill them; for then they are
disposed to receive His grace and to value it. Whatever God gives, the
humble gives it back again to Him. They have the blessing—He has the
praise—which is the just tribute due to Him for His gifts.
And He gives more grace—where He can get more glory. Thus He subdues
self-conceit, with its various proud workings. And as grace reigns
over them, humility prevails; which has a friendly aspect towards
mankind. It keeps brotherly love in the heart, and tends mightily to
the practice of every social virtue. Humility is patient and kind.
Humility is not jealous or boastful or proud or rude. Humility does
not demand its own way. Humility is not irritable, and it keeps no
record of when it has been wronged.
(From his paper on
In Isaiah 66 Jehovah links
humility with a contrite spirit (grieving and penitent for sin)
and a reverential trembling regarding His Word...
For My hand made all these things,
Thus all these things came into being," declares the LORD. "But (this
contrast apparently indicating that what God values even more than His
glorious inanimate creation is one with the following character
traits) to this one I will look, To him who is humble (Lxx =
tapeinos) and contrite
of spirit, and who trembles at My word (cp Jn 14:23). (Isaiah 66:2,
cp Isa 57:15)
As Andrew Murray put it...
Humility is that grace that, when
you know you have it, you have lost it.
Thomas Brooks wrote that...
Humility is both a grace,
and a vessel to receive grace. There are none that see so much
need of grace as humble souls; there are none that prize grace like
humble souls; there are none that improve grace like humble souls;
therefore God singles out the humble soul to fill him to the brim with
grace, while the proud are sent empty away.
[word study]) means low,
not high, not rising far from the ground
and speaks of one's attitude or condition as lowly or of low degree.
In Scripture, the humble are those who know their insufficiency and
depend wholly on God.
In Greek culture
tapeinos described that which was considered base, common,
unfit, or having little value (see NIDNTT summary below).
Scripture took the word tapeinos which was generally used in a
despised sense by the Greeks and gave it a highly valued meaning,
which is best illustrated by the
attitude of Jesus Christ, Who although He was the Lord of lords,
- command to do this now, do it effectively. This is necessary to
fulfill the promise of true rest) My yoke upon you, and
- command. Related to Greek mathetes = disciple - speaks of
intentional learning by inquiry and observation) from Me, for I
am gentle and humble (tapeinos) in heart (kardia
= the "control center" of a person = this is Who Jesus was in His
essence); and YOU SHALL FIND REST FOR YOUR SOULS. (Mt 11:29)
We get an
interesting picture of the meaning of
from a secular Greek document which described the Nile
River at its low stage stating that “It runs low (tapeinos).”
is that which does not rise
far from the ground. Considering that Jesus Christ was the epitome of
humility (cp Mk 10:45),
describes believer (because
an unbeliever would never trod this path) who follows in the humble
and lowly steps of the Lord of lords. This helps us begin to
understand how such an attitude is a prerequisite for the reception of
God's unmerited favor.
The humble, deeply conscious of
their sinfulness and need, gladly acknowledge their dependence on God
and rest in His all-sufficiency. Like empty vessels, they are ready to
receive His grace, and His help goes far beyond anything they deserve
or can rightly expect. God's free grace is never intended to make men
think lightly of sin. The promise of grace is the basis for the
injunctions that follow (Jas 4:7-12). (Ibid)
writer Thomas Manton writes that the humility advocated
does not mean a vile and abject
condition, but a holy brokenness and contrition, just as by “proud,”
in a spiritual sense, is meant stiff-necked and unhumbled sinners...
God’s grace is given to the humble.
We lay up the richest wine in the lowest cellars; in the same way
God’s choicest mercies are laid in humble and lowly hearts. Christ did
most for those who were most humble. There is enough excellence in
God; He only requires a sense of emptiness in us. God loves to make
all His works creations; and grace works most freely when it
works upon nothing. It is not to God’s honor that the creatures should
receive nothing from mercy until they are brought to their knees; the
condition that He lays down is, “Only acknowledge your guilt” (Jer
3:13). The humble are vessels of a larger size, fit to receive what
grace gives. From this you may learn why humble people are most
gracious, and gracious people most humble. God delights to fill up
such people. (A Practical Exposition of
MacArthur notes that...
Just as pride is the root of all
sin, so humility is the root of all righteousness. It is only when the
things of the world are no longer admired and sought, when
self-concern is replaced with concern for God’s glory, that God’s
Spirit can work His sovereign and gracious will in a heart, changing
it from being an enemy to being a friend.
J. James. Moody or
Illustrations and Meditations:
Flowers from a Puritan's Garden.
The Spire - "The best of
God's people have abhorred themselves. Like the spire of a steeple,
minimus in summo, we are least at the highest. David, a king, was yet
like a weaned child." Manton is not very clear about the steeple, but
he means that the higher a spire rises toward heaven the smaller it
becomes, and thus the more elevated are our spirits the less shall we
be in our own esteem. Great thoughts of self and great grace never go
together. Self-consciousness is a sure sign that there is not much
depth of grace. He who overvalues himself undervalues his Saviour. He
who abounds in piety is sure to be filled with humility. Light things,
such as straws and feathers, are borne aloft; valuable goods keep
their places, and remain below, not because they are chained or
riveted there, but by virtue of their own weight. When we begin to
talk of our perfection, our imperfection is getting the upper hand.
The more full we become of the presence of the Lord the more shall we
sink in our own esteem, even as laden vessels sink down to their
water-mark, while empty ships float aloft. Lord, make and keep me
humble. Lift me nearer and nearer to heaven, and then I shall grow
less and less in my own esteem.
the humble in context are are...
the unenvious, uncovetous, and unambitious
as to the world. Contrast Jas 4:4-note.
is the quality of unpretentious behavior which recognizes one's own
weakness while at the same time recognizing God's all sufficient
(always enough) grace
and power (supernatural enablement) (cp 2Co 12:9-note,
the contrast between a prideful and humble heart in the following
9 And He also told this parable to
certain ones who trusted (had a settled persuasion or conviction about
what constituted righteousness acceptable to God) in themselves that
they were righteous, and viewed others with contempt (present
continually demonstrated by their attitude/manner of treatment that
others who did not believe as they did were of no account = they
disdained and despised them):
10 "Two men went up into the temple to pray, one a Pharisee,
and the other a tax-gatherer (One of the most despised groups
among the Jews of Jesus' day).
11 "The Pharisee stood and was praying thus to himself, 'God, I thank
Thee that I am not like other people: swindlers, unjust, adulterers,
or even like this tax-gatherer (Note with whom the tax gatherer is
12 'I fast twice a week; I pay tithes of all that I get.'
13 "But (change of direction in the narrative) the
tax-gatherer, standing some distance away, was even unwilling
to lift up his eyes to heaven, but was beating his breast (cp
"contrite spirit" in Isa 66:2), saying, 'God,
(hilaskomai = propitiate, show kindness and compassion toward one who
does not deserve it!) to me, the sinner (Same word
used in James 4:8)!'
14 "I tell you, this man went down to his house justified
(declared righteous) rather than the other; for everyone who exalts
himself shall be humbled, but he who humbles himself
shall be exalted." (Luke 18:9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14)
wisely said that...
Humility is to make a right assessment of oneself. Do not be
proud of race, face, or grace." (Ed: Spurgeon's point is that
everything and anything we have is from God Alone so how can we
boast?) The higher a man is in grace, the lower he will be in his own
Puritan William Gurnall
was correct when he remarked
Humility is the necessary veil to all other graces.
Someone has well
The ears of barley that bear the
richest grain always hang the lowest!
For thus says the high and exalted One Who lives forever, whose name
is Holy, "I dwell on a high and holy place, and also with the contrite
and lowly of spirit in order to revive the spirit of the lowly and to
revive the heart of the contrite.
Spurgeon's Comment: That is
a wonderful verse. You notice that the prelude to it explains the
greatness and the holiness of God; and then, like an eagle swooping
out of the shy even down to the earth, we find God coming from his
high and lofty place to dwell with humble and contrite hearts. Not
with the proud,— not with you who think yourselves good and
excellent,— does God dwell; but with men who feel their sin, and own
it; with men who feel their unworthiness, and confess it. I will read
this verse again to impress it upon your memory: “Thus saith the high
and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is
I dwell in the high and holy place, with him also that is of a
contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to
revive the heart of the contrite ones.”
C H Spurgeon...
Humble hearts seek grace, and therefore they get
it. Humble hearts yield to the sweet influences of grace, and so it is
bestowed on them more and more largely. Humble hearts lie in the
valleys where streams of grace are flowing, and hence they drink of
them, Humble hearts are grateful for grace and give the Lord the glory
of it, and hence it is consistent with His honor to give it to them.
Come, dear reader, take a lowly place. Be little in thine own esteem,
that the Lord may make much of thee. Perhaps the sigh breaks out, "I
fear I am not humble." It may be that this is the language of true
humility. Some are proud of being humble, and this is one of the very
worst sorts of pride. We are needy, helpless, undeserving,
hell-deserving creatures, and if we are not humble we ought to be. Let
us humble ourselves because of our sins against humility, and then the
Lord will give us to taste of His favor. It is grace which makes us
humble, and grace which finds in this humility an opportunity for
pouring in more grace. Let us go down that we may rise. Let us be poor
in spirit that God may make us rich. Let us be humble that we may not
need to be humbled but may be exalted by the grace of God
wrote an excellent little book on 1Peter, in which he listed three
tests that reveal whether your "humility" is genuine...
First, the test of precedence
Do you feel badly when others are
honored, because they outshine you?
the test of sincerity
All too often, people say things
about themselves to sound humble, when they really are not.
Third, the test of
Do you react unfavorably when
someone points out your shortcomings?
If you gave yourself a perfect score on this test, you failed the test
of humility! (Richard DeHaan, Good News for Bad
then does not so much consist in thinking badly of ourselves as in not
thinking of ourselves at all. The humble person forgets self and looks
at the Lord Jesus Christ, the only One who is truly worthy of all my
For thus says the high and exalted
One Who lives forever, Whose name is Holy, "I dwell on a high and holy
place, And also with the contrite and lowly of spirit In order to
revive the spirit of the lowly And to revive the heart of the
contrite. (Is 57:15)
Humility is the opposite
of pride, the sin that has always separated fallen men from
God, making them, in effect, their own gods. Genuine humility involves
believers’ not thinking too highly of themselves and requires that
they regard one another as more important than themselves (see
James used tapeinos in chapter 1 writing in the
let the brother of humble circumstances glory in his high position
(see paraphrase in Jas 1:9NLT)
Comment: There were many poor in Jerusalem at that time and a
large section of the population lived chiefly or even entirely on
charity or relief. Many even begged in order to survive. In contrast
to their present humble, poor state (in the world's eyes), they had an
exalted present position because of their union with Christ. (cp where
they [and we] are seated! = Ep 2:6,7-note)
sense of low lying soon gave rise to metaphorical uses,
NIDNTT listing several...
(a) low socially, poor, of
little social position and influence (Hdt., 5th cent. B.C. onwards),
(b) as a result of one’s social standing, with slavish outlook, a
synonym of not free;
(c) despondent, downcast (Thuc., 5th cent. B.C. onwards; cf. Eng.
“I’m feeling down”);
(d) in Socratic and post-Socratic ethical teaching the word was
separated from its social links, but retained a depreciatory
connotation. Men should avoid the two extremes of arrogance,
provocation and pride (hybris), and of grovelling, servile behaviour
and base flattery.
(e) Occasionally the word is used with a good connotation in
individual, social, ethical and religious contexts. Where this is so,
it does not mean humble, but unassuming (in Xen.), obedient,
conforming one’s behaviour to the righteous laws of the gods (Aesch.,
Plato). In all these uses there remains the memory of the original
physical meaning of below, low, in comparison with that which is above
or higher. (Brown,
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
is used only 8 times in the NAS and KJV (Mt. 11:29; Lk
1:52; Ro 12:16; 2Co 7:6; 10:1; Jas. 1:9; 4:6; 1Pe 5:5) and is
translated: depressed, 1; humble, 5; lowly, 1; meek, 1. In the KJV
tapeinos is translated: base, 1; cast down, 1; humble, 2; lowly, 1; of
low degree, 2; of low estate, 1.
There are 44
uses in the Septuagint -
Lev. 13:3, 4,, 20, 21, 25, 26; 14:37; 27:8; Jos. 11:16; Jdg. 1:15; 1
Sam. 18:23; Esther 1:1; Job 5:11; 12:21; Ps. 10:18; 18:27; 34:18;
82:3; 102:17; 113:6; 138:6; Pr 3:34; 11:2; 16:2; 30:14; Eccl. 10:6; Is
2:11; 11:4; 14:32; 25:4; 26:6; 32:7; 49:13; 54:11; 58:4; 66:2; Jer.
22:16; Ezek. 17:24; 21:26; 29:14; Amos 2:7; 8:6; Zeph. 2:3; 3:12
In his exposition of Ephesians 4 (Click
here), Wayne Barber
has a practical discussion of the practical significance of
Ephesians 4:1, 2, 3 (notes)
What does this word "humility" mean?...The word (in Eph 4:2-note)
is the Greek word tapeinophrosune (from tapeinos +
phren = to think) which means to think less of yourself. The root
word tapeinos... means to get down as flat as you can possibly
get so nobody can see you at all... to be level with the earth. The
Greek verb phren ...speaks of a framed attitude of the
mind...an attitude. So what is the attitude we must have towards
ourselves? The attitude is that we are not to think more highly of
ourselves than we ought to think (cp Ro 12:16-note).
We need to get down where we belong. Listen, the only way up is
to bow down before God. Do you want a proper estimate of self?
Here it is... Die. Get down, flatten out, so that the Lord through His
divine enablement can continue to keep you united with the body of
There are 3 things that I
want you to see about humility. Paul uses it three times in
three different books and each teaches us something about humility.
an important Scripture because Paul is speaking...with the elders of
Ephesus (Ed: He is on his way back to Jerusalem and then on to
Rome to be imprisoned and he will never see these men again). He has
brought them down to Miletus. In this
passage, we see that an attitude of humility is essential to serving
the Lord Jesus Christ... Some people think, "God is so glad to have me
on His team." That is about as unbiblical as anything you could say.
God doesn’t want to use anything about who we are (Ed: That is
flesh nature in
which there is no good thing! cp Ro 7:18-note).
He wants us to be an empty vessel so He can infuse His power in our
life (Ed: cp 2Co 4:7, 2Ti 2:21-note,
Jesus referring to Paul in Acts 9:15KJV). Humility is an
essential attitude which is necessary for us to carry out effective
service for Christ. Let’s back up to Acts 20:18 to catch the
they came to him [the elders coming down to Miletus from Ephesus], he
said to them, ‘You yourselves know, from the first day that I set foot
in Asia, how I was with you the whole time, 19 serving (douleuo
conveys idea of one serving another as a slave serves
his master and =
present tense signifies
this was Paul's continual attitude and action toward) the Lord with
all (pas = all without exception, speaks of completeness)
[word study]) and with tears and with trials (peirasmos
[word study]) which came upon me through the plots
of the Jews
first point about the essential attitude of humility in serving
Christ is that when it is there, everybody else knows it. Paul says
"you know...you saw...you experienced." Paul said, "You know that I
was serving out of humility." How did they know? Paul didn’t tell
them. I like what Ian Thomas said, "I can’t. He never said I could. He
can. He always said He would." That is the essence of humility....
When you have that attitude, everybody knows it... You are not aware
that they are aware, but they are aware. Paul said, "You know."
Secondly, if humility is real it will provoke those who are
"religious" (Ed: Christianity if more about relationship than
about "religion".). Look at Acts 20:19: "serving the Lord with all
humility and with tears and with trials which came upon me through the
plots of the Jews." Is he talking about all Jews? No. He is
talking about the "religious" group... Religion is what man does, and
therefore, man has to stand up to do it. Christianity is what
God does, and man has to get down in order to allow God to do
it. The two cannot peacefully coexist... When you start being humble
of mind, it means you are aware totally of what you are not, what He
(Christ) is and Who He (Christ) is. You wait until He initiates it (Ed:
e.g., a "good work") so that He might anoint it (Ed: And
third thing is in Acts 20:22. If this humility is real, then God’s
will will always be preeminent above your will. Acts 20:22 says...
behold, bound in spirit, I am on my way to Jerusalem, not knowing what
will happen to me there.
what happened to him... We know he has been in prison for five years
because he went to Jerusalem. At this point in Acts 20:22 he doesn’t
know. He said, "I don’t have my will." Everyone tried to stop him from
going to Jerusalem, but he said, "I have to go. I am chained to His
chariot. I am bound to His Spirit. I am a prisoner of Jesus. I am a
bond-servant of Christ." (cp Acts 21:12, 13, 14) When humility is a
reality in your life, it is not what you wear or don’t wear. It is
your attitude towards God which works in your life. You don’t have an
agenda which you place before God. You just want His agenda in your
life. So we see that humility is the essential attitude in serving
Christ (Ed: His will not our will - see same idea inherent in
doulos [word study] = a
bondslave or bond servant).
Colossians 3:1,2, (note)
humility is the attitude of those seeking a higher calling. The
context is Col 3:1...
you have been raised up with Christ,
= make this your lifestyle, the desire of your heart above all else to
continually, intentionally, diligently seek) the things above, where
Christ is, seated at the right hand of God.
Set your mind on
= command to continually have this mindset) the things above, not on
the things that are on earth. (Col 3:1-see
note, Col 3:2-see
context now look at Col 3:12
as those who have been chosen of God, holy and beloved (Ponder your
privilege and your position in Christ that it might motivate you
to...), put on
- command to do this now, do it effectively. Don't delay!)
a heart of compassion, kindness, humility (tapeinophrosune
[word study]), gentleness and patience.
Humility is part of the garment of the lifestyle of those who are
seeking a higher calling. Who are these humble people? They are not
seeking their own calling. They are seeking His calling. They are not
looking for the praise of men. They are looking for the glory of God
in their life (cp Mt 5:16-note).
It is an attitude that originates from their new life in Christ.
Philippians 2 we see this attitude of
humility once more. This attitude is not only essential to serving
Christ, it is not only the attitude of those seeking Christ, but it is
also the very attitude of our Savior Himself.
nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of
[word study]) regard one another as more important
than yourselves...5 Have
this attitude (present
imperative = make this your lifestyle) in
yourselves which was also in Christ Jesus, 6 who, although He existed
in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be
grasped, 7 but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and
being made in the likeness of men. 8 Being found in appearance as a
man, He humbled (tapeinoo)
Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a
cross. 9 For this reason also, God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on
Him the name which is above every name (Php 2:3-note,
Php 2:5, 6, 7-note,
Php 2:8, 9-note)
ever heard someone preach on this passage but not put it in
context? We know what Christ
did. We know He emptied Himself of His glory, but Paul says is that
you are to have the same attitude in you that He had before He came to
this earth to die on a cross. So therefore be strengthened in the
inner man with an ability that you don’t normally have (cp Eph 3:16-note).
It is an ability He has place within you. Who is in you? It is Christ
Himself (Col 1:27b-note;
Let that attitude be released in your life. That is His attitude. What
is it? Philippians 2:3 says,
nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of
[word study]) let each of you regard one another as
more important than himself. (Php 2:3-note)
you are beginning to see something... If I truly have a high view of
salvation, I will have a proper estimate of myself. Therefore, I am
going to be humble in the way I approach the body of Christ. My
attitude is, I know that I can’t, but I also know that He can. I want
to be strengthened with might in the inner man with His power (cp Eph
Richards has some excellent comments on tapeinos writing
In Greek culture, tapeinos
and its derivatives were words of contempt. The Greeks saw man as the
measure of all things. Thus, to be low on the social scale, to know
poverty, or to be socially powerless was seen as shameful. Only seldom
in classical Greek do these words have a positive tone, commending an
unassuming or obedient attitude. Scripture, however, sees the universe
as measurable only against God. Compared to Him, human beings are
rightly viewed as humble. Thus in Scripture tapeinos and its
derivatives are nearly always used in a positive sense (exceptions are
in 2Co 10:1 which uses tapeinos; [tapeinophrosune]
in the following two passages - Col 2:18 -note,
Tapeinos represents a
person's proper estimate of himself in relation to God and to others.
In this sense, Jesus himself lived a humble life, depending completely
on God and relating appropriately to all around him (Mt 11:29). It is
the humble, Jesus says, whom God will exalt in his good time (Lk
14:11; 18:14). While the thought of the OT about humility infuses the
NT, we learn more about humility in the Gospels and the Epistles.
Mt 18:1, 2, 3, 4 helps us see
humility expressed in relationship with God. The disciples asked Jesus
who was greatest in the kingdom of heaven. The text tells us that
Jesus "called a little child and had him stand among them." Jesus then
told them that unless they were to "change and become like little
children" they would be unable to enter heaven's kingdom (Mt 18:5, 6).
"Whoever humbles (tapeinoo -
tapeinos) himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of
heaven." (Lk 18:4)
Just before this, Jesus had
presented himself to Israel as God's Son and their promised Messiah.
Israel refused to respond. But what of the child? When he was called,
he came immediately, responding to Jesus' word.
Humility in our relationship
with God is seen when we refuse to stand in judgment on his Word but
instead respond immediately, recognizing God as the ultimate authority
in our life. The
dependence and responsiveness of the child is to mark our attitude in
our personal relationship with the Lord.
The NT often exhorts humility in
relationships with other believers (e.g., Eph 4:2-note).
Paul gives the example of Jesus' humility (Php 2:5, 6, 7, 8-note)
to encourage compliance with his exhortation: "In humility consider
others better than yourselves. Each of you should look not only to
your own interests, but also to the interests of others" (Php 2:3, 4-note).
This attitude is explored further in Ro 12:3, 4, 5, 6-note,
Ro 12:7, 8, 9-note,
Ro 12:10, 11, 12, 13-note,
Ro 12:14, 15, 16-note.
The introductory instruction goes like this:
Do not think of yourself more
highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober
judgment, in accordance with the measure of faith God
given you" (Ro 12:3-note).
That faith is to find expression
within the body of Christ, as each member of the body uses his gifts
to serve his fellows. Moved by a sincere love, each is told,
"Honor one another
yourselves" (Ro 12:10-note),
"Do not be proud, but be
willing to associate with people of
low position. Do not be conceited" (Ro 12:16-note).
It is in seeing others as persons
of great worth because they are loved by God and in seeing ourselves
as their servants that we find the fulfilling lifestyle of humility.
L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)
(Bolding and color
John Ruskin (1819-1900)
The first test of a truly great man is humility.
Dwight L. Moody declared
Unless you humble yourself
before (God) in the dust (Note: tapeinos = not rising far from
the ground), and confess before Him your iniquities and sins, the gate
of heaven, which is open only for sinners saved by grace, must be shut
against you forever.
Puritan William Secker wrote that
Pride is a sinner's torment, but humility is a saint's ornament.
Warren Wiersbe wrote
To be poor in spirit means knowing
yourself, accepting yourself, and being yourself to the glory of God.
After the memorial service for
George Whitefield a staunch supporter of Whitefield accosted John
Wesley, who had disagreed on some theological points with Whitefield,
"Mr. Wesley, do you think you
shall see Mr. Whitefield in heaven?"
"No," retorted Wesley.
"I was afraid you would say
that," lamented the lady.
Wesley however went on to say
"George Whitefield will be so near to the throne of God, that men like
me will never catch a glimpse of him."
Wesley's humility clothed him
all his life and at one point he wrote to Francis Asbury, the founder
of Methodism in America,
"Oh, beware do not seek to be
something! Let me be nothing, and Christ be all in all."
Necessary to the service of God
Christ an example of -Matthew 11:29; John 13:14,15; Philippians 2:5-8
A characteristic of saints -Psalms 34:2
THEY WHO HAVE HUMILITY
Regarded by God -Psalms 138:6; Isaiah 66:2
Heard by God -Psalms 9:12KJV
Enjoy the presence of God -Isaiah 57:15
Delivered by God -Job 22:29
Lifted up by God -James 4:10
Exalted by God -Luke 14:11; 18:14
Are greatest in Christ’s kingdom -Matthew 18:4; 20:26-28
Receive more grace -Proverbs 3:34; James 4:6
Upheld by honour -Proverbs 18:12; 29:23
Is before honour -Proverbs 15:33
Leads to riches, honour, and life -Proverbs 22:4
Put on -Colossians 3:12
Be clothed with -1 Peter 5:5
Walk with -Ephesians 4:1,2
Beware of false -Colossians 2:18,23
Afflictions intended to produce -Leviticus 26:41; Deuteronomy 8:3;
Want of, condemned -2 Chronicles 33:23; 36:12; Jeremiah 44:10; Daniel
Temporal judgments averted by -2 Chronicles 7:14; 12:6,7
Excellency of -Proverbs 16:19
Blessedness of -Matthew 5:3
Abraham -Genesis 18:27
Jacob -Genesis 32:10
Moses -Exodus 3:11; 4:10
Joshua -Joshua 7:6
Gideon -Judges 6:15
David -1 Chronicles 29:14
Hezekiah -2 Chronicles 32:26
Manasseh -2 Chronicles 33:12
Josiah -2 Chronicles 34:27
Job -Job 40:4; 42:6
Isaiah -Isaiah 6:5
Jeremiah -Jeremiah 1:6
John the Baptist -Matthew 3:14
Centurion -Matthew 8:8
Woman of Canaan -Matthew 15:27
Elizabeth -Luke 1:43
Peter -Luke 5:8
Paul -Acts 20:19
Is sin -Proverbs
Hateful to God -Proverbs 6:16,17; 16:5
Hateful to Christ -Proverbs 8:12,13
OFTEN ORIGINATES IN
Self-righteousness -Luke 18:11,12
Religious privileges -Zephaniah 3:11
Unsanctified knowledge -1 Corinthians 8:1
Inexperience -1 Timothy 3:6
Possession of power -Leviticus 26:19; Ezekiel 30:6
Possession of wealth -2 Kings 20:13
Forbidden -1 Samuel 2:3; Romans 12:3,16
Defiles a man -Mark 7:20,22
Hardens the mind -Daniel 5:20
give not away -Psalms 131:1
Respect not, in others -Psalms 40:4
Mourn over, in others -Jeremiah 13:17
Hate, in others -Psalms 101:5
A hindrance to seeking God -Psalms 10:4; Hosea 7:10
A hindrance to improvement -Proverbs 26:12
The devil -1 Timothy 3:6
The world -1 John 2:16
False teachers -1 Timothy 6:3,4
The wicked -Habakkuk 2:4,5; Romans 1:30
Comes from the heart -Mark 7:21-23
The wicked encompassed with -Psalms 73:6
LEADS MEN TO
Contempt and rejection of God’s word and ministers -Jeremiah 43:2
A persecuting spirit -Psalms 10:2
Wrath -Proverbs 21:24
Contention -Proverbs 13:10; 28:25
Self-deception -Jeremiah 49:16; Obadiah 1:3
Exhortation against -Jeremiah 13:15
IS FOLLOWED BY
Shame -Proverbs 11:2
Debasement -Proverbs 29:23; Isaiah 28:3
Destruction -Proverbs 16:18; 18:12
Shall abound in the last days -2 Timothy 3:2
Woe to -Isaiah 28:1,3
THEY WHO ARE GUILTY OF, SHALL BE
Resisted -James 4:6
Brought into contempt -Isaiah 23:9
Recompensed -Psalms 31:23
Marred -Jeremiah 13:9
Subdued -Exodus 18:11; Isaiah 13:11
Brought low -Psalms 18:27; Isaiah 2:12
Abased -Daniel 4:37; Matthew 23:12
Scattered -Luke 1:51
Punished -Zephaniah 2:10,11; Malachi 4:1
Ahithophel -2 Samuel 17:23
Hezekiah -2 Chronicles 32:25
Pharaoh -Nehemiah 9:10
Haman -Esther 3:5
Moab -Isaiah 16:6
Tyre -Isaiah 23:9
Israel -Isaiah 28:1; Hosea 5:5,9
Judah -Jeremiah 13:9
Babylon -Jeremiah 50:29,32
Assyria -Ezekiel 31:3,10
Nebuchadnezzar Daniel 4:30; 5:20
Belshazzar -Daniel 5:22,23
Edom -Obadiah 1:3
Scribes -Mark 12:38,39
Herod -Acts 12:21-23
Laodiceans -Revelation 3:17