Romans 12:3-6 Commentary



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Romans 12:3-6 Commentary
Commentary Updated July 21, 2014

Romans 12:3   For through the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but to think so as to have sound judgment, as God has allotted to each a measure of faith.  (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: Lego (1SPAI) gar dia tes charitos tes dotheises (APPFSG) moi panti to onti (PAPMSD) en humin me huperphronein (PAN) par o dei (3SPAI) phronein (PAN) alla phronein (PAN) eis to sophronein, hekasto os o theos emerisen metron pisteos.
Amplified: For by the grace (unmerited favor of God) given to me I warn everyone among you not to estimate and think of himself more highly than he ought [not to have an exaggerated opinion of his own importance], but to rate his ability with sober judgment, each according to the degree of faith apportioned by God to him.
 (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: As God's messenger, I give each of you this warning: Be honest in your estimate of yourselves, measuring your value by how much faith God has given you.
 (NLT - Tyndale House)
As your spiritual teacher I give this piece of advice to each one of you. Don’t cherish exaggerated ideas of yourself or your importance, but try to have a sane estimate of your capabilities by the light of the faith that God has given to you. (Phillips: Touchstone)
For I am saying through the grace which is given me, to everyone who is among you, not to be thinking more highly of himself, above that which the necessities in the nature of the case impose upon him to be thinking, but to be thinking with a view to a sensible appraisal of himself according as to each one God divided a measure of faith.  (Eerdmans
Young's Literal: For I say, through the grace that was given to me, to every one who is among you, not to think above what it behoveth to think; but to think so as to think wisely, as to each God did deal a measure of faith,

Resources Updated July 21, 2014

Henry Alford
Jack Arnold
Wayne Barber
Wayne Barber
Wayne Barber
William Barclay
Albert Barnes
Brian Bell
Brian Bell
Brian Bill
Brian Bill
Brian Bill
Joseph Beet
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Defender's Study Bible
James Denney
John Dummelow
J Ligon Duncan
Theodore Epp
Expositor's Bible
John Gill
Frederic Godet
Bruce Goettsche
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Gospel Coalition
L M Grant
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James Gray
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H A Meyer
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William Newell
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Phil Newton
James Nisbet
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Romans 12 Commentary
Romans Commentary - Pdf
Romans 12:5-8 Responsibilities Under Grace 4
Romans 12:1-8 Responsibilities Under Grace 5
Romans 12:18-21 Responsibilities Under Grace 8

Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:1-3 What You Believe Must Determine How You Behave
Romans 12:4-13 Love's Many Faces
Romans 12:1 Worship is a Verb

Romans 12:1-5 Knowing God’s Will

Romans 12:1-8 Understanding Your Shape
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-8 Thinking About The Body
Romans 12:1-16:27 Commentary
Romans 12:3-6; Romans 12:6b; Romans 12:7 Romans 12:8
Romans 12:9-13; Romans 12:13-15; Romans 12:16  Romans 12:17-21
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary - scroll down
Romans 12:1: Why Give Yourself Totally to God?

Romans 12:2: How to Change for Good

Romans 12:3: True Humility

Romans 12:4-5: Humility in the Functioning Body

Romans 12:6-8: Humility in Exercising our Gifts

Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:1-2 A Living Sacrifice
Romans 12:14-17 Good for Evil
Romans 12:3-8 Thinking Straight About Spiritual Gifts

Reasoning Through Romans
Romans 12 Study Bible Notes - scroll down past the Scriptures

Romans 12 Expositor's Greek Testament (Excellent)
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-8 A Call to Humility and Service
Romans 12:6-16 No Room for Envy in the Church

Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-21 The Believer as a Member of the Church

Romans 12:3 Christian Self-Esteem

Romans 12:4-8 Doing What You Can Do

Romans 12 Sermons - Most are Mp3's

Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-13 The Value of Each

Romans 12 Commentary

Romans 12 Commentary
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Romans: Prologue to Prison - 24 Chapter Book
Romans 12 Sermons - Individual in depth sermons on Romans 12:1, 12:2, 12:11, 12:12, 12:21
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Holman Christian Study Bible-enter Scripture - see Study Bible Notes
Romans 12:1-15:33 The Gospel & Its Responsibilities
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Romans 12:3-8 Advice for Charismatics

Romans Commentary
Romans 12:3-8 Christian Body Building

Romans 12 Sermons - Mp3 - Messianic Believer

Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-5 Ministry of Spiritual Gifts, Part 1
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Romans 12 Expositions including Ro 12:9,10 Love That Can Hate
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Romans 12 - multiple Mp3's from Thru the Bible
Romans 12 Commentary
The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans
The Epistle to the Romans (Longer Comments)

Romans 12 Notes
Romans 12 Commentary (Living Water Commentary)
Romans 12 Commentary - also synchs with Constable's notes
Romans 12 Commentary

Romans 12:3-8 How the Body of Christ Functions, Pt. 1
Romans 12:3-8 How the Body of Christ Functions, Pt. 2

Romans 12 Commentary (Church Pulpit Commentary)
Romans 12 The Christian Ideal (18 pages)
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 How Justified Sinners Love Each Other
Romans 12:1-8 Sound Judgment, One Body, Several Parts
Romans 12:1-8  Measures of Faith, Gifts of Grace, Ministry in Small Groups
Romans 12:1-8 Assessing Ourselves With Our God-Assigned Measure of Faith, Part 1
Romans 12:1-8 Assessing Ourselves With Our God-Assigned Measure of Faith, Part 2
Romans 12:1-8 Faith: The Root and Trait of All Spiritual Gifts
Romans 12:1-8 We, Though Many, Are One Body in Christ
Romans 12:1-8  Using Our Gifts in Proportion to Our Faith, Part 1
Romans 12:1-8 Using Our Gifts in Proportion to our Faith, Part 2
Romans 12:3-8 Using Our Gifts in Proportion to Our Faith, Part 3
Romans 12:3-13  No Condemnation in Christ Jesus, One Body in Christ
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary (27 pages) <> (See also Romans 12 Illustrations)

Romans 12:3-8: Blueprint for a Healthy Church

Romans 12 Word Pictures in the New Testament
Romans 12 Commentary (scroll down for Homilies)
Romans 12 Sermons - 8 individual messages
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Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3 Sobriety of Mind Enjoined
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Exposition
Romans 12:11 Serving the Lord

Romans 12:12 Constant, Instant, Expectant

Romans 12:15 Sympathy and Song
Romans 12:15 Fellowship in Joy - Notes

Romans 12:21 Overcome Evil with Good

Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-8: The Body at Work
Romans 12:3-8 Who Am I Lord?
Romans 12:3-8 We Are One
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-5 It's All About Oneness
Romans 12:6-8 The Gifts
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Greek Word Studies
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12:3-5 In Christ, We Who Are Many Form One Body
Romans 12:6-8 What Is Baptism Of The Holy Spirit as Relates to Him Gifting
Romans 12:6 Gift Of Prophecy Part 1
Romans 12:6 Gift Of Prophecy Part 2
Romans 12:16-21 Do Not Be Overcome By Evil, But Overcome Evil With Good

Romans 12-16: Inductive Bible Studies
Romans 12 Devotionals from Our Daily Bread

Romans 12 Defender's Study Bible (Henry Morris) - see links on right side
Romans 12 Commentary - Enter Scripture. Select "Read" in HCSB Study Bible
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Romans Commentary - well done - scroll down to page 176
Romans 12 Commentary
Romans 12 Commentary (H C G Moule)
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Romans 12 Commentary (new source)
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Romans 12 Commentary (Unabridged Version)
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Romans 12 Cross References (expanded version)

God's Holiness
God's Grace
God's Power
God's Sovereignty
Jew and Gentile
Gods Glory
Object of
of Sin
of Grace
Demonstration of Salvation
Power Given Promises Fulfilled Paths Pursued
Restored to Israel
God's Righteousness
God's Righteousness
God's Righteousness
God's Righteousness
God's Righteousness
Slaves to Sin Slaves to God Slaves Serving God
Doctrine Duty
Life by Faith Service by Faith

Modified from Irving L. Jensen's excellent work "Jensen's Survey of the NT"

FOR THROUGH THE GRACE (gift) GIVEN TO ME  I SAY TO EVERY MAN (no believer excluded) AMONG YOU: Lego (1SPAI) gar dia tes charitos tes dotheises (APPFSG) moi panti to onti (PAPMSD) en humin:  (Ro 12:6, 7, 8; 1:5; 15:15,16; 1Co 3:10; 15:10; Ephesians 3:2,4,7,8; 4:7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; Col 1:29; 1Ti 1:14; 1Pe 4:11)

Romans 12

Romans 12:1, 2 Relationship to God
Romans 12:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Relationship with the Body of Christ
Romans 12:9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 Relationship with others

For (term of explanation) (gar) explains that a proper opinion of oneself (i.e., to not to think more highly) is the immediate effect of a surrender to God, a non conforming to the world and a transformation produced by the renewing of our mind. Paul illustrates in his own person, in giving this advice, the rule he is laying down for the Church by emphasizing that what is communicating is "through the grace given" him and therefore without haughtiness or presumption. In addition note that Paul emphasizes that the truth he is communicating here is is a word to "every man" -- Everyone in the Body of Christ needs to hear and heed this message! No exceptions.

What is the "grace given to" Paul? Paul is alluding to his being an apostle and that this "grace" was only because God chose him to be an apostle. Paul had nothing to do with it as he reminded his beloved disciple Timothy in his last known written communication beginning the letter with acknowledgement that he was...

"Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God" (2Ti 1:1-note)

There were surely people associated with Paul who would have loved to have been an apostle, but God didn’t choose them. He chose Paul, a man who proved to be a channel through which His grace could bountifully flow as shown in many of his epistles...

For example, Paul reminded the Corinthian church that what he did, he did not do in his strength alone...

But by the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace toward me did not prove vain (fruitless and without effect); but I labored even more than all of them, yet not I, but the grace of God with me.  (1Cor 15:10, cp 2Cor 12:9-note; 2Co 12:10-note)

Paul testified in Galatians to the grace given to him...

(Speaking before the Jewish council at Jerusalem Paul declared that) He (the same God) who effectually worked for Peter in his apostleship to the circumcised effectually worked for me also to the Gentiles, and recognizing the grace that had been given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we might go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcised. (Galatians 2:8,9)

To the Ephesians Paul repeatedly emphasized the grace given to him writing...

2 if indeed you have heard of the stewardship of God's grace which was given to me for you;
3 that by revelation there was made known to me the mystery, as I wrote before in brief.
4 And by referring to this, when you read you can understand my insight into the mystery of Christ,
5 which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit;
6 to be specific, that the Gentiles are fellow heirs and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel,
7 of which I was made a minister, according to the gift of God's grace which was given to me according to the working of His power.
8 To me, the very least of all saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unfathomable riches of Christ, (Ep 3:2
-note, Ep 3:4-note, Ep 3:7,8-note)

Writing to the Colossians of his great objective to present every man complete (mature, "full grown") in Christ, he explained that it was...

And for this purpose also I labor (to the point of weariness), striving (agonizing) according to His power (made available by His grace which is perfected in weakness), which mightily works within me (Col 1:29-note)

MacArthur explains the preposition "For" this way: "For" indicates a transition from what the apostle has just commanded, tying spiritual service to spiritual dedication, the bridge between them being spiritual attitude. The Christian’s proper attitude is humility, not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think. Lack of that foundational virtue causes many believers to stumble. No matter how well grounded we may be in God’s Word, how theologically sound we may be, or how vigorously we may seek to serve Him, our gifts will not operate so that our lives can be spiritually productive until self is set aside. From self denial in the spiritual worship of God flows self surrender to the will of God, and from self surrender flows selfless service in the work of God." (emphasis added)

Denney - “The duties of members of the Church as such; avoidance of self-exaltation, and mutual service in the measure of the gift bestowed on each. The gar (for) indicates that ‘humility is the immediate effect of self-surrender to God’ (Gifford). Paul illustrates in his own person, in giving this advice, the rule he is laying down for the Church. He speaks ‘through the grace given him,’ and therefore without presumption; but he does speak, and so puts wisdom and love at the service of the Church.” (Romans 12 - The Expositor's Greek Testament)

How fitting in this section on SERVICE that Paul begins with acknowledgement of the power for all God honoring service, God's grace, ("for through the grace given to me") a truth he continually reminded the saints of in his letters (cf Ro 1:5-note, Ro 15:15, 16- notes,1Co 3:10, 15:10,Ga 2:8, 9,Ep 3:2-note, Ep 3:7, 8-note, Ep 4:7-note,1Ti 1:14).

Remember that the practical section that follows is not possible apart from a presentation of ourselves to God (Ro 12:1-note, Ro 12:2-note), once and for all and then each morning for the rest of our life.

Someone has well said that there are only two kinds of people in the world,  those who wake up in the morning and say, "Good morning, Lord," and those who wake up in the morning and say, "Good Lord, its morning!"

Let us seek to be among those who greet the day acknowledging He is Lord of the new day and I am His bondservant ready to do His will. It will make a radical difference in the way we respond to all the distractions, interruptions, harsh words, unfair treatment, etc that are part of life.

The evidence of a surrendered life then is an available body, a willingness to help, to put yourself out, to be expendable, to respond to the needs God's has placed in your life. The first place where this service becomes visible is in the church itself -- in the body of Christ. Therefore this section deals with living out the spiritual gift(s) (see study of charisma) God has given to every believer. However, before Paul gives specific instructions regarding spiritual gifts he prefaces it with an admonishment concerning humility, for he is fully aware of pride that is prone to arise from spiritual giftedness (1Co 8:2,10:12, Pr 16:18, Isa 5:21) Remember also that spiritual giftedness does not necessarily equal spiritual maturity.
Stedman prefaces this section on service with this thought - I don't think the Christian life is worth a 'snap of the finger' if something exciting isn't happening from time to time. It really never begins for us until we begin to see that God intends to work through us individually, and that, when God is at work, things begin to happen. It isn't always some spectacular, outward display, but things take place...Once you discover this, as a result of the availability of the life-changing, transforming character of Christ dwelling in us, life becomes an exciting thing. You can hardly sleep at night, at times." The question for each of us then is " Is there anything you are excited about that God has done in your life recently?  (The Body at Work)

NOT TO THINK MORE HIGHLY OF HIMSELF THAN HE OUGHT (dei = necessary) TO THINK: me huperphronein (PAN) par o dei (3SPAI) phronein (PAN):  (Ro 11:20,25, Pr 25:27,26:12 Eccl 7:16, Mic 6:8, Lk 18:11 // 1Co 4:7, 8, 2Co 12:7, Ga 6:3, Php 2:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Jas 4:6,1Pe 5:5, 3Jn 9)

not to estimate himself above his real value (Williams)

Think more highly (5252) (huperphroneo from huperphron = over-proud in turn from huper = above, over + phroneo = think) literally means to over think or think above and so to be haughty.

The idea is “to over-think," "to think above,” or “to proudly think.”

Alford renders the text "not to be high-minded above that which he ought to be minded, but to be so minded as to be sober-minded."

Or one might render it  “I say to everyone, do not super-think of yourself”. One can clearly see Paul's emphasis on the mind and specifically in context on what a renewed mind looks like (Ro 12:2).  

A believer should appraise the gifts God has given him fairly, glorifying God for their bestowal, and then exercise them through dependence upon the Holy Spirit and not in mock humility make light of them. A renewed mind thinks soberly about oneself.

An individual with a renewed mind comprehends that he or she is a member of a body, that every member of that body does not perform every function but that God gives each believer a specific spiritual gift ("function"). Therefore since we do not all have the same gifts, it logically follows that we need one another and one another's different gifts. Thinking more highly of ourselves than we ought to think is a universal tendency of the human race. Our old Adamic nature loves to over-think about itSELF.

Denney - “To himself, every man is in a sense the most important person in the world, and it always needs much grace to see what other people are, and to keep a sense of moral proportion.”  (Romans 12 - The Expositor's Greek Testament)

Wuest -  a Christian should appraise the gifts God has given him fairly, glorifying God for their bestowal, and their exercise through dependence upon the Holy Spirit, and not in mock humility make light of them.

Our tendency to focus on self is the major cause for the deadly pestilence in the church (and the world) called "comparisonitis" —the tendency to measure one’s worth by comparing oneself to others. Do you look down on others and think highly of yourself because you possess a more "showy" spiritual gift than they? Paul's antidote for comparisonitis is not to see ourselves as we stack up against others, but to exercise sound judgment. What needs to change in your self assessment for you to judge yourself soberly? Jesus parable in (Lk 18:9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) illustrates the deadly nature of comparisonitis and it therefore behooves us to diligently heed Paul's instruction.
Kent Hughes has these thoughts on 2 ways high minded thinking is manifest: "This can take two classic forms. Primarily it is that of the self-elevating braggart—the person who tells you how smart he is, how much he has done, how strong he is, how rich he will be when he gets his big break—legends in their own mind....The other form of overestimation is more subtle—that of self-deprecating...those who self-consciously talk about themselves as if they were nobodies. I remember Dr. Lloyd-Jones telling of being at a train station where a man met him and said, “Oh, Dr. Jones, I am just a chimney sweep in the house of the Lord. Let me carry your suitcase. I am a nobody, and you are a man of great gifts.” Dr. Jones saw through the man immediately and did not deal too kindly with him. When a person acts like this, his expectation is that you will correct him. “No, no, you are really a great person.” (The way to expose [him] is to say, “You know, I think you’re right!”)"

Hughes adds this insightful summary:

The thought chain of Romans is compelling...

Romans 1:1-11:32 Profound theology
Romans 11:33–36 Profound doxology
Romans 12:1, 2 Profound dedication
Romans 12:3ff Profound humility resulting in action

BUT TO THINK SO AS TO HAVE SOUND JUDGMENT: alla phronein (PAN) eis to sophronein:  (Torreys topic on "sobriety") (1Timothy 2:9,15; Titus 2:2,4,6,12; 1Peter 1:13; 4:7; 5:8 )

but to rate his ability with sober judgment. (Amplified)

but try to have a sane estimate of your capabilities.  (Phillips)

 but to cherish a habit of thought tending to sobriety of mind (Denney)

But - term of contrast

Sound judgment (4993) (sophroneo from sozo [Vine]  = to save {from sos = sound} + phren = mind, which would then literally describe a "saved mind"!) (Click studies on the related words sophron and sophronismos) means literally to be of sound mind. The idea is to to keep one’s mind safe and sound or to be in one's right mind. To think of one's self soberly. To put a moderate estimate on one's self. To curb one's passions. It means to be able to reason and think properly and in a sane manner. It means to have understanding about practical matters and thus be able to act sensibly.

Related topics: in depth study on sozo; in depth study on related word sound mind = sophronismos

Here are the 6 NT uses of sophroneo - Mk 5:15 (demon possessed man now healed); Lk 8:35 (healed of demon possession); Ro 12:3; 2Co 5:13; Titus 2:6-note (a sound mind is a self controlled mind); 1Pe 4:7-note(in light of the end of all things)

The idea of  sophroneo is to "be in one's right mind" (2Co 5:13).

Luke records that after Jesus had entreated the demons out of the demoniac...

the people went out to see what had happened; and they came to Jesus, and found the man from whom the demons had gone out, sitting down at the feet of Jesus, clothed and in his right (sound) mind (sophroneo); and they became frightened. And those who had seen it reported to them how the man who was demon-possessed had been made well. (Lk 8:35, 36)

In a nutshell then Paul is advocating sober thought instead of "super-thought"!.

A T Robertson adds that in a sense "self conceit is here treated as a species of insanity."

A right estimate of oneself will always be a humble estimate (cf Ga 6:3, 4, 5), a recognition that, in ourselves, we can do nothing (Jn 15:5), but that in Christ we can be used to the glory of God (Jn 15:8).  In context Paul is addressing one's attitude toward spiritual gifts. He wants us not to consider our gift to be of greater importance then another saint's gift but to have a humble attitude, an attitude which when you know you have it, you have lost it! Humility  (TTT, NTB) means putting Christ first, others second, and self last ("J.O.Y." is Jesus, then Others, finally Yourself). Humility  (TTT, NTB) is a lack of pre-occupation with self.

Sound judgment understands that "Every good thing given and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shifting shadow" (see note James 1:17)

This realization serves as a corrective against self-complacency and pride. What room for glorying is there in that which we have received?  Such “sober judgment” not only excludes an exaggerated opinion of oneself, but also warns us not to underestimate the abilities God has given us. Sometimes a false modesty may be just as detrimental to the church as pride.

Matthew Henry adds "We must not say, I am nothing, therefore I will sit still, and do nothing; but, I am nothing in myself, and therefore I will lay out myself to the utmost, in the strength of the grace of Christ." (emphasis added)

Wiersbe - "Each Christian must know what his spiritual gifts are and what ministry (or ministries) he is to have in the local church. It is not wrong for a Christian to recognize gifts in his own life and in the lives of others. What is wrong is the tendency to have a false evaluation of ourselves. Nothing causes more damage in a local church than a believer who overrates himself and tries to perform a ministry that he cannot do. (Sometimes the opposite is true, and people undervalue themselves. Both attitudes are wrong.)"

AS GOD HAS ALLOTTED TO EACH A MEASURE OF FAITH: hekasto os o theos emerisen metron pisteos: (Ro 12:6; John 3:34; 1Corinthians 4:7; 12:7, 8, 9, 10, 11; 2Corinthians 12:13; Ephesians 4:7,13,16)

Allotted (3307) (merizo from meris = part, portion )meaning to divide into parts and so to distribute as in (1Co 7:17,2Co 10:13) The Holy Spirit distributes the correct proportion of the spiritual gift to each believer (1Pe 4:10-note; 1Pe 4:11-note) so that each may fulfill his or her role in the body of Christ (1Co 12:7,11).

Merizo - 14 in the NT - Mt. 12:25-26; Mk. 3:24-26; 6:41; Lk. 12:13; Ro 12:3; 1 Co. 1:13; 7:17, 34; 2Co. 10:13; Heb 7:2

Measure of faith conveys the truth that each believer can know the limitations of their gift. God has given the gift and the faith to discern the limits of your gift.

MacArthur - "In this context, a measure of faith seems to refer to the correct measure of the spiritual gift and its operating features that God sovereignly bestows on every believer. Every believer receives the exact gift and resources best suited to fulfill his role in the body of Christ....every person has his own special but limited set of capabilities. Trying to operate outside those capabilities produces frustration, discouragement, guilt feelings, mediocrity, and ultimate defeat. We fulfill our calling when we function according to God’s sovereign design for us."

Denney - Whatever the characteristic of any individual may be, it is due to the discriminating act of God in measuring out faith to him in greater or less degree. Taken in connection with what precedes, the idea seems to be: There are various degrees of self-estimation proper, for God gives one more and another less; but all are fundamentally regulated by humility, for no one has anything that he has not received. 1 Corinthians 4:7. (Romans 12 - The Expositor's Greek Testament)

Wuest (quoting Vincent) - This estimate or appraisal of one’s God-given gifts is to be “according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith.” “According to” is kata (κατα), the root meaning of which is “down,” the idea of domination being brought out by the word. Our estimate of our gifts is to be governed by the measure of faith God gives each of us.

Vincent - The measure of faith. An expression which it is not easy to define accurately. It is to be noted: 1. That the point of the passage is a warning against an undue self-estimate, and a corresponding exhortation to estimate one’s self with discrimination and sober judgment. 2. That Paul has a standard by which self-estimate is to be regulated. This is expressed by hos as, according as. 3. That this scale or measure is different in different persons, so that the line between conceit and sober thinking is not the same for all. This is expressed by emerisen (merizo) hath imparted, distributed, and hekastos to each one. 4. The character of this measure or standard is determined by faith. It must be observed that the general exhortation to a proper self-estimate is shaped by, and foreshadows, the subsequent words respecting differences of gifts. It was at this point that the tendency to self-conceit and spiritual arrogance would develop itself. Hence the precise definition of faith here will be affected by its relation to the differing gifts in Ro 12:6. Its meaning, therefore, must not be strictly limited to the conception of justifying faith in Christ, though that conception includes and is really the basis of every wider conception. It is faith as the condition of the powers and offices of believers, faith regarded as spiritual insight, which, according to its degree, qualifies a man to be a prophet, a teacher, a minister, etc.; faith in its relation to character, as the only principle which develops a man’s true character, and which, therefore, is the determining principle of the renewed man’s tendencies, whether they lead him to meditation and research, or to practical activity. As faith is the sphere and subjective condition of the powers and functions of believers, so it furnishes a test or regulative standard of their respective endowments and functions. Thus the measure applied is distinctively a measure of faith. With faith the believer receives a power of discernment as to the actual limitations of his gifts. Faith, in introducing him into God’s kingdom, introduces him to new standards of measurement, according to which he accurately determines the nature and extent of his powers, and so does not think of himself too highly. This measure is different in different individuals, but in every case faith is the determining element of the measure. Paul, then, does not mean precisely to say that a man is to think more or less soberly of himself according to the quantity of faith which he has, though that is true as a fact; but that sound and correct views as to the character and extent of spiritual gifts and functions are fixed by a measure, the determining element of which, in each particular case, is faith. (Romans 12 - Vincent's Word Studies)

Hodge - The expression measure or proportion of faith, is variously explained. Faith may be taken in its usual sense, and the meaning of the clause be, ‘Let every one think of himself according to the degree of faith or confidence in God which has been imparted to him, and not as though he had more than he really possesses.' Or faith may be taken for what is believed, or for knowledge of divine truth, and the sense be, ‘according to the degree of knowledge which he has attained.' Or it may be taken for that which is confided to any, and be equivalent to gift. The sense then is, ‘Let every one think of himself according to the nature or character of the gifts which he has received.' This is perhaps the most generally received interpretation, although it is arrived at in different ways; many considering the word faith here as used metonymically for its effects, viz., for the various (charismata) graces, ordinary and extraordinary, of which it is the cause. This general sense is well suited to the context, as the following verses, containing a specification of the gifts of prophesying, teaching, ruling, etc., appear to be an amplification of this clause. The first mentioned interpretation is, however, most in accordance with the usual meaning of pistis. (Romans 12 - Hodge's Commentary on Romans)

Faith (4102)(pistis) in this context does not refer to saving faith, but as noted above rather the faith to discern the limitation of your gift. Every believer receives the exact gift and resources he needs to fulfill his role in the body of Christ.
The noble American preacher and theologian Jonathan Edwards was so fearful that his personal mannerisms and inflections might interfere with the power of God’s Word, that he not only read his sermons but often delivered them almost mechanically. Yet the Holy Spirit strongly used those messages, and listeners were sometimes so convicted of sin that they screamed for God’s mercy and tightly gripped their pews for fear of falling immediately into hell. God was able to use him in such ways because he lived up to the following resolutions (abbreviated) that he made early in his ministry:

   Resolved, to live with all my might while I do live.
        Resolved, never to lose one moment of time,
            to improve it in the most profitable way I possibly can.
        Resolved, never to do anything which I should despise
            or think meanly of in another.
        Resolved, never to do anything out of revenge.
        Resolved, never to do anything which
            I should be afraid to do if it were the last hour of my life.
      --Iain H. Murray, Jonathan Edwards: A New Biography


Romans 12:4 For just as we have many members in one body and all the members do not have the same function,  (NASB: Lockman)

Greek:  kathaper gar en eni somati polla mele echomen (1PPAI), ta de mele panta ou ten auten echei (3SPAI) praxin
Amplified: For as in one physical body we have many parts (organs, members) and all of these parts do not have the same function or use,
 (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: Just as our bodies have many parts and each part has a special function,
 (NLT - Tyndale House)
:  For just as you have many members in one physical body and those members (Phillips: Touchstone) differ in their functions,
:  For even as in one body we have many members but all the members do not have the same function,   (Eerdmans

FOR JUST AS WE HAVE MANY MEMBERS IN ONE BODY: kathaper gar en eni somati polla mele echomen (1PPAI), ta de mele panta ou ten auten echei (3SPAI) praxin:

1Cor 12:4 Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit.

1Cor 12:12 For even as the body is one and [yet] has many members, and all the members of the body, though they are many, are one body, so also is Christ.

1Cor 12:27 Now you are Christ’s body, and individually members of it.

Eph 4:15 but speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in all [aspects] into Him, who is the head, [even] Christ,

Eph 4:16 from whom the whole body, being fitted and held together by that which every joint supplies, according to the proper working of each individual part, causes the growth of the body for the building up of itself in love.


For just - These words links this verse closely with verse 3 because when we think rightly about ourselves, we will be able to think accurately about others—the Body of Christ.
In Ro 12:1
-note Paul urges believers to present their physical body as “a living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to God.” Now he uses the figure of the "body" as a metaphor to illustrate the form and function of the church, the Body of Christ. Paul focuses on unity by emphasizing "one body" in both verses (Ro 12:4, 5) and then explains that members do not have the same function but that all are necessary for proper function. When a person trusts Christ, he is immediately baptized by the Holy Spirit into this body (1Co 12:12,13). The baptism of the Spirit into "one body" is not a post conversion experience—but occurs the instant a person believes in Jesus Christ.
Members (
3196) (melos)  is a "limb of the body" and can refer literally to the different physical members of our body such as the hands, feet, eyes, ears, mouth, which is the intended meaning in this verse  (as in Mt 5:29,30 ["parts"]-note; Ro 6:13-note, Ro 6:19-note; Ro 7:5-note, Ro 7:23-note; Ro 12:4; 1Co 12:12, 14,18, 19, 20,22,25,26; James 3:5,6; 4:1; Col 3:5-note).


In the next verse "members" is used figuratively to illustrate the individual believers who are "members" of the church, the body of Christ (1Co 12:27,Ep 5:30-note), of which He is the Head (Ep 1:22, 23-note, Eph 4:15-note, Ep 5:23-note, Col 1:18-note, Col 2:19-note)


Here are the 34 uses of melos in the NT -- Matt. 5:29, 30; Rom. 6:13, 19; 7:5, 23; 12:4, 5; 1 Co. 6:15; 12:12, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 26, 27; Eph. 4:25; 5:30; Col. 3:5; James. 3:5, 6; 4:1


There are 10 uses of melos in the Septuagint - Ex 29:17; Lev. 1:6, 12; 8:20; 9:13; Jdg. 19:29; Job 9:28; Ezek. 2:10; 24:6; Mic. 2:4;


Hodge - . In these verses we have the same comparison that occurs more at length in 1Corinthians 12:1-31, and for the same purpose. The object of the apostle is in both cases the same. He designs to show that the diversity of offices and gifts among Christians, so far from being inconsistent with their union as one body in Christ, is necessary to the perfection and usefulness of that body. It would be as unreasonable for all Christians to have the same gifts, as for all the members of the human frame to have the same office. This comparison is peculiarly beautiful and appropriate; because it not only clearly illustrates the particular point intended, but at the same time brings into view the important truth that the real union of Christians results from the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, as the union of the several members of the body is the result of their being all animated and actuated by one soul. Nothing can present in a clearer light the duty of Christian fellowship, or the sinfulness of divisions and envying among the members of Christ's body, than the apostle's comparison. (Commentary on Romans)

AND ALL THE MEMBERS DO NOT HAVE THE SAME FUNCTION: ta de mele panta ou ten auten echei (3SPAI) praxin

Denney - The comparison of the community to a body—the social organism—is very common in classical writers. Every member has its gift, but it is limited by the fact that it is no more than a member: it is not the whole body. 1 Corinthians 12:17. many as we are, we are one body in Christ; it is the common relation to Him which unites us. (Romans 12 - The Expositor's Greek Testament)

Function (234)(praxis) which has the basic meaning of a doing of something, that is, a deed. It later came to mean something that was ordinarily done or practiced, a normal function and in the present context refers to "spiritual gifts". Expanding his metaphor Paul reminds us of what we all know -- that our "members" such as our hands or feet do not have the same function as the eyes, etc, etc.

Praxis - 6 uses in the NT - Mt. 16:27; Lk. 23:51; Acts 19:18; Ro 8:13; 12:4; Col. 3:9

Praxis - 7 uses in the Septuagint - 2Chr. 12:15; 13:22; 27:7; 28:26; Job 24:5; Pr. 13:13; Da. 4:1
Now just as our physical body is a unit, the church (not referring to a physical building or denomination) likewise is a unified whole (one body), yet we are distinct within that one body (individually members). We are unified, but there is not a uniformity in the body of Christ.

We err when we neglect either aspect -- unity should never be promoted at the expense of individuality, and individuality should never diminish the church’s essential unity in Christ. He is our common ground, we are one body in Christ  (Ro 12:4-note).

Even as the health and welfare of the human body depend on the proper functioning of each member, so too does the spiritual vitality and the impact of "the body's" life on the lost world depend on the proper use and interaction of the spiritual gifts of ALL of the members of the Body of Christ.
After World War II, a group of German students volunteered to help rebuild an English cathedral that had been severely damaged by German bombs. As work progressed, they became concerned about a large statue of Jesus, whose arms were outstretched and beneath which was the inscription: “Come unto Me.” They had particular difficulty trying to restore the hands, which had been completely destroyed. After much discussion, they decided to let the hands remain missing and changed the inscription to: “Christ has no hands but ours.”

ohn MacArthur offers these wise practical pithy comments on what this all means: "As we have seen, the first obligation of the bondservant of Christ is the supreme worship expressed in offering himself to his Lord as a living sacrifice (Ro 12:1-note). That is God’s fundamental requirement for every believer. Only as a living sacrifice can we be what He wants us to be, do what He wants us to do, and thereby “prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect” (Ro 12:2-note). That act of spiritual worship marks the Christian’s entrance into divine usefulness. God’s order of obedience for His people has always been worship and then service. (Ro 12:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) adds the marvelous truth that, although Christ sends forth His servants with a common commission to serve Him, He equips them for that responsibility with greatly diverse gifts. His divine plan for believers is unity in message and commitment but diversity in service. The primary purpose of these verses is to make clear that, although we must enter the place of usefulness for Christ with the same total self sacrifice, we are equipped to fulfill that usefulness in uniquely distinct ways. The purpose of offering ourselves to God as living sacrifices is not mystical or monastic but eminently practical. Devotion to the Lord and active, faithful ministry for Him are inseparable. We cannot be truly sacrificed to Him and be inactive in His work. And, on the other hand, we cannot be truly successful in His work without being genuinely devoted to Him. Service to God brings honor to Him and blessing for us only when it is the outflow of our worship in offering ourselves as living sacrifices. Such commitment naturally and inevitably produces effective ministry. There is no godly commitment without God blessed ministry, and no God blessed ministry without godly commitment. This passage utterly destroys the notion that a Christian can be committed to Christ but be inactive in His service, that he can love the Lord but not obey the Lord, that he can be surrendered to the Lord but not minister for the Lord. True worship cannot be divorced from service. Unfortunately, the church has always had members who piously claim closeness and devotion to the Lord but whose lives exhibit no service for Him. It also has always had those who are busily active in the work of the church but who exhibit little personal depth of devotion to the Lord of the church. Both are a shame to the Lord and are a hindrance to His work, because they thwart the spiritual maturity of the saved and the evangelism of the lost. (MacArthur, J: Romans 9-16. Chicago: Moody Press)


Romans 12:5 so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually * members one of another.  (NASB: Lockman)

Greek:  houtos oi polloi en soma esmen (1PPAI) en Christo, to de kath eis allelon mele.
Amplified: So we, numerous as we are, are one body in Christ (the Messiah) and individually we are parts one of another [mutually dependent on one another].
(Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: so it is with Christ's body. We are all parts of his one body, and each of us has different work to do. And since we are all one body in Christ, we belong to each other, and each of us needs all the others. (NLT - Tyndale House)
so we, though many in number, compose one body in Christ and are all members of one another. (Phillips: Touchstone)
   thus we, the many, are one body in Christ, and members severally one of another. (Eerdmans
Young's Literal:  for as in one body we have many members, and all the members have not the same office,

SO WE WHO ARE MANY ARE ONE BODY IN CHRIST: houtos oi polloi en soma esmen (1PPAI) en Christo: (Ro 12:4; 1Corinthians 10:17; 12:12, 13,14,20,27,28; Ephesians 1:23-note; Ep 4:25-note; Ep 5:23-note, Ep 5:30-note; Colossians 1:24-note; Colossians 2:19-note)

This truth of One body in Christ is emphasized in (Ro 12:4, 1Cor 12:13, 20, Eph 2:16-note, Eph 4:4-note, Col 3:15-note). It is diversity working in unity and in harmony that enables Christ’s Body to be and to do what He directs it to be and to do.

W E Vine comment on the metaphor of the body noting that "As with the natural illustration (of the physical body in 12:4), so with the spiritual analogy. There is not only vital unity and harmony in operation, but diversity, all being essential to effectivity. The unity is not due to external organization but to common and vital union in Christ."

MacDonald has a succinct summary of the principles in (Ro 12:3-5): There is unity (one body), diversity (many), and interdependency (members of one another). Any gifts we have are not for selfish use or display but for the good of the body. No gift is self-sufficient and none is unnecessary. When we realize all this, we are thinking soberly (Ro 12:3). (MacDonald, W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson)

In Christ - see discussion of in Christ and in Christ Jesus

Hodge - Believers, though many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.' We, the many, are one body. In one respect we are many, in another we are one. Just as the body is many as to its members, and one in their organic connection. Believers are one body, i.e. a living organic whole, not in virtue of any external organization, but in Christ, i.e. in virtue of their common union with him. And as this union with Christ is not merely external, or by profession, or by unity of opinion and sentiment only, but vital, arising from the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of Christ, so, the apostle adds, the union of believers one with another, is also a vital union. They are every one members one of another. The relation of believers to each other is far more intimate than that between the members of any external organization, whether civil or ecclesiastical. It is analogous to the mutual relation of the members of the same body, animated by one soul.  (Commentary on Romans)

AND INDIVIDUALLY MEMBERS ONE OF ANOTHER: to de kath eis allelon mele:


No matter how humble my gift may be (1Co 12:22, 23, 24), every other member of the body depends on it (even as the eye that sees danger needs the feet to flee from the danger) and no matter how honorable my gift may be, I am dependent upon and blessed by even the humblest contribution of every other member.


"individually we are parts one of another [mutually dependent on one another]." (Amplified Version)


Members one of another is beautifully explained in (1Co 12:26) where Paul instructs us that when one member is honored, the others rejoice and when one member suffers, the others suffer. It's like the story the pastor told


"A number of years ago I fell and injured my wrist rather severely. It swelled up and got very painful. And the rest of my body felt so bad about it that it sat up all night to keep it company. That is what the body of Christ is to do when one member is hurt."


Each of us belongs to the mystical Body of Christ and needs the other members of that Body. The Christian faith is therefore in its essence a corporate experience (see the 9 "one another's" in Romans below). Although each member has come to faith by a separate and individual act of faith, the believing community lives out its Christian experience in fellowship with one another.


John Donne’s “No man is an island” is true of the church of Jesus Christ. “Lone Ranger Christianity” is a contradiction in terms. If your life seems stuck even though you read your Bible and pray, it may be that you are neglecting getting together with other believers and are depriving yourself of the exchange necessary for spiritual growth (cf. the significance of “able to comprehend with all the saints” in Eph 3:18- note).
All three of the important “body passages” in the New Testament deal with both unity and diversity:  

Ro 12:1, 2, 3, 4, 5

1Cor 12:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Eph 4:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ro 12:5, 6, 7, 8

1Cor 12:14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31

Eph 4:7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Unity and diversity must work together or one will destroy the other. Unity without diversity is uniformity, but diversity without unity is anarchy. The church needs both unity and diversity if it is to function in this world. God has given diverse gifts to His people and these gifts must be used for the building up of the body of Christ. The only thing that can balance unity and diversity is maturity, “growing up” to become more like Jesus Christ.
F. F. Bruce - "Diversity, not uniformity, is the mark of God’s handiwork. It is so in nature; it is so in grace, too, and nowhere more so than in the Christian community. Here are many men and women with the most diverse kinds of parentage, environment, temperament, and capacity. Not only so, but since they became Christians they have been endowed by God with a great variety of spiritual gifts as well. Yet because and by means of that diversity, all can co-operate for the good of the whole."

If you are feeling estranged from the "Body" for any reason, take some time and meditate on God's good and acceptable and perfect will for each member of the Body toward "One another" Hold your pointer over each Scripture and make a list of what Scripture teaches concerning one another.


The Positive

><>  Ro 12:10,16, 13:8,14:13,19,15:5, 7, 14,16:16
><> 1Co 12:25, 16:20, 2Co 13:12, Gal 5:13, Ep 4:2, 25, 32, 5:19, 21
><> Phil 2:3, Col 3:13, 16
1Th 3:12, 4:9,18, 5:11,13,15, 2Th 1:3, Heb 3:13,10:24, 25
James 5:16, 1Pe 1:22, 4:8, 9, 10, 5:5, 14,
><> 1Jn 1:7,3:11,23,4:7,11, 12, 2Jn 1:5

The Negative

 <>< 1Co 6:7, 7:5, 11:33, Ga 5:15, 26, Col 3:9, James 4:11, 5:9


Romans 12:6 Since we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, each of us is to exercise them accordingly: if prophecy, according to the proportion of his faith (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: echontes (PAPMPN) de charismata kata ten charin ten dotheisan (APPFSA) hemin diaphora, eite propheteian kata ten analogian tes pisteos
Amplified: Having gifts (faculties, talents, qualities) that differ according to the grace given us, let us use them: [He whose gift is] prophecy, [let him prophesy] according to the proportion of his faith;
 (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: God has given each of us the ability to do certain things well. So if God has given you the ability to prophesy, speak out when you have faith that God is speaking through you.
 (NLT - Tyndale House)
: Through the grace of God we have different gifts. If our gift is preaching, let us preach to the limit of our vision. (Phillips: Touchstone)
: Having therefore gifts differing according to the grace given us, whether that of prophecy, prophesy according to the proportion of faith;  (Eerdmans
Young's Literal: so we, the many, one body are in Christ, and members each one of one another.

AND SINCE WE HAVE GIFTS THAT DIFFER ACCORDING TO THE GRACE GIVEN TO US: echontes (PAPMPN) de charismata kata ten charin ten dotheisan (APPFSA)  hemin diaphora: (Illustration) (Ro 1:11; 1 Corinthians 1:5, 6, 7; 4:6,7; 12:4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,28, 29, 30, 31; 13:2; 1 Peter 4:10,11)

Related Resources:

See a Simple Summary Chart on Spiritual Gifts
ISBE Article on Spiritual Gifts

Spiritual Gifts are discussed in

Ro 12:6-note, Ro 12:7-note, Ro 12:8-note,

Ep 4:11- note, Ep 4:12-note, Ep 4:13-note, Ep 4:14-note, 1Pe 4:10-note, 1Pe 4:11-note

1Co 12:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14ff,


Miscellaneous Messages

The Perfect Church by Robert Morgan

Spiritual Gifts - Holman Bible Dictionary

Spiritual Gifts - Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible


Messages by Steven Cole (all in Pdf)

Ephesians 4:7-10 Christ's Purpose for His Church

Saved to Serve

Serving the Savior


Messages by S Lewis Johnson

1 Corinthians 12:1-11 The Issue of Spiritual Gifts

1 Corinthians 12:4-11 Unity and Variety of the Gifts

1 Corinthians 12:12-26 The Church -- Body of Christ

1 Corinthians 12:27-31 Exercise of Gifts in the Body


Messages by John Piper (he is not a cessationist ) the view that the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, such as healing, tongues, and prophetic revelation, pertained to the apostolic era only, served a purpose that was unique to establishing the early church, and passed away before the canon of Scripture was closed (comp. 1 Cor. 13:8-12 with Heb. 2:3-4). It is contrasted with continuationism, which is the view that the miraculous gifts are normative, have not ceased, and are available for the believer today. (Source:Theopedia)

1 Corinthians 12:1 Spiritual Gifts

Romans 12:1-8 We, Though Many, Are One Body in Christ
Romans 12:1-8  Using Our Gifts in Proportion to Our Faith, Part 1
Romans 12:1-8 Using Our Gifts in Proportion to our Faith, Part 2
Romans 12:3-8 Using Our Gifts in Proportion to Our Faith, Part 3


Messages by John MacArthur (he is a cessationist- Is cessationism biblical?)

Romans 12:3-5 Ministry of Spiritual Gifts, Part 1

Romans 12:6-7 Ministry of Spiritual Gifts, Part 2

Romans 12:8 Ministry of Spiritual Gifts, Part 3

1 Corinthians 12 - Spiritual Gifts - see list of articles in dropdown

1Corinthians 12:1 Concerning Spiritual Gifts, Part 1

1Corinthians 12:2-3 Concerning Spiritual Gifts, Part 2

1Corinthians 12:4-7, 11 Concerning Spiritual Gifts, Part 3

1Corinthians 12:8-10 Permanent Edifying Gifts, Part 1

1Corinthians 12:8-10 The Permanent Edifying Gifts, Part 2

1Corinthians 12:9-10 The Permanent Edifying Gifts, Part 3

1Corinthians 12:1-11 The Gifts of the Body, Part 1

1Corinthians 12 & Romans 12 The Gifts of the Body, Part 2

Selected Scriptures: The Gifts of the Body, Part 3

1Corinthians 12:12-27 The Body of Christ

1Corinthians 12:12-13 Spirit Baptism

1Corinthians 12:12-14, 18, 24 One Body, Many Gifts, Part 1
1Corinthians 12:15-31 One Body, Many Gifts, Part 2

1Corinthians 12:12-27 The Body of Christ

1Corinthians 12:28 The Gifted Men, Part 1: Apostles and Prophets

1Corinthians 12:28 The Gifted Men, Part 2: Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers
1Corinthians 12:10 The Temporary Sign Gifts, Part 1

1Corinthians 12:9, 28, 30 The Temporary Sign Gifts, Part 2

1Corinthians 12:9, 28, 30 The Temporary Sign Gifts, Part 3


Multiple articles on Spiritual Gifts (K. Boa, B. Deffinbaugh, J. Walvoord) articles on Spiritual Gifts


Wayne Barber sermon series (discussion of spiritual gifts)

Romans 12:1    Our Responsibilities Under Grace - Pt 1
Romans 12:2    Our Responsibilities Under Grace - Pt 2
Romans 12:3-5 Our Responsibilities Under Grace - Pt 3
Romans 12:5-8 Our Responsibilities Under Grace - Pt 4
Romans 12:1-8 Our Responsibilities Under Grace - Pt 5

Ron Ritchie
(series on Spiritual Gifts)

Good Stewards Of God's Spiritual Gifts 1 Peter 4: 1-10

The Benefits Of Spiritual Gifts Romans 12: 1-8

The Joy Of Spiritual Growth Ephesians 4: 7-13

The Proper Use Of Spiritual Gifts 1 Corinthians 12: 1-30

Expressing Our Spiritual Gifts With Love 1 Corinthians 13:1-13

Order Out Of Chaos 1 Corinthians 14

Ron R. Ritchie's List of the Spiritual Gifts


Ray Stedman from his book "Body Life"

All God's Children Have Spiritual Gifts

Discovering and Using Your Spiritual Gift
According to the Power

How the Body Works (spiritual gifts)


Ray Stedman - other messages on Spiritual Gifts

Romans 12:3-8: The Body at Work
Romans 12:3-8 Who Am I, Lord?

God’s grace deals out different gifts to different people (believers). And God gives the strength or ability to use those gifts, reflecting God's sovereignty (1Co 12:6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 28, 1Pe 4:10-note). On the other hand each believer has a solemn, holy responsibility to use his or her God-given abilities as would any good steward (see stewardship in ISBE) (1Pe 4:11-note). Whatever gift we have must be dedicated to God and used for the good of the body of Christ. It is sad (and not Biblical) when a specific gift is emphasized over other gifts in the local body. As 1 Corinthians 12 (1Co 12:14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31) emphasizes all gifts are critical for the local body to be optimally functioning as God intended. Does this describe your church, dear pastor?


Supernatural abilities
Sovereignly given to
Strengthen His 

Saints who are to
Serve  (minister) one another being good
Stewards of the manifold grace of God

Gifts (5486) (charisma [word study] from charis = grace + the ending --ma which indicates the result of something, in this case the result of grace,  "the subjective grace that works within and shows itself in its result" - Wuest) is a Pauline word (with exception of 1Pe 4:10) which literally means a gift of grace or a free gift. Considering that the root is charis (grace) the favor or gift which one receives is without any merit of one's own. Stated another way, whatever spiritual gift a man has comes from God, and should be no cause for personal pride or praise. It is something given to a man by God which the man himself could not have acquired or attained.

Thayer writes that charisma "in the technical Pauline sense of extraordinary powers distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating in their souls by the Holy Spirit."


The world uses charisma to describe a person with magnetic personality and a commanding appearance. God uses it to describe every saint because every saint has at least one spiritual gift.

Here are all the NT uses of charisma -- Ro 1:11; 5:15, 16; 6:23; 11:29; 12:6; 1Co 1:7; 7:7; 12:4, 9, 28, 30, 31; 2Co 1:11; 1Ti 4:14; 2Ti 1:6; 1Pe 4:10


Notice that sixteen of the seventeen NT uses of charisma are connected to God as the Giver of the free gift. Specifically Paul explains (esp in 1 Cor 12:4, 6, 7, 11) that  charisma is a special spiritual gift (or ability) bestowed by the Holy Spirit according to His will for the profit of the body of Christ and the work of the ministry in turn to enable believers to fulfill certain assigned functions in the body.


Notice also that the context states that each one (each and every one) who is a genuine Christian (who has the gift of the Spirit  - Romans 8:9 -note) has received at least one gift from the Spirit (1Co 12:1-11), both the gift of the Spirit and the spiritual gift being bestowed by God at the moment of conversion (see 1Co 12:13ff).


Richards writes that "Charisma is a special term for grace gifts. It focuses attention on how we are called to function within the body of Christ. God has given each believer a special endowment of the Spirit, so that he or she can make a distinctive contribution to individuals and to the community of faith. Living together, united by the bonds of brotherly love, each of us is used by God to enrich our brothers and sisters and to stimulate their growth to Christian maturity. (Richards, L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)

Cremer (in Herzog) writes that in the technical Pauline sense charismata denote "extraordinary powers, distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating in their souls by the Holy Spirit."

In Romans, Paul uses charisma in reference to the gift of salvation (Ro 5:15, 16, 6:23), the blessings of God (Ro 11:29), and divine enablements for ministry as in the present verse (Ro 12:6). Every other use of the word by Paul, and the one by Peter (1Pe 4:10), relates it to spiritual gifts = the divine enablements for believers to minister in the power of the Holy Spirit = the spiritual endowments empowered by the Holy Spirit.
Ray Stedman has some insightful thoughts on "spiritual gifts":  Suppose I had here a number of electrical appliances -- a toaster, an iron, an electric fan, a hair dryer, and a few other gadgets such as we have abundantly available today. Each of them is designed to do a different thing, each has a different function, but they all use the same power -- and unless they are connected to that power, they are useless. This is the way with the spiritual gift -- it is a divinely-given capacity to receive power. However, that power can be: The power of the Holy Spirit so that the gift is exercised in such a way as to bless, to minister, to help, and to advance the cause of God, or it can be: The power of the flesh so that the gift is exercised in such a way as to destroy, to injure, to divide, and to sever....God has given gifts. Paul calls them graces, and we have different gifts, according to the specific gift of grace that is given to us. I like that term for gifts because it indicates something about them. Graces are graceful. Something graceful is a delight to watch in action. This is true about a spiritual gift. It is an ability God has given you because he wants you function along this line. It enables you to do this thing so naturally and smoothly and beautifully that others will take note of it, and ask you to do it, and enjoy watching you do it. And you will enjoy it too.
A spiritual gift is a fulfilling thing when you are using it. You enjoy doing it, and that is why it is called a grace that is given to you. It is not a hard, painful thing to do; it is something you delight in doing. And you can improve in it as you do it. Therefore it is one of the things that will make life interesting and fulfilling for you. Imagine how hurt you parents would be if you gave gifts to your children, wrapped them all up in beautiful packages and put them under the Christmas tree, and then handed them out to your children and the child just took it and laid it aside. What if he said, "Thank you," and never bothered to open it, never made any effort to find out what was in it. Can you imagine how the Lord must feel when he has given gifts to us that he intends us to use and we never take the trouble to find out what they are, and never put them to work, and excuse ourselves by saying that we can't do anything. But the Word of God tells us there is not a single Christian who is left out in this matter of the distribution of gifts. It is clear from this account that the gifts Paul lists here are intended to be used." (emphasis added) (The Body at Work)

God’s grace distributes differing gifts to different people (1Co 12:11, Ep 4:7-note). Each believer’s gift is a God-designed blend of spiritual capabilities, which acts as a channel through which the Spirit of God ministers to others. God sovereignly bestows these spiritual gifts on believers according to His own divine will, apart from any merit, qualification, or seeking. This truth should blunt any tendency toward pride in the gift(s) we possess. Unfortunately since saints still possess the old flesh nature, pride concerning one's spiritual gifts has a way of raising its "ugly head". This sinful attitude can be "self inflicted" but can also be energized by others who insist on exalting men for how God has gifted them.
Wiersbe - Spiritual gifts are tools to build with, not toys to play with or weapons to fight with. In the church at Corinth, the believers were tearing down the ministry because they were abusing spiritual gifts. They were using their gifts as ends in themselves and not as a means toward the end of building up the church. They so emphasized their spiritual gifts that they lost their spiritual graces! They had the gifts of the Spirit but were lacking in the fruit of the spirit—love, joy, peace, etc. (Ga 5:22-
note, Ga 5:23-note).

LET EACH EXERCISE THEM ACCORDINGLY IF PROPHECY, ACCORDING TO THE PROPORTION OF HIS FAITH: eite propheteian kata ten analogian tes pisteos: (Matthew 23:34; Luke 11:49; Acts 2:17; 11:27,28; 13:1; 15:32; 21:9; 1Corinthians 12:10,28; 13:2; 14:1,3, 4, 5,24,29,31,32; Ephesians 3:5; 4:11; 1Thessalonians 5:20) (according to the proportion - Ro 12:3; Acts 18:24, 25, 26, 27, 28; 2Corinthians 8:12; Philippians 3:15)

Let each exercise them accordingly - These words are added by the NAS translators. These words are not in the original Greek.

Are You a Good Steward of the Spiritual Gift
God has Entrusted to Your Care?

The following story by an unknown author gives an interesting illustration of how one believer not exercising their gift in the Body can affect the message produced by the entire Body.

A Brokxn Kxy

Evxn though my typxwritxr is an old modxl, it works quitx wxll xxcxpt for onx of the kxys.

I havx many timxs wishxd that is workxd pxrfxctly.

It is trux that thxrx arx forty-onx kxys that function wxll xnough, but just onx kxy not working makxs thx diffxrxncx.

Somxtimxs it sxxms to mx that our church is somxthing likx my typxwritxr -- not all thx kxy pxoplx arx working propxrly.

As onx of thxm, you may say to yoursxlf, "Wxll, I am only onx pxrson, I don't makx or brxak thx church."

But it doxs makx a big diffxrxncx, bxcasx a church, to bx xffxctivx, nxxds thx activx participation of xvxry pxrson.

So, thx nxxt timx your xfforts arx not nxxdxd vxry much, rxmxmbxr my typxwritxr and say to yoursxlf, "I am a kxy pxrson in thx congrxgation and I am nxxdxd vxry much."

This is what happxns to thx wholx church, and multiply this by many timxs -- thx whole thing just doxs not makx sxnsx!

"Belovxd don't bx like a broken kxy."
You must utilize your spiritual gift.
The local body of Christ where you worship needs you
and cannot be the same without you!
Do you really believe that?

Prophecy (4394) (propheteia from pro = before or forth + phemi = to say or tell) literal means speaking forth or telling before. Prophecy in this context is not necessarily "fore-telling" in a predictive sense but is more accurately described as "forth-telling" (see Vine's note below).

A. H. Strong explains that "All modern prophecy that is true is but the republication of Christ’s message—the proclamation and expounding of truth already revealed in Scripture.

Vincent (Word Studies) - In the New Testament, as in the Old, the prominent idea is not prediction, but the inspired delivery of warning, exhortation, instruction, judging, and making manifest the secrets of the heart. See 1 Cor. 14:3, 24, 25. The New-Testament prophets are distinguished from teachers, by speaking under direct divine inspiration. (From his notes on Luke 7:26 Vincent adds) The popular conception of a prophet is limited to his foretelling future events. This is indeed included in the term, but does not cover its meaning entirely. The word is from phemi, to speak, and pro, before, in front of. This meaning of the preposition may have reference to time, viz., before, beforehand; or to place, viz., in front of, and so, publicly; and this latter meaning, in turn, easily runs into that of in behalf of; for. The prophet is, therefore, primarily, one who speaks standing before another, and thus forming a medium between him and the hearer. This sense runs naturally into that of instead of. Hence it is the technical term for the interpreter of a divine message. So Plato: “For this reason it is customary to appoint diviners or interpreters to be judges of the true inspiration. Some persons call them diviners, seers (manteis); they do not know that they are only repeaters of dark sayings and visions, and are not to be called diviners at all, but interpreters ((prophetai)) of things divine” (“Timaeus,” 72). Similarly of an advocate to speak for, or instead of one. The central idea of the word is, one to whom God reveals himself and through whom he speaks. The revelation may or may not relate to the future. The prophet is a forth-teller, not necessarily a foreteller. The essence of the prophetic character is immediate intercourse with God. One of the Hebrew names for “prophet,” and, as some maintain, the earlier name, signified a shewer or seer. See 1 Sam. 9:10; and in 1 Cor. 14:26–30, Paul shows that revelation stands in necessary connection with prophesying. (Luke 7 - Vincent's Word Studies)

Barclay - There is the gift of prophecy. It is only rarely that prophecy in the New Testament has to do with foretelling the future; it usually has to do with forthtelling the word of God. The prophet is the man who can announce the Christian message with the authority of one who knows. To announce Christ to others a man must first know him himself. "What this parish needs," said Carlyle's father, "is a man who knows Christ other than at second-hand." (Romans 12 - William Barclay's Daily Study Bible)

Vine - Though much of OT prophecy was purely predictive (see Micah 5:2, e.g., and cp Jn 11:51), prophecy is not necessarily, nor even primarily, fore-telling. It is the declaration of that which cannot be known by natural means (Mt 26:68), it is the forth-telling of the will of God, whether with reference to the past, the present, or the future, see Ge 20:7; Dt 18:18; Re 10:11-note; Re 11:3-note. ... In such passages as 1Co 12:28; Ep 2:20-note, the 'prophets' are placed after the 'Apostles,' since not the prophets of Israel are intended, but the 'gifts' of the ascended Lord, Ep 4:8-note, Ep 4:11-note; cp. Acts 13:1; ...; the purpose of their ministry was to edify, to comfort, and to encourage the believers, 1Co 14:3, while its effect upon unbelievers was to show that the secrets of a man's heart are known to God, to convict of sin, and to constrain to worship, 1Co 14:24,25. With the completion of the canon of Scripture prophecy apparently passed away, (1Co 13:8,9 -note). In his measure the teacher has taken the place of the prophet (cp. the significant change in 2Pe 2:1-note). The difference is that, whereas the message of the prophet was a direct revelation of the mind of God for the occasion, the message of the teacher is gathered from the completed revelation contained in the Scriptures. (Notes on Thessalonians by Hogg and Vine, pp. 196,197)

It is interesting to note that phemi the root word for propheteia is in turn derived from a root word (phao) that means "to cause to shine" and thus means to bring to light by speech. It follows that the gift of propheteia refers to the ability to take the Word of God and "make it shine" so to speak (cf 2Pe 1:19-note), so that everybody sees what to do and where to go and how to act and function. The gift of prophecy is a gift of communicating, preaching, or proclaiming revealed truth from the Word of God in a manner that produces a powerful effect upon the hearers, exhorting and equipping them up (Acts 20:32, cp 2Ti 4:2 - note). Oftentimes one who has this gift will have penetrating things to say about specific problems in society or life but these statements are not in any way to be taken as equating with a "new revelation" from God.

The gift of prophecy is not confined only to those who are pastors but includes laymen who have the gift of prophecy and are able to speak forth the truth in a powerful way. Though it can be exercised in the flesh (a deadly thing when a preacher preaches in the energy of the flesh), it is to be exercised rightly in the power of the Spirit. The Spirit gives the gift and the Spirit alone can energize and empower the gift.

Paul gives an excellent "definition" of the gift of prophesy as "one who prophesies speaks to men for edification and exhortation and consolation." (1Co 14:3)

Peter’s admonition also applies to the gift of prophecy "Whoever speaks, let him speak, as it were, the utterances of God; whoever serves, let him do so as by the strength which God supplies; so that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom belongs the glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen. (1Pe 4:11-note).

Ray Stedman notes that "Others may be helpful in helping you determine whether you have this gift, because sometimes we don't always recognize it in ourselves. Dr. Ironside used to speak of those who thought they had the gift of preaching but to whom nobody had the gift of listening.

Proportion (Robertson = "analogous, conformable, proportional") (356) (analogia) which means the right relation. To Aristotle it meant arithmetical or geometric proportion.

The proportion of his faith concerns the faith of the individual as God has made it available in a certain measure (Ro12:3). Stated another way, the gift of prophecy must not be exercised assuming a measure of faith which the individual does not possess. In a sense, this serves as a warning against going beyond what God has given and what faith is able to receive.

Vincent - Analogia - proportion - occurs only here in the New Testament. In classical Greek it is used as a mathematical term. (Romans 12 - Vincent's Word Studies)

Henry Morris - One with a prophetic gift (that is, ability to transmit divinely inspired messages) was to be able to use such a gift effectively in direct proportion to the strength of his faith. (Defenders Study Bible)

John MacArthur has a slightly different thought: "Whatever the form his message may take, the prophet is to minister it according to the proportion of his faith. Because the Greek includes the definite article, faith may here refer to the faith, that is, the full gospel message. In that case, according to the proportion of his faith would relate objectively to the prophet’s being careful to preach in accordance with the gospel revealed through the apostles—“the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints” (Jude 1:3). It could also relate subjectively to the believer’s personal understanding and insight concerning the gospel—to his speaking according to the individual proportion that God has sovereignly assigned to him for the operation of his gift." (MacArthur, J: Romans 9-16. Chicago: Moody Press) (emphasis added)

ISBE article on Spiritual Gifts

SPIRITUAL GIFTS (charismata):

1. Gifts Connected with the Ministry of the Word

(1) Apostleship
(2) Prophecy
(3) Discerning of spirits
(4) Teaching
(5) The Word of Knowledge
(6) The Word of Wisdom
(7) Kinds of Tongues
(8) Interpretation of Tongues

2. Gifts Connected with the Ministry of Practical Service

(1) Workings of Miracles
(2) Gifts of Healings
(3) Ruling, Governments
(4) Helps

The word charisma, with a single exception (1Pe 4:10), occurs in the New Testament only in the Pauline Epistles, and in the plural form is employed in a technical sense to denote extraordinary gifts of the Spirit bestowed upon Christians to equip them for the service of the church. Various lists of the charismata are given (Ro 12:6, 7, 8; 1Co 12:4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,28, 29, 30; compare Ephesians 4:7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12), none of which, it is evident, are exhaustive.

Some of the gifts enumerated cannot be said to belong in any peculiar sense to the distinctive category. "Faith" (1Co 12:9), for example, is the essential condition of all Christian life; though there were, no doubt, those who were endowed with faith beyond their fellows.

"Giving" and "mercy" (Ro 12:8) are among the ordinary graces of the Christian character; though some would possess them more than others.

"Ministry" (Ro 12:7), again, i.e. service, was the function to which every Christian was called and the purpose to which every one of the special gifts was to be devoted (Ep 4:12).

The term is applied to any spiritual benefit, as the confirmation of Christians in the faith by Paul (Ro 1:11). And as the general function of ministry appears from the first in two great forms as a ministry of word and deed (Acts 6:1, 2, 3, 4; 1Co 1:17), so the peculiar charismatic gifts which Paul mentions fall into two great classes--those which qualify their possessors for a ministry of the word, and those which prepare them to render services of a practical nature.

1. Gifts Connected with the Ministry of the Word:

(1) Apostleship

(1 Corinthians 12:28; compare Ephesians 4:11).--The name "apostle" is used in the New Testament in a narrower and a wider sense. It was the peculiar title and privilege of the Twelve (Matthew 10:2; Luke 6:13; Acts 1:25), but was claimed by Paul on special grounds (Romans 1:1; 1 Corinthians 9:1, etc.); it was probably conceded to James the Lord's brother (1 Corinthians 15:7; Galatians 1:19), and in a freer use of the term is applied to Barnabas (Acts 14:4,14; compare 1 Corinthians 9:5,6), Andronicus and Junias (Romans 16:7). From the Didache (xi.4) we learn that the ministry of apostles was continued in the church into the sub-apostolic age (see LITERATURE, SUB-APOSTOLIC). The special gift and function of apostleship, taken in the widest sense, was to proclaim the word of the gospel (Acts 6:2; 1 Corinthians 1:17, etc.), and in particular to proclaim it to the world outside of the church, whether Jewish or Gentile (Galatians 2:7,8).

(2) Prophecy

(Romans 12:6; 1 Corinthians 12:10,28,29), under which may be included exhortation (Romans 12:8; compare 1 Corinthians 14:3). The gift of prophecy was bestowed at Pentecost upon the church as a whole (Acts 2:16), but in particular measure upon certain individuals who were distinctively known as prophets. Only a few of the Christian prophets are directly referred to--Judas and Silas (Acts 15:32), the prophets at Antioch (Acts 13:1), Agabus and the prophets from Jerusalem (Acts 11:27), the four daughters of Philip the evangelist (Acts 11:9). But 1 Corinthians shows that there were several of them in the Corinthian church; and probably they were to be found in every Christian community. Some of them moved about from church to church (Acts 11:27; 21:10); and in the Didache we find that even at the celebration of the Eucharist the itinerant prophet still takes precedence of the local ministry of bishops and deacons (Didache x.7).

It is evident that the functions of the prophet must sometimes have crossed those of the apostle, and so we find Paul himself described as a prophet long after he had been called to the apostleship (Acts 13:1). And yet there was a fundamental distinction. While the apostle, as we have seen, was one "sent forth" to the unbelieving world, the prophet was a minister to the believing church (1 Corinthians 14:4,22). Ordinarily his message was one of "edification, and exhortation, and consolation" (1 Corinthians 14:3). Occasionally he was empowered to make an authoritative announcement of the divine will in a particular case (Acts 13:1). In rare instances we find him uttering a prediction of a future event (Acts 11:28; 21:10).

(3) Discerning of Spirits

With prophecy must be associated the discernings of spirits (1 Corinthians 12:10; 14:29; 1 Thessalonians 5:20; compare 1 John 4:1). The one was a gift for the speaker, the other for those who listened to his words. The prophet claimed to be the medium of divine revelations (1 Corinthians 14:30); and by the spiritual discernment of his hearers the truth of his claim was to be judged (1 Corinthians 14:29). There were false prophets as well as genuine prophets, spirits of error as well as spirits of truth (1John 4:1-6; compare 2 Thessalonians 2:2; Didache xi). And while prophesyings were never to be despised, the utterances of the prophets were to be "proved" (1 Thessalonians 5:20), and that in them which came from the Spirit of God spiritually judged (1 Corinthians 2:14), and so discriminated from anything that might be inspired by evil spirits.

(4) Teaching

(Romans 12:7; 1 Corinthians 12:28).--As distinguished from the prophet, who had the gift of uttering fresh truths that came to him by way of vision and revelation, the teacher was one who explained and applied established Christian doctrine--the rudiments and first principles of the oracles of God (Hebrews 5:12).

(5) The Word of Knowledge

Possibly the word of knowledge (gnosis).

(6) The Word of Wisdom

The word of wisdom (sophia) (1 Corinthians 12:8) are to be distinguished, the first as the utterance of a prophetic and ecstatic intuition, the second as the product of study and reflective thought; and so are to be related respectively to the functions of the prophet and the teacher.

(7) Kinds of Tongues

(1 Corinthians 12:10,28,30).--What Paul means by this he explains fully in 1 Corinthians 14. The gift was not a faculty of speaking in unknown foreign languages, for the tongues (glossai) are differentiated from the "voices" or languages (phonai) by which men of one nation are distinguished from those of another (1Co 14:10,11). And when the apostle says that the speaker in an unknown tongue addressed himself to God and not to men (1Co 14:2,14) and was not understood by those who heard him (1Co 14:2), that he edified himself (1Co 14:4) and yet lost the power of conscious thought while praying with the spirit (1Co 14:14 f), it would appear that the "tongues" must have been of the nature of devout ejaculations and broken and disjointed words, uttered almost unconsciously under the stress of high ecstatic feeling.

(8) Interpretation of Tongues

Parallel to this gift was that of the interpretation of tongues (1 Corinthians 12:10,30). If the gift of tongues had been a power of speaking unknown foreign languages, the interpretation of tongues would necessarily have meant the faculty of interpreting a language unknown to the interpreter; for translation from a familiar language could hardly be described as a charisma. But the principle of economy makes it improbable that the edification of the church was accomplished in this round-about way by means of a double miracle--a miracle of foreign speech followed by a miracle of interpretation. If, on the other hand, the gift of tongues was such as has been described, the gift of interpretation would consist in turning what seemed a meaningless utterance into words easy to be understood (1 Corinthians 12:9). The interpretation might be given by the speaker in tongues himself (1 Corinthians 12:5,13) after his mood of ecstasy was over, as he translated his exalted experiences and broken cries into plain intelligible language. Or, if he lacked the power of self-interpretation, the task might be undertaken by another possessed of this special gift (1 Corinthians 12:27,28). The ability of a critic gifted with sympathy and insight to interpret the meaning of a picture or a piece of music, as the genius who produced it might be quite unable to do (e.g. Ruskin and Turner), will help us to understand how the ecstatic half-conscious utterances of one who had the gift of tongues might be put into clear and edifying form by another who had the gift of interpretation.

2. Gifts Connected with the Ministry of Practical Service:

(1) Workings of Miracles

(1Corinthians 12:10,28,29).--The word used for miracles in this chapter (dunameis, literally, "powers") is employed in Acts 8:7,13; 19:11,12 so as to cover those cases of exorcism and the cure of disease which in Paul's list are placed under the separate category of "gifts of healing." As distinguished from the ordinary healing gift, which might be possessed by persons not otherwise remarkable, the "powers" point to a higher faculty more properly to be described as miraculous, and bestowed only upon certain leading men in the church. In 2Corinthians 12:12 Paul speaks of the "powers" he wrought in Corinth as among "the signs of an apostle." In Hebrews 2:4 the writer mentions the "manifold powers" of the apostolic circle as part of the divine confirmation of their testimony. In Romans 15:18 Paul refers to his miraculous gifts as an instrument which Christ used for the furtherance of the gospel and the bringing of the Gentiles to obedience. The working of "powers," accordingly, was a gift which linked itself to the ministry of the word in respect of its bearing upon the truth of the gospel and the mission of the apostle to declare it. And yet, like the wider and lower gift of healing, it must be regarded primarily as a gift of practical beneficence, and only secondarily as a means of confirming the truth and authenticating its messenger by way of a sign. The Book of Ac gives several examples of "powers" that are different from ordinary healings. The raising of Dorcas (9:36) and of Eutychus (20:9) clearly belong to this higher class, and also, perhaps, such remarkable cures as those of the life-long cripple at the Temple gate (3:1) and Aeneas of Lydda (9:32).

(2) Gifts of Healings

(1 Corinthians 12:9,28,30).


(3) Ruling, Governments

(Romans 12:8; 1 Corinthians 12:28).--These were gifts of wise counsel and direction in the practical affairs of the church, such as by and by came to be formally entrusted to presbyters or bishops. When Paul wrote to the Corinthians, the ministry of office had not yet supplanted the ministry of inspiration, and Christian communities were guided and governed by those of their members whose wisdom in counsel proved that God through His Spirit had bestowed upon them the gift of ruling.

(4) Helps

(1 Corinthians 12:28).--This has sometimes been understood to denote the lowliest Christian function of all in Paul's list, the function of those who have no pronounced gifts of their own and can only employ themselves in services of a subordinate kind. But the usage of the Greek word (antilempsis) in the papyri as well as the Septuagint points to succor rendered to the weak by the strong; and this is confirmed for the New Testament when the same Greek word in its verbal form (antilambano) is used in Acts 20:35, when Paul exhorts the elders of the Ephesian church to follow his example in helping the weak. Thus, as the gift of government foreshadowed the official powers of the presbyter or bishop, the gift of helps appears to furnish the germ of the gracious office of the deacon--the "minister" paragraph excellence, as the name diakonos denotes--which we find in existence at a later date in Philippi and Ephesus (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:1-13), and which was probably created, on the analogy of the diakonia of the Seven in Jerusalem (Acts 6:1), as a ministry, in the first place, to the poor.

LITERATURE. Hort, Christian Ecclesia, Lect X; Neander, Hist of the Planting of the Christian Church, I, 131; Weizsacker, Apostolic Age, II, 255-75; Lindsay, Church and Ministry, passim; EB, IV, article "Spiritual Gifts"; ERE, III, article "Charismata"; PRE, VI, article "Geistesgaben."

J. C. Lambert


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