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Old and New Testament
appearance as a
death on a
And after He had appeared in human form, He abased and humbled Himself
[still further] and carried His obedience to the extreme of death,
even the death of the cross!
Bible - Lockman)
And when he came in appearance as a man for all to recognise, he
became obedient even to the extent of accepting death, even the death
of a cross. (Westminster
And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became
obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.
Nor was this all. Having thus appeared among men in the fashion of a
man, he humbled himself yet more, and carried out his obedience even
to dying. Nor did he die by a common death: he was crucified, as the
lowest malefactor is crucified
Phillips: And, having become man, he humbled himself by living a life of utter
obedience, even to the extent of dying, and the death he died was the
death of a common criminal. (Phillips:
being found to be in outward guise as man, He stooped very low, having
become obedient to the extent of death, even such a death as that upon
a cross. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and in fashion having been found as a man, he humbled
himself, having become obedient unto death -- death even of a cross,
FOUND IN APPEARANCE AS A MAN: kai schemati heuretheis (AAPMSN) os
anthropos: (Mt 17:2; Mk 9:2,3; Lk 9:29)
(heurisko, gives us English word eureka which is from
the exclamation attributed to Archimedes on discovering a method for
determining the purity of gold) means learn location of something,
either by intentional searching or by unexpected discovery.
gives us English "scheme") refers purely
outward and appeals to the senses.
The contrast here is between what
He was in Himself, God, and what He appeared in the eyes of man.
"Likeness" states the fact of His real resemblance to men in mode of
existence. (Derivative words of schema =
"always refers to what may be known from without." (Schneider, TDNT
this verse signifies what Jesus was in the eyes of men. Schema
describes the entire, outward, perceptible mode and shape of Christ's
existence as a man.
says schema is...
the habitus, as comprising
everything in a person which strikes the senses, the figure, bearing,
discourse, actions, manner of life, etc.
should be distinguished from the Greek word
which signifies "form" in Phil 2:7. Vine (quoting from
Gifford's work "The Incarnation") says that
morphe is therefore properly
the nature or essence, not in the abstract, but as actually subsisting
in the individual, and retained as long as the individual itself
exists.…Thus in the passage before us morphe Theou is the
Divine nature actually and inseparably subsisting in the Person of
Christ.… For the interprehtion of ‘the form of God’ it is sufficient
to say that (1) it includes the whole nature and essence of Deity, and
is inseparable from them, since they could have no actual existence
without it; and (2) that it does not include in itself anything
‘accidental’ or separable, such as particular modes of manifestation,
or conditions of glory and majesty, which may at one time be attached
to the ‘form,’ at another separated from it.… “The true meaning
of morphe in the expression ‘form of God’ is confirmed by its
recurrence in the corresponding phrase, ‘form of a servant.’ It is
universally admitted that the two phrases are directly antithetical,
and that ‘form’ must therefore have the same sense in both.”
adds that morphe “always signifies a form which truly and fully
expresses the being which underlies it...the words mean ‘the being on
an equality with God.’”
The word form (Greek morphē)
differs from fashion (Greek schēma) as that which is intrinsic
from that which is outward. The contrast is between what He is in
Himself (God) and what He appears to be in the eyes of men (man).
Christ had all the qualities which Adam had before he sinned, but not
the sinful nature which came through Adam’s fall.
E G, Charles Feinberg, E Hindson, Woodrow Kroll, H L. Wilmington: KJV
Bible Commentary: Nelson
explains that schema
is the third word Paul uses to show
the Philippians that Jesus Christ who is fully God from all eternity
is also fully man. In the previous verses, Paul describes Jesus as
possessing the nature of God and taking on the nature (morphe) of a
servant. Jesus came to the earth with the identity of a man (homoíoma
= likeness). Here the word appearance points to the external
characteristics of Jesus: He had the bearing, actions, and manners of
E. D., Allen, R. B., & House, H. W. The Nelson Study Bible: NKJV.
Nashville: Thomas Nelson)
There are two Greek words for form,
morphē and schēma. They must both be translated
form, because there is no other English equivalent, but they
do not mean the same thing. Morphē is the essential form which never
alters; schēma is the outward form which changes from time to time and
from circumstance to circumstance. For instance, the morphē of
any human being is humanity and this never changes; but his schēma
is continually changing. A baby, a child, a boy, a youth, a man of
middle age, an old man always have the morphē of humanity, but the
outward schēma changes all the time. Roses, daffodils, tulips,
chrysanthemums, primroses, dahlias, lupins all have the one morphē of
flowers; but their schēma is different. Aspirin, penicillin, cascara,
magnesia all have the one morphē of drugs; but their schēma is
different. The morphē never alters; the schēma continually does. The
word Paul uses for Jesus being in the form of God is morphē; that is
to say, his unchangeable being is divine. However his outward schēma
might alter, he remained in essence divine.
W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press
The New Daily Study Bible New Testament - Logos)
has this note on the classic use of schema...
(1) form, shape, figure; (2)
appearance, as opposed to reality; (3) bearing, air, mien; (4)
fashion, manner; (5) character. Greek thought did not sharply
distinguish between the external and the internal. Schēma
denotes the form that is seen. It could thus denote the role played by
an actor which includes its essential character (Plato, Leg., 11,
918e). But the outward form can also be deceptive, and appearance
become a sham. Schēma can thus mean mere appearance as opposed
to reality. It can also mean a dancing figure (Plato, Ion, 536c),
bodily attitude or bearing (Eur., Medea, 1039), clothing (Xen., Cyr.,
5, 1, 5), and occasionally semblance (Theophrastus, Historia Plantarum,
3, 12, 7). In studying the Greek word, one has to beware of the modern
outlook which would relate schēma merely to external things,
implying that the essential character was something different. To the
Greek mind, the observer saw not only the outer shell but the whole
form with it.
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
The only other
NT use of schema is
1 Corinthians 7:31 and those who
use the world, as though they did not make full use of it; for the
form (schema) of this world is passing away (cp similar statement
in 1Jn 2:17).
Comment: In the context of
1Cor 7:31, schema signifies that which comprises the manner of life,
actions, etc., of humanity in general. There is one use of schema in
the Lxx in Isaiah 3:17 where it refers to the "proud bearing of
women." (Schneider, TDNT).
defines the outward mode and expression. While on earth, Jesus did not
give expression to the glory of His deity except on the Mount of
Transfiguration. He appeared as the Man Christ Jesus to the world
around Him. He was in His humiliation. And of course in contrast to
the occasional nuance of schema meaning deception, Jesus' schema never
for an instance presented even a suggestion of deception. He was fully
Man, just as other men saw Him. Indeed John records Jesus' schema as
interpreted by Nathanael...
Jesus saw Nathanael coming to Him,
and said of him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no (not "me"
but "ouk" = absolute negation) guile (dolos)!"
He had not descended low enough
yet, though he had come down all the way from the Godhead to our
manhood: “he humbled himself.”
What a cruel and ignominious death
for the Son of God to suffer! Did he lose anything by all this
wondrous condescension? Will you lose anything by any dishonor that
may come upon you for Christ’s sake, for the truth’s sake? No; listen
to what followed our Savior’s humiliation:—
He humbled himself, so be you not
unwilling to humble yourself. Lower than the cross Christ could not
go, his death was one of such extreme ignominy that he could not have
been more disgraced and degraded. Be you willing to take the lowest
place in the Church of God, and to render the humblest service, count
it an honor to be allowed to wash the saints feet. Be humble in mind;
nothing is lost by cherishing this spirit, for see how Jesus Christ
was honored in the end.
D A Carson explains this section noting that Jesus Christ...
“made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant [literally,
slave] . . .” (Phil 2:7). But Paul does not tell us that Christ
exchanged one form for another; he is not saying that Jesus was God,
gave that up, and became a slave instead. Rather, without ever
abandoning who he was originally, he adopted the mode of existence of
a slave. To do this, he (literally) became “in human likeness
(morphe)” (Phil 2:7). The idea is not that he merely became like a
human being, a reasonable facsimile but not truly human. Rather, it
means that he became a being fashioned in this way: a human being. He
was always God; He now becomes something He was not, a human being.
“And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself and became
obedient to death—even death on a cross!” (Phil 2:8). (Basics for
Believers : an Exposition of Philippians)
In Greek philosophy morphē meant “the inner form of something
that truly reflected its inner essence,” while “ schēma ” meant
“the outer changing form of something that did not fully represent its
inner essence” (cf. 1Cor. 7:31). Jesus is like us in all ways except
fallen mankind’s sin nature. (Philippians
Marvin Vincent says that when we consider
We must here dismiss from our
minds the idea of shape. The word is used in its philosophic sense, to
denote that expression of being which carries in itself the
distinctive nature and character of the being to whom it pertains, and
is thus permanently identified with that nature and character. Thus it
is distinguished from schema = fashion,
comprising that which appeals to the senses and which is changeable. Morphe
or form is identified with the essence of a
person or thing...As
applied here to God, the word is intended to describe that mode in
which the essential being of God expresses itself.
emphatic in another direction is Paul’s next expression, ‘In the form
of God,’ for ‘form’ means much more than ‘shape.’ I would point out
the careful selection in this passage of three words to express three
ideas which are often by hasty thought regarded as identical, We read
of ‘the form of God’ (Phil. 2:6),’ the likeness of men’ (Phil. 2:7),
and’ in fashion as a man.’ Careful investigation of these two words
‘form’ and’ fashion’ has established a broad distinction between them,
the former being more fixed, the latter referring to that which is
accidental and outward, which may be fleeting and unsubstantial. The
possession of the form involves participation in the essence also.
Here it implies no corporeal idea as if God had a material form, but
it implies also much more than a mere apparent resemblance. He who is
in the form of God possesses the essential divine attributes. Only God
can be ‘in the form of God’: man is made in the likeness of God, but
man is not ‘in the form of God.’ Light is thrown on this lofty phrase
by its antithesis with the succeeding expression in the next verse,
‘the form of a servant,’ and as that is immediately explained to refer
to Christ’s assumption of human nature, there is no room for candid
doubt that ‘being originally in the form of God’ is a deliberately
asserted claim of the divinity of Christ in His pre-existent state. (The
Descent of the Word)
Lightfoot in his commentary on Philippians has a lengthy
discussion of schema as it differs from morphe...
The word schema corresponds exactly in derivation, though but
partially in meaning, to the old English ‘haviour.’ In its first sense
it denotes the figure, shape, fashion, of a thing. Thence it gathers
several derived meanings. It gets to signify, like the corresponding
Latin ‘habitus,’ sometimes the dress or costume..., sometimes the
attitude or demeanor.... Schema is used also for a ‘figure of
speech,’ as the dress in which the sense clothes itself or the posture
which the language assumes. It signifies moreover pomp, display,
outward circumstance....Morphe, like schema, originally
refers to the organs of sense. If schema may be rendered by
‘figure,’ ‘fashion,’ morphe corresponds to ‘form.’ Morphe
comprises all those sensible qualities, which striking the eye lead to
the conviction that we see such and such a thing....the great and
entire change of the inner life, otherwise described as being born
again, being created anew, is spoken of as a conversion of morphe
always, of schema never. Thus ‘He fore-ordained them
conformable (summorphous) to the image of His Son’ (Ro 8:29); ‘Being
made conformable (summorphizomenos) to His death’ (Phil. 3:10); ‘We
are transformed (metamorphoumetha) into the same image’ (2Cor. 3:18);
‘To be transformed by the renewal of the mind’ (Ro 12:2); ‘Until
Christ be formed (morphothe) in you’ (Gal. 4:19). In these passages
again, if any one doubts whether morphe has any special force,
let him substitute schema and try the effect. In some cases
indeed, where the organs of sense are concerned and where the appeal
lies to popular usage, either word might be used. Yet I think it will
be felt at once that in the account of the transfiguration
metaschematizesthai would have been out of place and that
metamorposthai alone is adequate to express the completeness and
significance of the change (Mt 17:2, Mark 9:2). Even in the later
addition to Mark’s Gospel here our Lord is described as appearing to
the two disciples en hetera morphe, though morphe here
has no peculiar force, yet schema would perhaps be avoided
instinctively, as it might imply an illusion or an imposture. It will
be observed also that in two passages where Paul speaks of an
appearance which is superficial and unreal, though not using schema,
he still avoids morphe as inappropriate and adopts morphosis (Ed:
"the state of being formally structured, embodiment, formulation,
form...In 2Ti 3:5 the idea of mere outward form is derived from
the context" BADG) instead (Ro 2:20, 2Ti 3:5). Here the
termination denotes the aiming after or affecting the morphe.
And the distinction, which has thus appeared from the review of each
word separately, will be seen still more clearly from those passages
where they occur together. In Ro 12:2 (suschematizo...metamorphoo)
the form of the sentence calls attention to the contrast, and the
appropriateness of each word in its own connection is obvious: ‘Not
to follow the fleeting fashion of this world, but to undergo
a complete change, assume a new form, in the renewal of the mind.’...
Thus in the passage under consideration the morphe is contrasted with
the schema, as that which is intrinsic and essential with that which
is accidental and outward. And the three clauses imply respectively
the true divine nature of our Lord (μορφὴ Θεοῦ), the true human nature
(μορφὴ δούλου), and the externals of the human nature (σχήματι ὡς
ἄνθρωπος). (Saint Paul's Epistle to the Philippians}, (St.
Paul's Epistle to the Philippians - page 125-131)
Fashion (in NT only 1Co
7:31) differs from form as any occasional appearance or visible
clothing differs from an expression which corresponds to actual inner
reality. The form of God is the appropriate self-manifestation
of the Son’s essence, of His equality with God. The fashion as
a man was the outward guise of humanity, a visible clothing bearing
only a distant relation to the actual nature of the Son. It is
practically the same as in the likeness of men, except perhaps that it
recalls more conspicuously the outward aspect of Christ as an
individual man. In this outward guise, by those who sought Him, the
Incarnate Son was found. This last word keeps before us, as does the
conspicuous repetition of the word form, the self-presentation of the
Son both as God and as Man. (Philippians 2 Commentary)
James E Rosscup writes that
did not rid Himself of the essence
in which He was God, or relinquish the attributes of God. He always
remained God but also became man. He was fully God and fully man, in
one Person. He did not exchange the “form” of God (let it go), but
always had this, and simply added or took the form also of a man in
being fully humanity. What He emptied Himself of was the exercise,
use, or expression of the prerogatives of being God. As a servant, He
showed perfect submission to the Father to do His will as the God-man.
This is as other humans also can obey whatever is God’s will for them,
as in many things it varies for each person. Christ worked miracles
only as these served the Father in His will and timing, and many times
bypassed showing the power He could have asserted, never making His
own way easier. He lived as a true human, experiencing thirst, hunger,
and weariness in His treks instead of moving from one place to another
in an instant. (An Exposition on Prayer in the Bible: Igniting the
Fuel to Flame Our Communication with God)
HIMSELF: etapeinosen (3SAAI) heauton: (Acts 8:33; Heb 5:5, 6,
we read that...
The fear (reverential awe) of the LORD
(Jehovah) is the
instruction for wisdom, and before honor comes humility (Compare - the
Cross, before the Crown!). (Pr 15:33)
Jesus put aside all personal rights
and interests in order to insure the welfare of others. In so doing He
gave us His perfect example to follow in His steps (1Pe 2:21-note,
1Jn 2:6). F B Meyer spoke of applying Jesus' pattern of living as a
Man to our life as men and women who are now in Him (and enabled by
His indwelling Spirit, the Spirit of Christ)...
I used to think that God’s gifts
were on shelves one above the other, and that the taller we grew in
Christian character the more easily we could reach them. I now find
that God’s gifts are on shelves one beneath the other and that it is
not a question of growing taller but of stooping lower.
= low, not high, figuratively of one's attitude/social position)
literally means to level, to cause something to be lower or to make
low (eg, to level off a mountain in Lk 3:5 from the
Septuagint (Lxx) of Isa 40:4).
Tapeinoo means to bow down, to make low, to humble. Most NT uses
of tapeinoo are figurative and include the following meanings:
To cause someone to lose prestige, to reduce to a meaner condition or
lower rank, to abase. To be ranked below others.
- 14x in 11v - Mt 18:4; 23:12; Luke 3:5; 14:11; 18:14; 2 Cor 11:7;
12:21; Phil 2:8; 4:12; Jas 4:10; 1 Pet 5:6. NAS = brought
low(1), get along(1), humble(2), humble means(1), humbled(4),
Humble in English is
derived from Latin "humilis" meaning low and this word
is in turn from "humus" meaning earth! Greeks saw
humility as shameful but the NT sees humility as condition bringing
man to right relation to God! The fundamental difference between the
Greek and the biblical use of these words is that in the Greek world,
with its anthropocentric view of man, lowliness is looked on as
shameful, to be avoided and overcome by act and thought. In the NT,
with its theocentric view of man, the words are used to describe those
events that bring a man into a right relationship with God and his
This was a "voluntary humiliation on
the part of Christ and for this reason Paul is pressing the example of
"Christ upon the Philippians, this supreme example of renunciation."
(A T Robertson - Word Pictures)
In this lowly estate He humbled Himself. The Greek word translated
"humbled" is used in an early document, of the Nile River at its low
stage, in the sentence, "It runs low," a good description of the
humility of our Lord, who said of Himself, "I am meek and lowly of
heart." (Mt 11:28KJV) He became obedient, not to death, but obedient to the Father
up to the point of death, even the death of a cross.
In so doing our Lord gave us the perfect example of the self-emptied life, an example and challenge to
all those who would seek to follow in His steps (1Pe 2:21-note,
1Jn 2:6), seeking to be servants of the One Who came not to be ministered unto but to
minister, and to give His life a ransom for many (Mk 10:45)
McGee on Christ humbling Himself...
You and I have been humbled by
someone doing or saying something which has been humiliating to us.
But notice that Christ “humbled himself.” This is a most difficult
thing to do.
One of the finest things I ever heard about John Wesley was concerning
an incident when he was about to cross a brook over which was a very
narrow bridge, just wide enough for one person. As he was starting
over, he met a liberal preacher of that day. This preacher swelled up
and said, “I never give way to a fool.” John Wesley looked at him for
a moment, smiled, and began to back off, saying, “I always do.” My
friend, it is difficult to take that humble place, but it has made me
think a great deal more of John Wesley. We find it difficult to humble
ourselves, but our Lord humbled Himself.
Puritan divine Thomas Watson commenting on "God made Him who
had no sin—to be sin for us!" (2Corinthians 5:21-note)
This was the lowest degree of
Christ's humiliation. That Christ, who would not endure sin in the
angels, should endure to have sin imputed to Himself—is the most
amazing humility that ever was!
Christian! Learn to be
Do you see Christ humbling
Himself—and are you proud? It is the humble saint, who is Christ's
picture! Christians, do not be proud of your fine feathers! Have you
an estate? Do not be proud. The earth you tread on, is richer than
you! It has mines of gold and silver in its depths. Have you beauty?
Do not be proud. It is but water mingled with dirt! Have you skill and
abilities? Be humble. Lucifer has more knowledge than you! Have you
grace? Be humble. It is not of your own making—it was given to you by
God. You have more sin than grace; more spots than beauty. Oh look on
Christ—this rare pattern of humility—and be humbled! It is a sad
sight, to see God humbling Himself—and man exalting himself; to see a
humble Savior—and a proud sinner! God hates the very semblance of
pride! "I hate pride and arrogance!" Proverbs 8:13...
Be like Christ in grace and
HUMILITY. He was like us in having our flesh, let us be like him in
having his grace. We should labor to be like Christ, in humility. "He
humbled himself." He left the bright robes of his glory—to be clothed
with the rags of our humanity—a wonder of humility! Let us be like
Christ in this grace. "Humility," says Bernard, "is a despising of
self-excellence," a kind of a self-annihilation. This is the glory of
a Christian. We are never so lovely in God's eyes—as when we are black
in our own eyes. In this let us be like Christ. True true religion is
to imitate Christ. And indeed, what cause have we to be humble—if we
look within us, about us, below us, and above us!
If we look within us—here we see our sins represented to us in
the looking-glass of conscience; lust, envy, passion. Our sins are
like vermin crawling in our souls. "How many are my iniquities!" Job
13:23. Our sins are as the sands of the sea for number; as the rocks
of the sea for weight! Augustine cries out, "My heart, which is God's
temple—is polluted with sin!"
If we look about us—there is that which may humble us. We may
see other Christians outshining us in gifts and graces, as the sun
outshines the lesser planets. Others are laden with fruit—and perhaps
we have but here and there an olive-berry growing, to show that we are
of the right kind. Isa 17:6.
If we look below us—there is that may humble us. We may see the
mother earth, out of which we came. The earth is the most ignoble
element: "They were viler than the earth." Job 30:8. (From
Thomas Watson's superb work entitled
Body of Divinity - scroll down to point 6
"Christ's Humiliation in His Incarnation" and then "Use One: Of
Devotional - Jesus is the great teacher of lowliness of heart. We need
daily to learn of him. See the Master taking a towel and washing his
disciples' feet! Follower of Christ, wilt thou not humble thyself? See
him as the Servant of servants, and surely thou canst not be proud! Is
not this sentence the compendium of his biography, "He humbled
himself"? Was he not on earth always stripping off first one robe of
honour and then another, till, naked, he was fastened to the cross,
and there did he not empty out his inmost self, pouring out his
life-blood, giving up for all of us, till they laid him penniless in a
borrowed grave? How low was our dear Redeemer brought! How then can we
be proud? Stand at the foot of the cross, and count the purple drops
by which you have been cleansed; see the thorn-crown; mark his
scourged shoulders, still gushing with encrimsoned rills; see hands
and feet given up to the rough iron, and his whole self to mockery and
scorn; see the bitterness, and the pangs, and the throes of inward
grief, showing themselves in his outward frame; hear the thrilling
shriek, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" And if you do not
lie prostrate on the ground before that cross, you have never seen it:
if you are not humbled in the presence of Jesus, you do not know him.
You were so lost that nothing could save you but the sacrifice of
God's only begotten. Think of that, and as Jesus stooped for you, bow
yourself in lowliness at his feet. A sense of Christ's amazing love to
us has a greater tendency to humble us than even a consciousness of
our own guilt. May the Lord bring us in contemplation to Calvary, then
our position will no longer be that of the pompous man of pride, but
we shall take the humble place of one who loves much because much has
been forgiven him. Pride cannot live beneath the cross. Let us sit
there and learn our lesson, and then rise and carry it into practice.
OBEDIENT: genomenos (AMPMSN) hupekoos: (Jn 4:34; 15:10; Heb
10:7, 8, 9)
Paul is telling the Philippians that if they think they cannot humble
themselves to the will of one another, they need to ponder the
obedience of the Lord of glory who was willing to give up His rights
as their example of perfect selflessness. This is the attitude the
saints at Philippi were to manifest. It is the attitude every believer
is to manifest to assure unity in the body of Christ.
(ginomai) means to cause to be ("gen"-erate) and in this
context means that it came to be that Jesus experienced obedience to
the will of His Father.
is from hupo = under, frequently meant not simply to be beneath
but to be totally under the power, authority, control of something or
someone + akouo = hear and apprehend with the mind,
gives us our English word "acoustic") is an adjective which
means giving ear to, hearkening, attentively listening and thus
describes one who is obedient.
describes a person who obeys based on the fact that they have paid
attention to what was commanded or instructed. In other words, what
they heard did not just (as the saying goes) "go in one ear and out
the other!" We have all seen the child who, when
they are being instructed by their parents, responds by putting their
hands over their ears so as to not hear their parent's words! That is
a picture of not "giving ear to" (i.e., they are disobedient
- I'm sure this doesn't describe your child dear reader!).
Hupekoos also conveys the sense of subject or submissive to (another).
J I Packer
in the New Bible Dictionary writes that...
The idea of obedience which
this vocabulary suggests is of a hearing that takes place under the
authority or influence of the speaker, and that leads into compliance
with his requests. For obedience to be due to a person, he must: (a)
have a right to command, and (b) be able to make known his
requirements. Man’s duty to obey his Maker thus presupposes: (a)
God’s Lordship, and (b) His revelation. The OT habitually
describes obedience to God as obeying (hearing) either His voice
(accentuating [b]) or His commandments (assuming [b] and accentuating
[a]). Disobedience it describes as not hearing God’s voice when He
speaks (Ps. 81:11; Je 7:24,25,26-27,28)....
The disobedience of Adam,
the first representative man, and the perfect obedience of the
second, Jesus Christ, are decisive factors in the destiny of
everyone. Adam’s lapse from obedience plunged mankind into guilt,
condemnation and death (Ro 5:19; 1Cor 15:22). Christ’s unfailing
obedience ‘unto death’ (Phil. 2:8; cf. Heb. 10:5-10) won righteousness
(acceptance with God) and life (fellowship with God) for all who
believe on him (Ro 5:15-19). (New
Bible Dictionary I. Howard Marshall, A.R. Millard, J.I. Packer, D.J.
Logos) (Bolding added)
says "obedient" describes the attitude of being submissive to the
restraint or command of authority; i.e., willing to obey. The
obedient individual is submissive to the will, guidance or control
of another, implying compliance with the commands or instructions of
the one who is in authority, performing what is required, or
abstaining from what is forbidden. Words related to obedient =
acquiescent, compliant, sheeplike, submissive, yielding; duteous,
dutiful, loyal; law-abiding; obeisant, subservient. Words
contrasted with obedient = insubordinate, rebellious; contrary,
froward, perverse, wayward, willful; headstrong, intractable,
recalcitrant, refractory, uncontrollable, ungovernable, unruly.
Which group of synonyms best
describes your Christian walk?
Beloved, as Christ followers we are
called to "follow in His steps" (1Peter 2:21-note),
"to walk in the same manner as He walked." (1Jn 2:6), and it follows
that obedience to the guiding and leading of the Holy Spirit (Ezek
36:27, Ro 8:14-note,
should be our continual desire and practice (You
might consider praying
Ps 25:4,5, 143:10). This study of hupekoos begs the question -
Are you being obedient to
the will of your Father, surrendering your will to His Spirit's
leading and enabling power?
This is the "Jesus way", the way to
"walk in a manner worthy of the God who calls you into His own kingdom
and glory." (1Thes 2:12-note)
J C Ryle
exhorts us to make Jesus' example our chief standard of holy
If we would look rightly to
Jesus—we must look daily at His example, as our chief standard of holy
living. We must all feel, I suspect, and often feel—how hard it is to
live a Christian life, by mere rules and regulations. Scores of
circumstances will continually cross our path, in which we find it
difficult to see the line of duty, and we become perplexed. Prayer for
the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and attention to the practical part
of the Epistles, are, undoubtedly, primary resources. But surely it
would cut many a knot, and solve many a problem—if we would cultivate
the habit of studying the daily behavior of our Lord Jesus, as
recorded in the four Gospels, and strive to shape our own behavior by
This must have been what our Lord meant when He said, "I have given
you an example—that you should do as I have done to you." (John
13:15). And this is what Peter meant, when he wrote, "Leaving you an
example, so that you should follow in His steps." (1Peter 2:21). And
this is what John meant when he said, "The one who says he abides in
Him, should walk just as He walked." (1John 2:6).
Our "look" to Jesus is very imperfect—if we do not look at His
example, and strive to follow it. Let us cultivate the daily habit of
"looking to Christ as our pattern," as well as our salvation. We can
never look too steadily at Christ's death and intercession. But we may
easily look too little at the blessed steps of His most holy life. Let
all men see that we love to follow Him whom we profess to love. "How
would my Master have behaved in my position?" should be our constant
Looking Unto Jesus!) (See also
Fix Your Eyes On Jesus - 44 excellent
As A W Tozer
The secret of successful Christians
has been that they had a sweet madness for Jesus about them.
See study of
other words in this "family"...
- of believers
in Acts 6:7, Ro 6:12-note,
Ro 6:17-note, Php 2:12-note.
hupakoe - of Jesus in Heb 5:8-note
and believers in 1Pe 1:14-note,
The other two
uses of hupekoos in the NT...
Acts 7:39 "Our fathers were
unwilling to be obedient to him, but repudiated him and in
their hearts turned back to Egypt
Comment: The Israelites
under Moses refused to listen to and submit to the will of God given
through His servant Moses. In this passage notice that to not be
obedient is an issue of one's heart (their hearts turned back), which
is why God is always working in our lives to cause us to love Him with
our whole heart (cp Mk 12:30:, 2Chr 16:9)
2Corinthians 2:9 For to this end
also I wrote, so that I might put you to the test, whether you are
obedient in all things.
MacDonald explains this
passage: In writing the First Epistle to the Corinthians, Paul had put
the saints to the test. Here was an opportunity for them to show
whether they were obedient to the word of the Lord, as
ministered to them by the Apostle Paul. He had suggested at that time
that they should put the man out of the fellowship of the church. That
is exactly what they did, thus proving themselves to be truly
obedient. Now Paul would have them go one step further, that is,
to receive the man back.
W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson or
is found 5 times in the Septuagint - Deut 20:11; Josh 17:13; Pr 4:3;
Proverbs 13:1 (Brenton's English
translation of the Septuagint) A wise son is obedient (hupekoos)
to his father: but a disobedient (anekoos = not hearing and
thus disobedience) son will be destroyed.
Proverbs 21:28 A false witness will
perish, But the man who listens (hupekoos) to the
truth will speak forever.
As discussed obedient describes an attitude and willingness to
be submissive to the will of another and to comply with
the demands or requests of the one in authority (contrast Acts 7:39).
And here again we see the perfect example of Jesus who declared...
I always do the things that are
pleasing to Him (God the Father) (John 8:29)
foretold of Jesus' obedience to His Father when he wrote...
Sacrifice and meal offering Thou
hast not desired. My ears Thou hast opened. Burnt offering and sin
offering Thou hast not required.
Then I said, "Behold, I come; In the scroll of the book it is
written of me;
I delight to do Thy will, O my God; Thy Law is within my heart." (Psalm
40:6, 7, 8-note)
records the prophetic words of Jesus...
The Lord GOD has opened My ear; and
I was not disobedient, Nor did I turn back. I gave My back to those
who strike Me, and My cheeks to those who pluck out the beard; I did
not cover My face from humiliation and spitting. (Isa 50:5,6)
We see His
obedience in the Garden of Gethsemane as the sinless
Son anticipated the cup of suffering in which He took upon Himself all
the sins of mankind including the humanly unfathomable mystery of His temporary
separation from His Father (Mt 27:45, 46). Jesus naturally shrank from this
separation, but was obedient
and willingly submitted, Matthew recording...
And He went a little beyond them,
and fell on His face and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is
possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as Thou
wilt."... He went away again a second time and prayed, saying, "My
Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Thy will be done."
In fact Jesus
entire life purpose was to live in humble submission to the Father's
will, John recording Jesus' words to His disciples that...
My food is to do the will of Him
who sent Me, and to accomplish His work. (John 4:34, compare Jesus'
statement in Jn 17:4)
Paul speaks of Jesus'
perfect obedience, an obedience which took H im to the "nth"
degree, to death itself...
For as through the one man’s
disobedience (Adam) the many were made sinners (cp Ro 5:12), even so
through the obedience (hupakoe)
of the One (Jesus) the many will be made righteous. (Ro 5:19-note)
The writer of
Hebrews explains that...
Although He was a Son, He learned
obedience from the things which He suffered (What Jesus knew by
omniscience, He "learned" by experience - true obedience can only be
tested if it involved suffering). And having been made perfect (not as
God (for as God He was eternally perfect, by definition), but as man),
He became to all those who obey Him the source of eternal salvation (Hebrews
(Later the writer of Hebrews
records another affirmation of Christ's obedience to His Father) Then
He said, “BEHOLD, I HAVE COME TO DO THY WILL.” He takes away the first
(covenant) in order to establish the second (covenant = New Covenant).
Expositor's Greek Testament...
As obedient, He gave Himself wholly
up to His Father’s will. And the course of following that will led as
far as death itself, no ordinary death..., but a death of shame and
Muller writes that...
Obedience unto God and surrender
and submission to the will of God was maintained by Him unto the end,
and the profoundest degree of humiliation was reached in that His
death was not to be a natural or an honourable one, but was the
painful and accursed death of the cross (cf. Deut. 21:23; Gal. 3:13).
(The Epistles of Paul to the Philippians and to Philemon)
TO THE POINT
OF DEATH EVEN DEATH ON A CROSS: mechri thanatou thanatou de staurou: (Dt
21:23; Ps 22:16; Jn 10:18; 12:28, 29, 30, 32, 32; 14:31; Gal 3:13;
Titus 2:14; Heb 12:2; 1Pet 2:24; 3:18)
As we read these
words, it is good for us to remember that Jesus was perfectly obedient
to the point of death in our place, as our
The obedient death of Christ
is the very apex of the righteousness of Christ. Let’s not miss the
implications of this. At the Cross, Jesus paid the penalty we should
have paid, by enduring the wrath of God we should have endured. And
this required Him to do something unprecedented. It required Him to
provide the ultimate level of obedience—one that we’ll never be
asked to emulate. It required Him to give up his relationship with the
Father so that we could have one instead. The very thought of being
torn away from the Father caused Him to sweat great drops of blood
(Luke 22:44). And at the crescendo of His obedience, He screamed, “My
God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Mark 15:34). The physical
pain He endured was nothing compared to the agony of being separated
from the Father. In all of history, Jesus is the only Human Being Who
was truly righteous...
Just as God charged our sin to
Christ, so he credits the perfect obedience of Jesus to all who trust
in him. In what is often called the Great Exchange, God exchanges our
sin for Christ’s righteousness. As a result, all who have trusted in
Christ as Savior stand before God not with a clean-but-empty ledger,
but one filled with the very righteousness of Christ! (The
Bookends of the Christian Life- Jerry Bridges, Bob Bevington
- I highly recommend this
(thanatos from thnesko = to die) refers
physically to the separation of soul from the body (physical) death
and was a legal technical term for capital punishment. In the NT
thanatos is treated as a destroying power related to
sin and its consequences.
The act of voluntary humiliation did not stop with the Incarnation but
continued to the ignominious depths of death by crucifixion.
He became obedient unto death. But
this does not mean that He became obedient to death. He was always the
Master of death. He died as no other individual ever died or ever will
die. He died of His own volition. He dismissed His human spirit. The
word “unto” is the translation of a Greek word which means “up
to the point of.” Our Lord was obedient to the Father up to the point
of dying. He said, “Lo, I come to do thy will, O God” (Heb. 10:9).
He obeyed even when obedience
terminated in death. The point of this expression is this: One may
readily and cheerfully obey another where there is no particular
peril. But the case is different where obedience is attended with
danger. The child shows a spirit of true obedience when he yields to
the commands of a father, though it should expose him to hazard; the
servant who obeys his master, when obedience is attended with risk of
life; the soldier, when he is morally certain that to obey will be
followed by death. Thus many a company or platoon has been ordered
into the “deadly breach,” or directed to storm a redoubt, or to scale
a wall, or to face a cannon, when it was morally certain that death
would be the consequence. No profounder spirit of obedience can be
evinced than this. It should be said, however, that the obedience of
the soldier is in many cases scarcely voluntary, since, if he did not
obey, death would be the penalty. But in the case of the Redeemer, it
was wholly voluntary. He placed himself in the condition of a servant
to do the will of God, and then never shrank from what that condition
(stauros from histemi = to stand) was an an upright
stake, especially a pointed one. Thayer adds the stauros was a
well-known instrument of most cruel and ignominious punishment,
borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians; to it were
affixed among the Romans, down to the time of Constantine the Great,
the guiltiest criminals, particularly the basest slaves, robbers, the
authors and abetters of insurrections, and occasionally in the
provinces, at the arbitrary pleasure of the governors, upright and
peaceable men also, and even Roman citizens themselves. Stauros is
used somewhat in with a figurative (but still very real) supernatural
significance as the source of the the doctrine concerning the saving
power of the death on the cross endured by Christ (1Co 1:18 = where
"being saved" =
The cross as used figuratively to describes that which
was to be borne by those who, on behalf of God's cause, do not
hesitate cheerfully to bear persecutions, troubles, distresses thus
recalling and identifying with the rejection and fate of Christ while
on earth. (Mt 10:38, 16:24, Mk 8:34, 10:21, Lk 9:23, 14:27,
literally of Simon of Cyrene in Mk 15:21)
Stauros - 27x
in 27v -Mt 10:38; 16:24; 27:32, 40, 42; Mark 8:34; 15:21, 30, 32;
Luke 9:23; 14:27; 23:26; John 19:17, 19, 25, 31; 1Cor 1:17f; Gal
5:11; 6:12, 14; Eph 2:16; Phil 2:8; 3:18; Col 1:20; 2:14; Heb 12:2.
All uses are rendered "cross".
Crucifixion on a Cross was the
most despised death of all and was reserved for condemned criminals.
The cross was an instrument of most dreadful and agonizing torture.
This mode of punishment was known to the Persians (Ezra 6:11; Esther 7:10);
and the Carthaginians. However, it was most common among the Romans
for slaves and criminals, and was introduced among the Jews by the
Romans. It was not abolished until the time of Constantine who did so
out of regard for Christianity. Persons sentenced to be crucified were
first scourged and then made to bear their own cross to the place of
execution. A label or title was usually placed on the chest of or over
the criminal. Crucifixion was at once an execution, a pillory, and an
instrument of torture. When we read of the antagonism to the cross of
Christ, we must understand it as antagonism to a redemption which was
accomplished by the deepest humiliation, not by the display of power
Pentecost explains that the Cross was not a natural death but in
It was so unnatural a form of
death that the Old Testament law forbade it and placed a curse on
anyone who should die by this means. It was such an unnatural and
abhorrent death that the Romans outlawed it for all but the grossest
of criminals. This means of execution was forbidden any Roman citizen;
it was reserved for those the Romans called “barbarians,” that is,
non-Romans. The singular thing is that because Paul was a Roman
citizen, he was protected from the kind of death that the Lord Jesus
endured for sinners. But what Roman law protected Paul from, the Lord
Jesus Christ could not and did not escape. For He came as a creature
subject to the Creator. He came as a servant subject to a Master. He
submitted Himself in obedience to the will of His Master in death, a
death by crucifixion, in order to provide salvation for sinful men.
J. D. The Joy of Living: A study of Philippians. Kregel Publications)
COUNTING THE COST
OF A CHRIST FOLLOWER
Dr. J. H. Jowett has said,
“Ministry that costs nothing accomplishes nothing.” If there is to be
any blessing, there must be some “bleeding.” At a religious festival
in Brazil, a missionary was going from booth to booth, examining the
wares. He saw a sign above one booth: “Cheap Crosses.” He thought to
himself, “That’s what many Christians are looking for these days—cheap
crosses. My Lord’s cross was not cheap. Why should mine be?”
W: Bible Exposition Commentary - New Testament. 1989. Victor
Beloved, is it costing you anything
to be a Christ Follower?
If we are to have this attitude (Phil 2:5) what does it mean to us today?
We too must be willing (humility) to die to our old man's selfish
interests. Positionally this has occurred on the Cross, so that when
He died, we died (Ro 6:3-note,
Ro 6:4-note), but if we are truly His disciples
(Mk 8:34), He calls us to experience death to self daily as a "normal" part of our life
(Mk 8:34ff, 1Cor 15:31). How is this even possible? In Philippians
2:13 Paul explains
for it is God Who is at work (energeo
in you, both to will (present
= continually willing us) and to work (energeo
for His good pleasure. (See
more detailed discussion)
follower has the indwelling Spirit of Christ (Ro 8:9, 1Cor 3:16, 1Cor
6:19), and He is our sole Source of inner motivation, continually
giving us the "want to" so that we might even be
willing to consider dying daily to self. But notice not only does the
Spirit give us the supernatural desire but also the
supernatural power, for He continually is working in us,
"energizing" us and doing so in a way that brings glory, honor and
pleasure to our Father Who art in heaven.
called for death to self in the lives of those who would see to follow
after Him (Christ followers is another name for "disciples" - see
Greek word study =
mathetes) - Mt 16:25; Mk 8:35; Lk
9:24;17:33; Jn 12:24,25). The same truth is also stressed by Paul (Ro
Ro 12:2-note; 2Co 5:14,15; 6:9,10; Gal 2:20-note; Phil 2:5-11;
2Ti 2:11, 12-note).
Dying to self and living unto God is the very essence of a truly happy
and fulfilling life in this world and the one to come (cp the promise
in 1Ti 4:7, 8-note).
In his book "The
Epistle to the Philippians" F B Meyer summarizes Philippians 2:5-8
Majesty and Humility Combined.
In the whole range of Scripture this paragraph stands in almost
unapproachable and unexampled majesty. There is no passage where the
extremes of our Saviour's majesty and humility are brought into such
abrupt connection. Guided by the Spirit of God, the Apostle opens the
golden compasses of his imagination and faith, and places the one
point upon the supernal Throne of the eternal God, and the other upon
the Cross of shame where Jesus died, and he shows us the great steps
by which Jesus approached always nearer and nearer to human sin and
need; that, having embraced us in our low estate, He might carry us
back with Himself to the very bosom of God, and that by identifying
Himself with our sin and sorrow He might ultimately identify us with
the glory which He had with the Father before the world was. And this
wonderful description of His descent to our shame and sorrow is here
cited by the Apostle, that it might be a living impulse and
inspiration to ourselves, not to look upon our own things, not to hold
them with a tight grasp, but to be willing to stoop for others to
shame, sorrow, and spitting; fulfilling God's purpose of mercy to the
world, even as Jesus Christ, who became the instrument and organ
through which God's redemptive purpose wrought. "Let this mind be in
you." Think these thoughts. Never look exclusively upon your own
interests, never count anything of your own worthy to stand in the
way, but always be prepared to the last point to deny yourself, that
the redemptive purpose of God may flow through the channel of your
life to those that sorely need His blessed help. It is a wonderful
thing that, day by day, in our poor measure, we may repeat the purpose
and the work of Jesus Christ our Emmanuel. No rhetoric or metaphor of
ours can add to the splendour of these words, but in the simplest
possible way we will stand on these seven successive slabs of
on Him the
name which is
Therefore [because He stooped so low] God has highly exalted Him and
has freely bestowed on Him the name that is above every name,
Bible - Lockman)
And for that reason God exalted him, and granted to him the name which
is above every name (Westminster
Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which
is above every name:
as was his humility, so also was his exaltation. God raised him to a
preeminent height, and gave him a title and a dignity far above all
dignities and titles else.
Phillips: That is why God has now lifted him so high, and has given
him the name beyond all names, (Phillips:
Wuest: Because of which voluntary act of supreme self-renunciation, God also
super-eminently exalted Him to the highest rank and power, and
graciously bestowed upon Him THE NAME, the one which is above every
Young's Literal: wherefore, also, God did highly exalt him, and gave
to him a name that is above every name,
HIGHLY EXALTED HIM: dio kai o Theos auton huperupsosen (3SAAI):
(Ge 3:15; Ps 2:6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12; 8:5, 6, 7, 8; 91:14; 110:1,5; Isa 9:7; 49:6, 7, 8; 52:13;
53:12; Da 2:44,45; 7:14; Mt 11:27; 28:18; Lk 10:22; Jn 3:35,36; 5:22,
23, 24, 25, 26, 27; 13:3; 17:1, 2, 3,5; Acts 2:32, 33, 34, 35, 36;
5:31; Ro 14:9, 10, 11; 1Co 15:24, 25, 26, 27; Heb 2:9; 12:2; 2Pet
1:17; Rev 1:5; 3:21; 5:12; Rev 11:15; 19:16)
The psalmist foretells of Messiah's
Thy throne, O God, is forever
and ever. A scepter of uprightness is the scepter of Thy kingdom. Thou
hast loved righteousness, and hated wickedness. Therefore God, Thy
God, has anointed Thee
With the oil of joy above Thy fellows. (Ps 45:6,7-note)
In another psalm we see a prayer that speaks of His exalted Name...
May His Name endure forever.
May His Name increase as long as the sun shines. And let men bless
themselves by Him; Let all nations call Him blessed. Blessed be the
LORD God, the God of Israel, Who alone works wonders. and blessed be
His glorious Name forever; and may the whole earth be filled with His
glory. Amen, and Amen. (Ps 72:17, 18, 19-note)
It is, and ever will be, the acme of our desires, and the climax of
our prayers, to behold Jesus exalted King of kings and Lord of lords.
He has done great wonders such as none else can match, leaving all
others so far behind that He remains the sole Wonder-Worker; but equal
marvels yet remain, for which we look with joyful expectation.
The Messianic Psalm 110 pictures Jesus exaltation to King of kings...
(A Psalm of David.) The
LORD (God the Father) says to my (David's) Lord (Messiah): "Sit at My
right hand, until I make Thine enemies a footstool for Thy feet." (Ps
Isaiah records a prophecy of Jesus' exaltation...
Behold, My servant will
prosper, He will be high and lifted up, and greatly exalted. (Isaiah
Daniel records one of the most glorious descriptions of Messiah's
"And to Him was given
dominion, Glory and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and men
of every language Might serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting
dominion Which will not pass away; And His kingdom is one Which will
not be destroyed. (Daniel 7:14)
begins this section explaining that because of this voluntary act of
humility (Phil 2:6-8), God also highly exalted Him, giving Him not
only an exalted position, but also an exalted name.
The contrasts with the
previous section are striking...
Jesus humbled Himself.
God exalted Him.
Jesus sought not a Name for himself.
God gave Him the Name above all others.
Jesus bent His knee to serve others.
God decrees every knee shall bow to Him.
This section although steeped in profound theology remains eminently
practical for the saints at Philippi and for believers of all ages.
Paul is presenting the divine
paradox, foolish to the natural man, that the way up is down. That a
cross precedes a crown. That the road of exaltation by the Father is
paved by humble service to others for the Father's glory.
put it this way...
yourselves in the presence of the Lord, and He will exalt you. (James
Peter concurs writing...
yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt
you at the proper time (1Pe 5:6-note)
He stooped, who can tell how low?
He was raised, who shall tell how high? “Wherefore God also hath
highly exalted him.”
He threw away his name; he emptied
himself of his reputation. How high is his reputation now! How
glorious is the name that God hath given him as the reward of his
(huperupsoo from huper = above or high + hupsoo = to elevate) means to exalt to the
highest rank and power, to raise to supreme majesty and refers
to a super-eminent exaltation. The idea is to regard a person as being
exceptionally honored in view of high status—‘to give exceptional
explains that the verb exalted...
is in the
aorist (or point)
tense and refers to the
definite act in the past in His resurrection followed by His
ascension, viewed as one great historical event. (Vine,
W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
A T Robertson
discussing the phrase "God highly exalted Him" writes that...
Because of Christ’s voluntary
humiliation God lifted Him above or beyond (huper) the state of glory
which He enjoyed before the Incarnation. What glory did Christ have
after the Ascension that He did not have before in heaven? What did He
take back to heaven that He did not bring? Clearly His humanity. He
returned to heaven the Son of Man as well as the Son of God. (Greek
Kennedy laments that the term Lord
has become one of the most lifeless in the Christian vocabulary,
whereas it really declares the true character and dignity of Jesus
Christ and “is the basis and the object of worship.”
Robertson's observation so significant? It means that Jesus Christ
still bears the scars of His crucifixion in His hands, side and feet,
scars which will eternally testify to the New Covenant which He cut
with all those who have placed their faith in Him. His covenant scars
bear evidence that once genuinely saved, always saved, for once a
sinner has entered covenant with Jesus, He will never break that
covenant. This picture of the exalted God-Man retaining the scars of
Calvary should comfort all believers regarding the absolute eternal
security of their salvation.
prophesied of Jesus' exaltation writing...
"I (God the Father) also shall make
Him (Messiah) My first-born, the highest of the kings of the earth.
AND BESTOWED ON HIM
THE NAME WHICH IS ABOVE EVERY NAME:kai echarisato auto (3SAMI) to
onoma to huper pan onoma: (Ps 89:27; Eph 1:20, 21, 22, 23; Col
1:18; Heb 1:4; 1Pet 3:22)
Paul wrote of Jesus that...
is also head of the body, the
church; and He is the beginning, the first-born from the dead ( the
first one to rise from the dead with a resurrection body); so that
He Himself might come to have first place (to be above all else) in everything. (Col
The writer of Hebrews explains that after Jesus
had made purification of sins , He
sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high (Christ seated
indicates the finished character of His once-for-all sacrifice for
sin); 4 having become as much better than the angels, as He has
inherited a more excellent name than they. (see notes
[word study] is from
grace, unmerited favor)
has the basic meaning of to give, and to do so freely and generously.
To grant as a favor. To give gratuitously, generously, graciously and
in kindness. It means to bestow as a gift of grace or out of grace,
and to do so willingly and not under coercion. To give help to those
who don't deserve it. To show grace by providing undeserved help to
someone unworthy (see Eph 4:32)
Vine adds charizomai
to bestow a favor
unconditionally...then to remit a debt, and hence to
forgive...Charizomai primarily denotes to show a favor (charis)...In
each case the idea of a free, unconditioned act is involved, and in
all save one or two cases this is the dominant thought, cp. Acts
27:24; Philemon 22 (Vine,
W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
Charizomai - 23x in 19v -
Luke 7:21, 42, 43; Acts 3:14; 25:11, 16; 27:24; Ro 8:32; 1Cor 2:12;
2Cor 2:7, 10; 12:13; Gal 3:18; Eph 4:32; Phil 1:29; 2:9; Col 2:13;
3:13; Philemon 1:22. NAS = bestowed(1), forgave(2), forgive(3),
forgiven(4), forgiving(2), freely give(1), given(1),graciously
forgave(1), granted(5), hand(2), things freely given(1).
Paul used this same verb
charizomai earlier to
explain to the Philippians that...
to you it has been
granted (charizomai = a gift of grace!!!) for Christ's sake, not
only to believe in Him, but also to suffer (Do
you accept suffering as a "gift" beloved? We can only accept it in
this way when we understand that it has a holy even eternal purpose in
the hand of our sovereign God [E.g. conformation to the image of God's
Son Who suffered more than any of us will ever suffer -
and is not simply a
random event) for His sake (Php
"The word “given” is the translation of the Greek word used when God
in grace freely gives salvation to the believing sinner. It is so used
in Ro 8:32 ("He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up
for us all, how will He not also with Him freely give
[charizomai] us all things?"
Ro 8:32). It was an act of grace on the part of God the Father toward
the incarnate Son who had voluntarily assumed a subordinate position
so as to function as the Sin-bearer on the Cross."
(onoma) is that by which one is known. For more insight into
the Hebrew meaning of the Names of God see study
Name of the LORD is a Strong Tower.
Paul is not referring here to the physical name as we think of it
today but is using "name" as it was used in Scripture to represent the
total person. In this sense, the Bible uses one's "name" to speak of
the total person, as well as of the office, the rank, and the dignity
attached to the person because of his position. Today we use a name
as little more than a distinguishing mark or label to differentiate
one person from other people. But in the world of the NT the name
concisely sums up all that a person is. One's whole character was
somehow implied in the name. In this passage "name"
speaks not only of the total Person of Christ but also speaks to His
title which supersedes forever every title every given to anyone.
In short, the Name of the Lord is
what He is, it is Himself.
How this truth about "the Name" of
Jesus contrasts with the many "names" by which He was ridiculed and
mocked during the days of His flesh (and is still mocked by the
unbelieving world), names like "a friend of sinners", "blasphemer",
One Who has "lost His senses", etc. Jesus did not live to make His
name great in this world, and yet God made His Name the one that is
supremely exalted forever in the world to come.
Am I living to make a name for
myself on this earth or to lead others to the Name above all names?
Pentecost adds that...
An exalted name indicates that one
is worthy of adoration and praise. In the Old Testament, men praised
and blessed and feared the name of God because the name represented
the whole person of the God who had revealed Himself to them. Now God
has elevated Jesus Christ to a position of authority over the earth
and over heaven and over the expanse of the universe and has attached
to Him all dignity and honor and glory and dominion and majesty so
that men must bow before Him.
J. D. The Joy of Living: A study of Philippians. Kregel Publications)
Wuest adds that...
which was graciously bestowed was not “a name,” but “the
definite article ("to" = the) appears in the Greek text and refers to a particular
name. The title, The Name,
is a very common Hebrew title, denoting office, rank, dignity. The
expression, “The Name of God” in the Old Testament, denotes the divine
Presence, the divine Majesty, especially as the object of adoration
and praise. The context here dwells upon the honor and worship
bestowed on Him upon whom this name was conferred. The conferring of
this title “The Name,” was upon the Lord Jesus as the Son of Man. A
Man, the Man Christ Jesus, who as Very God had voluntarily laid aside
His expression of the glory of Deity during His incarnation, now has
placed upon His shoulders all the majesty, dignity, and glory of Deity
itself. It is the God-Man Who stooped to the depths of humiliation,
Who is raised, not as God now, although He was all that, but as Man,
to the infinite height of exaltation possessed only by Deity. It is
the answer of our Lord’s prayer
“And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory
which I had with thee before the world was” (John 17:5).
It is the glory of Deity, not now seen shining in infinite splendor as
in His pre-incarnate state, but that glory shining in perfect contrast
to and with His glorified humanity raised now to a place of equal
dignity with Deity. It is the ideal and beautiful combination of the
exaltation of Deity and the humility of Deity seen in incarnate
WHAT'S IN A NAME? - What's
in a name? Plenty, according to Justin Kaplan and Anne Bernays,
authors of the book The Language of Names. "Names penetrate the core
of our being."
In the section of their book where they discuss literary names, Kaplan
and Bernays point out that English novelist Charles Dickens was a
great master at naming his characters. Seth Pecksniff, Wilkins
Micawber, Tiny Tim, Sir Mulberry Hawk, and Thomas Gradgrind are just a
few examples of characters whose names reflect who they are.
For Christians, the name above all other names is Jesus. The angelic
messenger announced, "You shall call His name Jesus, for He will save
His people from their sins" (Mt. 1:21). Jesus' name has become the
most exalted and meaningful name on earth and in heaven.
What's in that name? All the grace of God, all the wonder of
redemption, all that we believe, and all that we are hoping for. We
say it, we sing it, and adoration fills our souls. We anticipate the
indescribable glory of that day when every knee will bow and every
tongue, by glad choice or by divine constraint, will praise that
highest and holiest of all names--Jesus! — Vernon C. Grounds
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by
permission. All rights reserved)
The name of Jesus is so sweet,
I love its music to repeat,
It makes my joy full and complete,
The precious name of Jesus. --Martin
The name of Jesus is profanity to the sinner
but heaven's password to the saint.
THE NAME - Jesus! No other
name draws people together so closely, while at the same time evoking
hatred in others.
In 1999, a political candidate answered a question about who had the
greatest effect on his life by saying, "Jesus Christ. He changed my
heart." This person's honest answer was met with disdain from people
who detest the name of Jesus.
On the other hand, people all over the world who love Christ meet
every week to honor and praise Jesus' name. To them, His name means
love, joy, peace, hope, and forgiveness.
What is it about this name that divides people so clearly? Why do some
treat the name of Jesus with contempt while others hold it in highest
esteem? I think the reason some people can't stand Jesus' name is that
they don't want to be reminded of their sins. Jesus is "the way, the
truth, and the life" (John 14:6), the One who saves us from our sins
(Matthew 1:21). People who refuse to ask for forgiveness from sin
cannot love the name of Jesus. Yet His name "is above every name," and
one day "every tongue [will] confess that Jesus Christ is Lord"
Jesus! Do you love that name? Praise God for that holy name—and tell
others what Jesus has done for you. — Dave Branon
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by
permission. All rights reserved)
Jesus—O how sweet the name,
Jesus—every day the same;
Jesus—let all saints proclaim
Its worthy praise forever. —Martin
We honor God's name when we call Him our Father
and live like His Son.
(huper) conveys the basic meaning of "over" meaning a degree
which is beyond that of a compared scale of extent. Huper is a
marker of status which is superior to another status.
foretold of this exaltation writing...
"But as for Me, I have installed My
King Upon Zion, My holy mountain."
7 "I will surely tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to Me, 'Thou
art My Son, Today I have begotten Thee.
8 'Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Thine inheritance,
And the very ends of the earth as Thy possession.
9 'Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron, Thou shalt shatter them
like earthenware.'" (Psalm 2:6-9)
Jesus exaltation after His
resurrection was the basis for His declaration to His disciples
"All authority has been given to Me
in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the
Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and
lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." (Mt 28:18-20)
><> ><> ><>
Door Of Humility -- Over the
centuries, the entrance to Bethlehem's Church of the Nativity has
twice been made smaller. The purpose in the last case was to keep
marauders from entering the basilica on horseback. It's now referred
to as the "Door of Humility," because visitors must bend down to
As we age, bending our knees becomes more and more difficult and
painful. In the physical realm, some people courageously undergo knee
replacement surgery. To avoid years of increasingly painful joint
damage, they endure several weeks of agony.
Like physical knees, spiritual knees can grow stiff over time. Years
of stubborn pride and selfishness make us inflexible, and it becomes
increasingly difficult and painful for us to humble ourselves. Seduced
by false feelings of importance when others submit to us, we never
learn that true importance comes from submitting ourselves to God and
to others (Ephesians 5:21; 1Peter 5:5).
As we celebrate Jesus' birth, it's good to remember the Door of
Humility, for it reminds us that we all need new knees-knees that will
bend. Humbly is the only way to enter the presence of God.
What better way to honor the One who bent so low to be with us. —Julie
Ackerman Link (Our
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted
by permission. All rights reserved)
Christ's humble birth should help
What life in Him can bring;
It's not acclaim that we should seek
But service for our King. -Branon
The road to victory is paved with humble submission to God
so that at the
of those who are in
heaven and on
That in (at) the name of Jesus every knee hould (must) bow, in heaven
and on earth and under the earth
Bible - Lockman)Barclay:
in order that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in
heaven, and things upon the earth, and things below the earth
That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven,
and things in earth, and things under the earth;
to the name and majesty of Jesus all created things in heaven and
earth and hell shall pay homage on bended knee;
that at the name of Jesus "every knee shall bow", whether in Heaven or
earth or under the earth. (Phillips:
order that in recognition of THE NAME belonging to Jesus, every knee
should bow, of things in heaven, of things on earth, and of things
under the earth, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: that in the name of Jesus every knee may bow -- of
heavenlies, and earthlies, and what are under the earth--
SO THAT AT THE
NAME OF JESUS EVERY KNEE SHOULD BOW: hina en to onomati Iesou
pan gonu kampsei (3SAAS): (Ge 41:43; Isa 45:23-25; Mt 27:29;
28:18; Ro 11:4; 14:10,11; Eph 3:14; Heb 1:6; Rev 4:10; 5:13,14)
Greek reads not "at the Name" but "in the Name of Jesus"
In a manner of
speaking the tongue confesses that to which the knee bows.
So that (2443)
(hina) expresses purpose, specifically the purpose of His
having been given the exalted Name "Lord". For that reason (for that
purpose) "every knee will bow". Ultimately, whether by choice
or by force, every creature, human and angelic, will submit to Jesus
Christ as the divine and exalted Lord.
Those who will not be reconciled in
the day of His grace will be subjugated in the day of His judgment. (MacDonald,
W., & Farstad,
Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson)
Himself foretold of this event some 700 years prior in the book of
Isaiah (from which Paul quotes in part) declaring...
"I have sworn by Myself, the word
has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness and will not turn back,
that to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance.
They will say of Me, 'Only in the LORD are righteousness and
strength.' Men will come to Him, and all who were angry at Him shall
be put to shame. In the LORD all the offspring of Israel will be
justified, and will glory." (Isaiah 45:23, 24, 25)
alludes to this event in Romans writing...
But you, why do you judge your
brother? Or you again, why do you regard your brother with contempt?
For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of God. For it is
written, "AS I LIVE, SAYS THE LORD, EVERY KNEE SHALL BOW TO ME, AND
EVERY TONGUE SHALL GIVE PRAISE TO GOD." (Ro 14:10, 11-note)
(pas) means all without exception.
Even those who
mockingly bowed on earth will be forced to bow their knees. Matthew
describes those who mocked him writing...
And after weaving a crown of
thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand; and
they kneeled down before Him and mocked Him, saying, "Hail, King of
the Jews!" (Mt 27:29)
The writer of
And when He again brings the
first-born into the world (referring to His Second Coming), He says,
"AND LET ALL THE ANGELS OF GOD WORSHIP HIM." (He 1:6-note)
Comment: the authority
of the person of Jesus Christ extends to the limits of heaven and
earth and under the earth so that all of the angelic hosts will bow to
acknowledge the superiority and sovereignty and authority of His name
wrote that in heaven...
the twenty-four elders will fall
down before Him (Jesus) Who sits on the throne, and will worship Him
who lives forever and ever, and will cast their crowns before the
throne, saying, "Worthy art Thou, our Lord and our God, to receive
glory and honor and power; for Thou didst create all things, and
because of Thy will they existed, and were created." (Rev 4:10-note,
And every created thing which is in
heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all
things in them, I heard saying, " To Him who sits on the throne, and
to the Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and
ever. And the four living creatures kept saying, "Amen." And the
elders fell down and worshiped. (Rev 5:13-note,
will render such homage, whether animate or inanimate, whether in
heaven, on earth, or under the earth. Those who do not willingly bow
the knee to Him now will one day be compelled to do so. Those who will
not be reconciled in the day of His grace will be subjugated in the
day of His judgment.
(kampto) means to bend, such as the knees, to which it is
applied in the New Testament. Bowing the knee is an act of reverence,
respect, and submission to the person in whose presence we drop to our
Again we see the vindication of
servanthood. Christ was willing to make others more important than
Himself and now God has made Christ eternally more important than
anyone else (Philippians)
It is interesting to note
that when a ruling dignitary approaches his subjects, they all rise in
respect. One day as a British king entered a room and everyone stood,
“Please take your seats,
gentlemen. I’m not the Lord, you know.”
“No, Your Highness,” replied
one of the group. “If you were, we would have dropped to our knees.”
Paul is not
referring to a perfunctory genuflection whenever the
Name of Jesus is mentioned, but a universal acknowledgment of the
majesty and power of Jesus who carried His human name and nature to
John upon seeing
the resurrected, glorified Christ wrote...
And when I saw Him, I fell at His
feet as a dead man. And He laid His right hand upon me, saying, "Do
not be afraid; I am the first and the last and the living One; and I
was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of
death and of Hades. (Rev 1:17-18).
Those to whom
the resurrected, glorified Christ appeared fell on their faces, not
because Scripture commanded them to, not because they were told that
was what they ought to do, but because that was the natural response
to such a revelation of the majesty and glory that belong to the Son
applies this truth to all believers asking...
As Jesus Christ is lifted up and
His glory is displayed, why do you sit? Why aren’t you on your knees
to give honor, glory, dominion, and majesty to the One whom God has
chosen to exalt as heir to a position, and to clothe with the glory
and majesty of His person, the One before whom every knee must bow and
every tongue confess that He is Lord to the glory of the Father?
“Whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall
humble himself shall be exalted” (Matt. 23:12). (Ibid)
homage to Jesus is described by Paul in Ephesians where he explains
the power available to believers today is the same power...
which He brought about in Christ,
when He raised Him from the dead, and seated Him at His right hand in
the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and
dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age, but also
in the one to come. And He put all things in subjection under His
feet, and gave Him as head over all things to the church (Eph 1:20,
As someone has well said...
The name of "Jesus" is profanity to the sinner but heaven's password
to the saint.
Now is he higher than the highest.
Now every one must confess his divinity. With shame and terror, his
adversaries shall bow before him; with delight and humble adoration,
his friends shall own him Lord of all: “that every tongue should
confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”
See how the greatest glory of Christ is the glory of the Father. He
never desired any other glory but that. The highest honor you can ever
have, O child of God, is to bring honor to your Father who is in
heaven. Do you not think so? I know you do.
Some foolish and superstitious
persons make this passage a pretext for bowing their heads at the name
of Jesus whenever it is mentioned. Nothing can be more senseless,
because the passage means no such thing.
What we are taught here is the
great truth that Jesus Christ, though once he stooped to the lowest
shame, is now exalted to the very highest glory, and even the devils
in hell are compelled to own the might of his power. We are also to
learn from this passage that the way to ascend is to descend. He who
would be chief must be willing to be the servant of all. The King of
kings was the Servant of servants; and if you would be crowned with
honor by-and-by, you must be willing to be despised and rejected of
men now. The Lord give us this gracious humbleness of mind, for Jesus
Christ’s sake! Amen.
OF THOSE WHO
ARE IN HEAVEN AND ON EARTH AND UNDER THE EARTH: epouranion kai
epigeion kai katachthonion: (Mt 12:40; Jn 5:28,29; Eph 4:9; Rev
There are three
(1) In heaven
(epouranios from epí = upon, in + ouranos =
heaven) = all the good angels and redeemed believers of all
On earth (1919)
(epígeios from epí = upon + ge = earth) = would
include both unredeemed and redeemed, the latter group described by
Paul who wrote...
when He comes to be glorified in
His saints on that day, and to be marveled at among all who have
believed-- for our testimony to you was believed. (2Th 1:10)
(3) Under the earth =
the fallen angels and unredeemed dead who are awaiting final judgment
and eternal punishment.
(2709) (katachthonios from
kata = down + chthon = ground from a root
word signifying that which is deep) describes the subterranean
place for departed souls. It was a common in secular Greek describing
the underworld where divine beings were thought to be localized.
Wuest adds that...
All creation will render such
homage, whether animate or inanimate, whether in heaven, on earth, or
under the earth.
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Studies in
the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament: Grand Rapids: Eerdmans)
Indeed First Chronicles
records this amazing truth...
Let the sea roar, and all it
contains. Let the field exult, and all that is in it. Then the trees
of the forest will sing for joy before the LORD for He is coming to
judge the earth. (1Chronicles 16:32, 33)
Comment: See also Psalm
148:3-10 where creation is personified as presenting homage to the
Pentecost writes that...
Here is an amazing revelation that,
because of the exaltation of Jesus Christ, even the fallen, unredeemed
angels, and unredeemed, sinful men, who are under eternal
condemnation, will have to bow before the display of the majesty of
the Son of God and acknowledge that the One they despised and rejected
is in truth the exalted Son of God. While in their state of separation
and condemnation they cannot believe to the salvation of their souls,
throughout the unending ages of eternity, even hell itself will
confess that Jesus Christ is Lord and acknowledge that the despised
and rejected One whom they delighted to put to the cross was in truth
the absolute Sovereign of the universe. And God will not leave one
single created intelligent being who does not admit to the superior
worth of Jesus Christ. Things in heaven, things in earth, and things
under the earth will bow the knee in reverence and respect and awe at
the majesty of the exalted person of Jesus Christ. (Ibid)
><> ><> ><>
TURNING THE TABLES - GOD has
a way of turning the tables on evil. The French philosopher Voltaire
predicted that Christianity would be swept from existence within one
hundred years. Yet just fifty years after he died in 1779, the German
Bible Society had occupied Voltaire's house and was using his
printing press to produce stacks of Bibles.
During World War II, Adolf Hitler erected a massive stone structure in
Monte Carlo. It was to be a radio station from which to broadcast Nazi
propaganda into North Africa. Today, from that very building, Trans
World Radio beams the Gospel of Christ's redeeming love all across
Europe and into Russia and Africa.
Could these ironies of history be just a hint of the last word Christ
will have at the end of this age? The apostle Paul wrote of a day when
every knee shall bow and every tongue confess that "Jesus Christ is
Lord, to the glory of God the Father" (Philippians 2:11).
When evil prospers and falsehood seems to triumph over truth, we need
not be discouraged. When we are treated unjustly, we need not despair.
The ironies of history and Paul's words in Philippians 2:1-11 assure
us that the God we serve will have the final word. The righteous will
one day be vindicated.—D J De Haan (Our
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted
by permission. All rights reserved)
><> ><> ><>
It's All For Him - All
things were created through Him and for Him. —Colossians 1:16 (note) It's a
little phrase of just two
words at the end of Colossians 1:16—"for Him." Yet that little phrase
gives God's own interpretation of history. In those two words He
affirms that Jesus is the final and complete explanation of
All that has happened and ever will happen is moving through time
toward that climactic hour when every tongue will confess the lordship
of Jesus Christ. Every knee, whether in grateful adoration or under
compulsion, will then bow to Him (Philippians 2:10, 11).
British historian H.A.L. Fisher apparently did not share that view. He
sadly confessed, "Men wiser and more learned than I have discovered in
history a plot, a rhythm, a predetermined pattern. These harmonies are
concealed from me. I can see only one emergency following upon another
as wave follows upon wave . . . nothing but the play of the contingent
and the unforeseeable."
What about you? Are you overwhelmed by what seems to be the aimless
sequence of events? If so, look once more at Jesus—His life, death,
resurrection, and promised return. Your troubled heart will be filled
with hope and confidence as you realize that there's meaning and
purpose for everything in the world—when you live "for Him." —Vernon C
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted
by permission. All rights reserved)
One life to live for Christ my
One life to do my part,
One life in which to give my all
With fervency of heart. —Brandt
Christ showed His love by dying for us;
our love by living for Him.
Philippians 2:11 and that
Lord, to the
glossa exomologesetai (3SAMS)
And every tongue [frankly and openly] confess and acknowledge that
Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father
Bible - Lockman)
and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the
glory of God the Father. (Westminster
And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the
glory of God the Father.
and every tongue with praise and thanksgiving shall declare that Jesus
Christ is Lord, and in and for him shall glorify God the Father
Phillips: And that is why, in the end, "every tongue shall confess"
that Jesus Christ" is the Lord, to the glory of God the Father (Phillips:
Wuest: and in order that every tongue should plainly and openly
declare that Jesus Christ is LORD, resulting in the glory of God the
Young's Literal: and every tongue may confess that Jesus Christ is
Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
EVERY TONGUE SHOULD CONFESS: kai pasa glossa exomologesetai (3SAMS): (Ps
18:49; Mt 10:32; Jn 9:22; 12:42; Ro 10:9; 15:9; 1John 4:2,15; 2John
1:7; Rev 3:5)
the second phase of Jesus' dominion over all creation. Not only will
all men realize Christ's Lordship but they also will vocalize it. Even
the tongues which have vilified and blasphemed the wonderful Name of
Jesus will one day bless Him, by faith or force and this will result
in further glory unto God the Father. Amen.
(pas) means all without exception!
(glossa) is literally the tongue but as used in this context
represents a spoken language. Paul's point is clear. No matter what
language a person speaks now, every language will declare Jesus’
(exomologeo is from ek = out, out from +
homologeo in turn derived from lego “to
speak” + homos “the same” and so literally meaning to speak
same thing that another speaks” or to agree with someone else) means
to acknowledge, admit openly, agree fully, recognize or to express
agreement with. Exomologeo means also to publicly declare. The
sense here is that of frank, open confession.
Some day, the
entire universe (including Satan) will publicly declare and openly
acknowledge Jesus as Lord, agreeing with God the Father regarding the
testimony which He has given concerning His Son.
It is important
to note that this passage does not teach that ultimately all the lost
will be saved, as taught by many cults. There is no passage in
Scripture that teaches future reconciliation for the lost.
entire creation will one day confess Jesus as "Lord", only those who
do so during their life will be saved by that confession, Paul writing
that if you confess with
your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God
raised Him from the dead, you shall be saved; for with the heart man
believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses,
resulting in salvation. (Romans 10:9-10)
The writer of
Hebrews explains that when Christ returns the Second time it will not
be for salvation writing that...
Christ also, having been offered
once to bear the sins of many (His First Coming), shall appear a
second time for salvation without reference to sin, to those who
eagerly await Him (Hebrews 9:28) (Comment: when Christ returns
as "King of kings and Lord of lords" as John describes in Rev 19:16,
it is not to take away sins but to rule and reign with those who
confessed Him as Lord during their life and are longing expectantly to
CHRIST IS LORD TO THE GLORY OF GOD THE FATHER: hoti kurio Iesous Christos
eis doxan Theou patros: (Ps
110:1; Jer 23:6; Lk 2:11; Jn 13:13; 20:28; Acts 2:36; 10:36; Ro 10:9,
10, 11, 12; 14:9,11; 1Co 8:6; 12:3; 15:47) (Jn 5:23; 13:31,32;
14:13,23; 16:14,15; 17:1; 1Pet 1:21)
The Lordship of Christ is the core of Christianity and the ultimate
purpose of all creation acknowledging Jesus Christ as Lord is that God
the Father might be glorified.
(2962) (kurios) describes one who has absolute ownership and
uncontrolled power and is the translation of a word found in the Greek
translation of the Old Testament to translate Jehovah. Lord
is the title of majesty, authority, honor, and sovereignty. At His
Second Coming Jesus Christ will manifest sovereign authority over all
Wiersbe ties this profound doctrinal teaching in Philippians
2:9-11 with the idea that Paul is trying to teach the saints at
Philippi about the futility of disunity and discord writing...
The kind of rivalry that pits
Christian against Christian and ministry against ministry is not
spiritual, nor is it satisfying. It is vain, empty. Jesus humbled
Himself for others, and God highly exalted Him; and the result of this
exaltation is glory to God. (Wiersbe,
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor)
A T Robertson discussing the name "Lord" writes that...
Kennedy laments that the term
Lord has become one of the most lifeless in the Christian
vocabulary, whereas it really declares the true character and dignity
of Jesus Christ and “is the basis and the object of worship.” (Greek
adore Christ as your Savior, you won't ignore Him as your Lord.
Savior And King)
In his sermon on Pentecost Peter declared...
"Therefore let all the house of
Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and
Christ-- this Jesus whom you crucified." (Acts 2:36)
Thomas who at first doubted Jesus'
resurrection, was compelled to confess Him as Lord when
presented with the clear proof of His deity...
The other disciples therefore were
saying to him, "We have seen the Lord!" But he said to them, "Unless I
shall see in His hands the imprint of the nails, and put my finger
into the place of the nails, and put my hand into His side, I will not
believe." And after eight days again His disciples were inside, and
Thomas with them. Jesus came, the doors having been shut, and stood in
their midst, and said, "Peace be with you."
Then He said to Thomas, "Reach here
your finger, and see My hands; and reach here your hand, and put it
into My side; and be not unbelieving, but believing."
Thomas answered and said to
Him, "My Lord and my God!"
Jesus said to him, "Because you
have seen Me, have you believed? Blessed are they who did not see, and
Many other signs therefore Jesus
also performed in the presence of the disciples, which are not written
in this book; but these have been written that you may believe that
Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have
life in His name. (John 20:24-31)
Thomas Constable writes
The exaltation of Jesus Christ is
as much a motivation for the Christian to live a life of submissive
humility as is His incarnation. God will reward a life of self-denial
now in the future. That is the obvious implication of Paul’s
illustration. Is it not selfish to serve the Lord for a reward? Was it
selfish for Jesus to endure what He did because He knew He would
receive a reward? Motivation is the key. If we submit to God and to
one another for the glory of God rather than for selfish glory, as
Jesus did, our motivation is correct. (Tom
Constable's Expository Notes on the Bible)
William MacDonald puts this
section into the context of the letter noting that...
Before leaving this magnificent
passage on the Person and work of the Lord Jesus, we should repeat
that it was introduced in connection with a minor problem in the
church at Philippi. Paul did not set out to write a treatise on the
Lord. Rather, he was merely seeking to correct selfishness and party
spirit in the saints. The cure of their condition is the mind of
F B Meyer...
THE NAME OF NAMES
Phil. 2:9, 10,11
A Name Above Every Name.
This is the other side of the subject we last considered. Then, we
contemplated the descent; now, the ascent: the one, His humiliation;
the other, the glory to which God hath exalted Him. We ought to put
this passage alongside of Eph. 1:15-23, where the Apostle asserts that
God displayed in the person of Jesus His mightiest power, when He
raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right hand, far above
all principality and power, might, and dominion, and every name that
is named, not only in this world, but in that which is to come. Indeed
all through the New Testament the Father's agency in the exaltation of
His Son is distinctly accentuated; and we are constantly reminded of
the contrast between the action of men, who with wicked hands
crucified and slew Him, and the action of God, who raised Him from the
There are two interpretations,
which are suggested by the Authorised and Revised Versions. We are
told in the R.V. that God highly exalted Him, and gave Him the name
which is above every name--the emphasis on the definite the; and if we
should accept this rendering, it would convey the meaning that the
infinite God gave to Jesus, His perfected Servant, His own
incommunicable name of Jehovah. The name which is above every name is
manifestly the name of Jehovah, which the Jews held to be so sacred
that they never mentioned it, never even wrote it. It is important for
us to realise that in Jesus Christ there blend at this moment the
perfected beauty of the Man and the excelling glory of Jehovah--the
glory which He had with the Father before the world was made. That is
so deep and blessed a truth that we may be quite prepared to admit it
is included in the meaning here, for our Saviour is God.
But after looking carefully into
the matter from every point of view, it seems better to come back to
the conclusion suggested by the Authorised Version--that the name of
Jesus, which was given to Him in His birth, has been recognised as the
highest type of being in the whole universe, and that this name, or
more especially the nature for which the name stands, is the loftiest
and supreme type of character, which is highly exalted above all other
characters and types of being.
The Name of Jesus. His is
the conquering name; the name which shall become victorious; the name
which is destined to supremacy--the name of Jesus. It was given to Him
first by the angel Gabriel, when in his annunciation to the mother he
said, "Thou shalt conceive and bring forth a son, and shalt call his
name Jesus." And when Joseph was considering whether or not he should
put away Mary, then espoused to him but not yet married, the angel of
God, in a dream, told him to take to himself Mary his wife, because
she would bear a son, to whom they must give the name Jesus. This name
of Jesus was borne by our Lord throughout His earthly life, and often
used by His apostles after His ascension, as the spell and talisman of
victory, when they wrought miracles in His name. It is repeatedly
referred to in the Epistles, and especially in that to the Hebrews,
and evidently stands for the highest type of being. In the whole realm
of existence this is the name which is above every name, that at the
name of Jesus, the Saviour, every knee should bow in heaven, in earth,
and in Hades.
HERE IS INSTRUCTION
(1) We obtain instruction. We are familiar with the phrase,
"Survival of the fittest"; by which we understand that amid the shocks
and collisions of creation certain types of creature-like, stronger
than others, broad-shouldered and powerful, have pushed their way to
the front, and have crushed out the weaker.
Amid the strife chronicled by
history, certain races of mankind inevitably go down, whilst others
forge their way to the front and hold positions of supremacy.
Similarly, in the life of the world around us, where everything is
being searched and tested to the uttermost by the ordeal of time,
probation, and trial, certain types of character are constantly being
thrust downward, or hurled against the wall in the impetuous rush,
whilst others come easily to the front. Thus, perpetually, different
types of ideal and character are acknowledged as supreme.
As we look around us, in the great
arena of life, we are often disposed to imagine that the type of
character represented by power, by the giant's grip, by sinew and
muscle, is the supreme and victorious one. At other times we are
disposed to think that the type of the scientist and philosopher, the
man of wise thought and penetrating investigation, is the elect, the
ideal type. Again we are disposed to think that the man of wealth, who
by his ingenuity has succeeded in accumulating a fortune or in
building up a great business, exhibits the ideal type. Thus amid the
cross-lights of this world we are greatly perplexed; for when we turn
to the life of Jesus Christ, the sweet, gentle, serf-denying, and
forgiving life, which appeared to be unable to hold its own against
the antagonism and malice of men, we are apt to conclude that that
type at least is too tender, too gentle, too retiring and unobtrusive
to become the dominant type. Yes, we exclaim, the race is to the
strong, the sceptre for the wise, the throne for the man of wealth;
but the cross is for the character that lives to love and forgive and
save. It is good, therefore, to come into the sanctuary of God, to
leave behind us our newspapers and novels, the standards of the
marketplace and the forum, and to submit our minds beneath the
influence of this word which lets in eternity upon time, which allows
the light that plays around the throne of God to strike in upon us;
and, as we see things for one brief hour, not from the standpoint of
our fellows, but of the angels--not judging by the standards of this
world, but by those of the other world into which we so soon shall
come---we shall find that the dominant type of character which is to
endure, to last supreme when all other types of character, which men
have worshipped and idolised, have passed away as the mists of winter
before the summer, is the name and nature of Jesus Christ, the Saviour
and Redeemer of men.
This is what God hath chosen.
Here is the survival of the fittest. Here is the supreme conception of
character. This, this is what eternity enthrones. This is what
dominates angels and demons. The nature that stoops, loves, forgives,
saves; this is the ideal type. God hath given Him a name above every
HERE IS ENCOURAGEMENT.
(2) We get great encouragement. It is of infinite importance to
know what God loves best. We are destined to live with Him for ever,
to see Him face to face, and be for ever in His presence. It is of the
highest importance, therefore, to us, to know what is His chosen
ideal, that we may begin to shape ourselves by it, that we may emulate
it, that we may ourselves seek to be endued by it, so that hereafter
we may be taken to the bosom' of God as His chosen friends and
children. If we desire to know a man we must converse with him, enter
his study, handle and look at his books, and gaze round the walls at
the pictures he has chosen to adorn them.
If we know a man's ideal, we know
him. If we can only get God's ideal, we may know Him. Where can we
find it? In creation? ---No, not His deepest. In proverb and
prophecy?--No, not His deepest. In angels excelling in strength?--No,
not His deepest. In the perfection of moral character? That is nearer,
but it is not His deepest. The name that is dearest to God is Jesus;
and the character which is dearest to God is that which bears,
forgives, and loves even to death, that it may save. That which God
sets His heart upon for evermore is redemptive love, which He
glorifies, raising it to the highest place that heaven affords.
"Ah, we will not fear Thee more,
our God! We have stood under the thunder-peal hurtling through the
air, and trembled; we have beheld the lightning-flash revealing our
sin and making us cry for shelter; we have watched Thy march through
history, and there have been traces of blood and tears behind on Thy
track; and as we look out into the eternal future our hearts stand
still. We are but leaves in the great forest of existence; bursting
bubbles upon the mighty ocean of being; but when we come to see that
Thine ideal is in the Divine Man who died for us, we fear Thee no
more, but approach with the confidence of a little child; for if Thou
dost love the Man Christ Jesus, and we love Him too, we can meet Thee
in the Cross with its dying agony." It is a great encouragement to
know that God's ideal is the Man who died.
Our God seems sometimes to come
near us and say: "There is never a soul that stoops, stripping itself
that it may wash the feet of another; there is never a soul that sheds
tears over the ruin of those it loves, as Jesus did on the Mount of
Olives over Jerusalem; there is never a soul that pours out its
life-blood even unto death; there is never a soul that denies itself
to the uttermost, that is not dear to Me. I notice it, though the
great world passes by unwitting and careless; I bend over those who
tread in the earthly pathway trodden by My Son, My well beloved; and
though the midnight darkness may gather over the head, extorting the
cry, "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken?" I do not forget, I
cannot forsake; and presently, when the earth has passed away like the
shadow of the cloud upon the hills, I will gather such, and bear them
upward, taking them to My bosom, and enthroning them right and left of
My Son. He that drinks the cup which Jesus drank of, and is baptised
with the baptism with which he was baptised, though forgotten,
ignored, crushed and trampled underfoot by men, shall sit beside the
Son of Man in His kingdom."
Oh, let us take heart, as we think of God's ideal; let us be
encouraged, for now we know what God is, and that ultimately He will
vindicate our work of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope.
HERE IS EXHORTATION.
(3) We get exhortation. The
name of Jesus is, then, dear to God. What then? Let it be your plea,
for it is said that whosoever believeth in that Name shall receive
remission of sins. Convicted sinner, longing to have a clue to the
maze, go at this moment into the presence of the great God and plead
the name of Jesus. Let your one cry be founded upon what He was, and
is; and just so soon as you utter that name, in the spirit of the
name, God accepts, forgives, and saves.
Follow Christ. Live in that
name, in the temper and character of Jesus, day by day; let His Gospel
imbue and colour your character; let the imitation of the Life of
Jesus be the one object of your ambition. There is no other clue to
life amid the misery and sorrow of the world. Sometimes it seems hard
to remember that children laugh, that the sun shines yet, that the
crocuses and snowdrops are preparing to break through the clods of
winter. We live oppressed beneath the infinite anguish and agony of
the world; it is so dark, so terrible with its sin and sorrow, with
its overcrowding and drink and passion; and there is one's own broken
life, and all the mystery and perplexity of God's dealings. We can
find no clue to it except to follow the ideal of Christ, living to
save; every day by patient and tender forbearance making someone
happier; lifting the burden from some shoulder, sending a rift of
light into some darkened heart. There is no other clue for the
difficulty and perplexity of life.
Speak of Christ. Sunday
School teacher, never let the lesson pass without allowing the Name of
Jesus Christ to mingle with your words, like the breath of flowers in
the summer air. Preacher, see to it that that Name rings through your
utterances, your first word and your last. It is the only spell and
talisman of victory; it is the one name that will overcome the power
of the devil in temptation, and before which the evil spirits that
beset us in our hours of weakness and depression give back. It is the
watchword for those who approach the portals of eternity; the talisman
of victory in the hour of death.
As soon as you utter the name of
Jesus, you arrest the Divine ear. Therefore in every prayer,
before you break out into adoration, praise, confession, or entreaty,
speak in the ear of God that name. Remember that Jesus said:
Whatsoever ye ask the Father in My Name, in My Nature, according to
the ideal of My Life, He will give you. Let the name of Jesus winnow
out of your prayers everything proud, selfish, and vindictive; let
them be poured like liquid and gleaming metal into that precious
Reverence His Name.
Reverence that name. "In the name of Jesus every knee shall bow." Let
us never utter it without the prefix Lord. Let Him be always the Lord
Jesus. If God speaks His name with marked emphasis, we must treat it
with devout reverence. I greatly shrink from too great familiarity
with the precious name of our Lord. A man has to be very near the
Great Brother who can call him familiarly by His name.
Confess Him. "And every
tongue confess." Let us confess that He is Lord. God the Father has
made Him His ideal type; make Him your ideal type. God has just put
the sceptre into His hand, do you put the sceptre into His hand also.
God has enthroned Him, do you enthrone Him too, and to-day look up and
say: "Henceforth, Blessed Jesus, Thou shalt be Lord and King; Lord of
my life, King of my mind and heart; my Lord and my God."
And remember that that is the
one hope of the future. That name of Jesus, whispered first by
Gabriel to Mary and to Joseph, spread through a comparatively small
circle of His immediate followers, but at Pentecost the Holy Ghost
caught it up, and spoke it in thunder; and ever since it has been
spreading through the world and through the universe, and we are yet
to see the time when the loftiest angels shall bow beneath it, when
all men shall own it, and the very demons acknowledge it. "Jesus I
know, and Paul I know," was the sad confession of a fallen spirit
This name of our Lord--the
last name spoken on earth, the first name uttered in heaven--the name
that comprehends grace, the name that spells glory, for He has gone to
prepare a place for us. We have passed the shortest day; yonder is the
spring and summer of the morning land, and we anticipate the time when
we shall sit with Him; bearing that name with Him; and perhaps going
forth to all parts of the universe to tell of it, to kindle hearts and
lives with it, to unfold, as only redeemed men can, the full meaning
and significance of the name Jesus. (F. B. Meyer. The Epistle to the
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