Jew and Gentile
Restored to Israel
Slaves to Sin
Slaves to God
Life by Faith
Modified from Irving L.
Jensen's excellent work "Jensen's
Survey of the NT"
WE WHO ARE STRONG OUGHT TO BEAR
OF THOSE WITHOUT STRENGTH: Opheilomen (1PPAI)
de hemeis oi dunatoi ta asthenemata ton adunaton bastazein (PAN):
27, 13:8, 1:14, 8:12) (Ro 14:1 1Co 8:1-13; 9:22; 12:22, 23,24 Gal 6:1,2
which refers to sin 1Th 5:14)
Remember that in Romans 14 and Romans
15 Paul is teaching how the one who is being transformed by the renewing
of their mind should demonstrate this by a change in attitude toward
those with whom they disagree or hold different values.
Middletown Bible -
The Law of Love (Romans 14:1-15:3) -
For further help in understanding how to
live so as to not cause a brother to stumble, see our paper entitled,
67 Biblical Tests to Use in Deciding Upon a Course of Action."
If any course of action which would
be safe to us would be dangerous to weaker brethren, we must consider
their infirmity and deny ourselves for their sakes.
When we are free from scruples upon
any point, and feel that there are things that we may do because we are
strong, yet let us not do them if thereby we should grieve others who
are weak. Let us think of their infirmities; and whatever liberty we may
feel entitled to claim for ourselves, let us look at the matter from the
standpoint of other people as well as from our Own, that we may bear the
infirmities of the weak, and not seek to please ourselves.
Now - The Greek conjunction
"de" which could be translated "but" which
would emphasize the contrast with
the weak brother who doubts, eats, is condemned and sins (cf
that this chapter is probably one of the most unfortunate chapter
divisions in the book of Romans because it breaks right into the flow of
thought that begins in (Ro 14:1-note)
and continues through (Ro 15:13-note),
dealing with the area of the dynamics, dangers and duties of believer's
interrelating in this area of non essentials. So don't' begin your study
on (Ro 15:1) thinking this is a new theme. You must go back and read in
to understand Paul's flow of thought continuing
the exhortation to brotherly love and mutual kindness and forbearance as
a practical manifestation of having presented our bodies to God as a
living and holy sacrifice (Ro 12:1-note,
We Who is we? Paul identifies
himself with the strong believers = those whose personal convictions
allow them more freedom than the weak.
Ought (3784)(opheilo from ophéllo
= heap up) means to owe something to someone. Literally it speaks
of financial indebtedness and thus means to owe money, to be in debt, or
to describe that which is due (Mt 18:28, Lk 7:41, 16:5, 7, Philemon
1:18). The verb opheilo was sometimes used to describe "the debt"
itself. Figuratively, opheilo describes a sense of indebtedness to
someone for something. For example, it was used to describe owing good
will (1Co 7:3), love (Ro 13:8 = we can never love enough and will always
"owe" this debt).
Opheilo in most of the NT uses
conveys the sense of necessity, duty or to be under obligation
(obligation = moral requirement which conveys the binding force of
civility, kindness or gratitude, when the performance of a duty cannot
be enforced by law). The idea is that one is held or bound by duty,
moral obligation or necessity to do something. Thus opheilo can
mean that it behooves one to do something (Mt 23:16, 18). Opheilo
is used of a necessity imposed either by law and duty, by reason, by the
times, or by the nature of the matter under consideration (Lk 17:10, Jn
13:14 = you also [because Jesus washed their feet] ought to wash one
another's feet, Jn 19:7, Acts 17:29 = ought not to think..., Ro
15:1, 27 = they are indebted to them...indebted to
minister, Eph 5:28 = husbands ought also to love their own wives,
2Th 1:3, 2:13 = ought to give thanks to God; He 5:12 = ought
to be teachers; 1Jn 2:16 = ought to walk [like Jesus], 1Jn 3:16 =
[Jesus laid down His life] we ought to lay down our lives for the
brethren; 1Jn 4:11 = [because of God's love] we also ought to
love one another; 3Jn 1:8 = we ought to support such men)
English dictionaries say that "ought"
is used to express obligation [ought to pay our debts],
advisability [ought to take care of yourself], natural expectation
[ought to be here by now], or logical consequence [the result ought to
be infinity]. Ought expresses prudent expediency (you ought to be
more careful with your money)
Note that opheilo speaks of a
moral obligation as contrasted to a necessity in the
nature of the case as is
dei [word study].
The original Greek sentence order places emphasis on the obligation
or debt we owe (Young's literal = "and we ought - we who are
strong..."). The sense is because we are strong we have a
debt or moral obligation to aid those who are weak.
Paul uses the same verb, opheilo to
explain our obligation to continually owe (Ro 13:8-note).
The implication is that the strong are to show agape love, that love
which reaches out and picks up the weak brother because it seeks his
highest good and it does so expecting nothing in return. From the
context apparently the strong brethren in Rome were living to please
self. Things haven't changed much in the church have they?
Opheilo - 35x in 34v and is
translated in the NAS as had(1), have(1), indebted(2), must(1),
obligated(3), ought(15), owe(4), owed(4),owes(1), responsible(1),
Matthew 18:28 "But that slave went
out and found one of his fellow slaves who owed him a hundred
denarii; and he seized him and began to choke him, saying, 'Pay back
what you owe.'
Matthew 18:30 "He was unwilling however, but went and threw him in
prison until he should pay back what was owed.
Matthew 18:34 "And his lord, moved with anger, handed him over to the
torturers until he should repay all that was owed him.
Matthew 23:16 "Woe to you, blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the
temple, that is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple,
he is obligated.'
Matthew 23:18 "And, 'Whoever swears by the altar, that is nothing, but
whoever swears by the offering upon it, he is obligated.'
Luke 7:41 "A certain moneylender had two debtors: one owed five hundred
denarii, and the other fifty.
Luke 11:4 'And forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive
everyone who is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation.'"
Luke 16:5 "And he summoned each one of his master's debtors, and he
began saying to the first, 'How much do you owe my master?'
Luke 16:7 "Then he said to another, 'And how much do you owe?' And he
said, 'A hundred measures of wheat.' He said to him, 'Take your bill,
and write eighty.'
Luke 17:10 "So you too, when you do all the things which are commanded
you, say, 'We are unworthy slaves; we have done only that which we ought
to have done.'"
John 13:14 "If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, washed your feet, you
also ought to wash one another's feet.
John 19:7 The Jews answered him, "We have a law, and by that law He
ought to die because He made Himself out to be the Son of God."
Acts 17:29 "Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that
the Divine Nature is like gold or silver or stone (idolatry is directly
attacked as an affront to God and a devaluation of Him), an image formed by
the art and thought of man .
Romans 13:8 Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another; for he who
loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law.
Romans 15:1 Now we who are strong ought to bear the weaknesses of those
without strength and not just please ourselves.
Romans 15:27 Yes, they were pleased to do so, and they are indebted to
them (the Jerusalem saints). For if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they
are indebted to minister to them also in material things.
1 Corinthians 5:10 I did not at all mean with the immoral people of this
world, or with the covetous and swindlers, or with idolaters; for then
you would have to go out of the world.
1 Corinthians 7:36 But if any man thinks that he is acting unbecomingly
toward his virgin daughter (either a fiancée, a daughter, or the ward of
a guardian), if she should be of full age (past the bloom of youth), and if it
be so, let him do what he wishes, he does not sin; let her marry.
1 Corinthians 9:10 Or is He speaking altogether for our sake? Yes, for
our sake it was written, because the plowman ought to plow in hope, and
the thresher to thresh in hope of sharing the crops.
1 Corinthians 11:7 For a man ought not to have his head covered, since
he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man.
1 Corinthians 11:10 Therefore the woman ought to have a symbol of
authority on her head, because of the angels.
2 Corinthians 12:11 I have become foolish; you yourselves compelled me.
Actually I should have been commended by you, for in no respect was I
inferior to the most eminent apostles, even though I am a nobody.
2 Corinthians 12:14 Here for this third time I am ready to come to you,
and I will not be a burden to you; for I do not seek what is yours, but
you; for children are not responsible to save up for their parents
(Literal = or the children ought not for the parents to lay up), but
parents for their children.
Ephesians 5:28 So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their
own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself;
2 Thessalonians 1:3 We ought always to give thanks to God for you,
brethren, as is only fitting, because your faith is greatly enlarged,
and the love of each one of you toward one another grows ever greater;
2 Thessalonians 2:13 But we should always give thanks to God for you,
brethren beloved by the Lord, because God has chosen you from the
beginning for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and faith
in the truth.
Philemon 1:18 But if he has wronged you in any way, or owes you
anything, charge that to my account;
Hebrews 2:17 Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all
things, that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in
things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the
Hebrews 5:3 and because of it he is obligated to offer sacrifices for
sins, as for the people, so also for himself.
Hebrews 5:12 For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you have
need again for someone to teach you the elementary principles of the
oracles of God, and you have come to need milk and not solid food.
1 John 2:6 the one who says he abides in Him ought himself to walk in
the same manner as He walked.
Comment: In other words your
"actions speak louder than your words" or as James would say, "your
faith has works" and thus your faith is genuine. If you do not have
godly conduct (note not "perfection" but one's general "direction"), you
are not a believer, no matter how loudly you claim (or protest).
NET Bible Note: "Abides" = The
Greek verb meno (which) is commonly translated into contemporary
English as "remain" or "abide," but both of these translations have some
problems: "Abide" has become in some circles almost a "technical
term" for some sort of special intimate fellowship or close relationship
between the Christian and God, so that one may speak of Christians who
are "abiding" and Christians who are not. It is accurate to say the word
indicates a close, intimate (and permanent) relationship between the
believer and God. However, it is very important to note that for the
author of the Gospel of John and the Johannine Epistles every genuine
Christian has this type of relationship with God, and the person who
does not have this type of relationship (cf. 2Jn 9) is not a believer at
all (in spite of what he or she may claim).
1 John 3:16 We know love by this, that He laid down His life for us; and
we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren.
1 John 4:11 Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one
3 John 1:8 Therefore we ought to support such men, that we may be fellow
workers with the truth.
Opheilo - 5x in the Septuagint
- Deut 15:2; Job 6:20; Pr 14:9; Isa 24:2; Ezek 18:7
pertains to having the ability to perform some function by virtue of
inherent ability and resources. The attribute of being capable or
competent, including in some uses political power or influence (cp 1Cor
1:26). Dunatos is a Name given to the Lord God in Luke 1:49 (cp
Septuagint use in Ps 45:3-note)
Dunatos - 32x in 32v - Matt
19:26; 24:24; 26:39; Mark 9:23; 10:27; 13:22; 14:35, 36; Luke 1:49;
14:31; 18:27; 24:19; Acts 2:24; 7:22; 11:17; 18:24; 20:16; 25:5; Ro
4:21; 9:22; 11:23; 12:18; 15:1; 1 Cor 1:26; 2 Cor 10:4; 12:10; 13:9;
Gal 4:15; 2 Tim 1:12; Titus 1:9; Heb 11:19; Jas 3:2. The NAS renders
dunatos as able(6), could(1), impossible*(1), influential men(1), man of
power(1), mighty(3), Mighty One(1), possible(12), power(1), powerful(1),
strong(3), strong enough(1).
Some of the translations add strong
"in the faith" which is not in the Greek text but which is a reasonable
interpretation in context.
word Paul chose for "without strength" is adunatos
(102) = a prefix meaning w/o or negation of what follows +
possible, able, or powerful.
means without strength, powerless, disabled, incapable, pertaining to
not being able to do or experience something. Keep in mind that "strong"
& "weak" are relative terms in the church and we are all "strong" in
some respects & in some situations. The point is that what Paul is
exhorting cannot be easily set aside as if it is advice only to someone
Adunatos - 10x in 10v - Matt
19:26; Mark 10:27; Luke 18:27; Acts 14:8; Rom 8:3; 15:1; Heb 6:4, 18;
means to pick up and carry a weight and is used of carrying a pitcher of
water (Mark 14:13), of carrying a man
(Acts 21:35). Bastazo was used of carrying the cross literally (John
19:17) and carrying the cross, figuratively (Lk 14:27). It was used
figuratively of bearing an obligation (Acts 15:10).
Bastazo - 27x in 27v - Matt
3:11; 8:17; 20:12; Mark 14:13; Luke 7:14; 10:4; 11:27; 14:27; 22:10;
John 10:31; 12:6; 16:12; 19:17; 20:15; Acts 3:2; 9:15; 15:10; 21:35; Rom
11:18; 15:1; Gal 5:10; 6:2, 5, 17; Rev 2:2f; 17:7. The NAS renders
bastazo as bear(8), bearers(1), bearing(1), bore(1), borne(1),
carried(2), carried away(2),carries(1), carry(2), carrying(2),
endure(1), endured(1), pilfer(1), remove(1), supports(1), took up(1).
Bastazo conveys the idea to
bear with, be indulgent to, endure patiently, or not to contend with
your weaker brethren.
To bear the weaknesses of fellow
believers is not simply to tolerate those weaknesses but to help carry
them. Paul commands the Galatian believers to
Bear (bastazo in present
tense = connotes carrying something with endurance) one another's
burdens (extra heavy loads = in this context = difficulties or
problems people have trouble dealing with), and thus fulfill the law of
Christ. (the law of love which fulfills the entire law)" (Gal 6:2)
Paul is referring to failures,
temptations, testings, and trials and telling all of us as believers
that instead of standing off at a distance and criticizing, we should
fly to the side of our brother or sister in trouble or distress and help
them in every possible way. How are you doing with the call to bear
weaknesses and burdens of your brethren?
Bear does not mean putting
up with and forbearing with an attitude of begrudging. It means to bear
the weak along, to support them, to carry them along as a father or
mother would carry a child—in love and tenderness, understanding and
care. Don't get angry with them, don't defy them, don't cut them off
from your love and concern, but try to please them, patiently instruct
them, and edify them to their own good. They don't need criticism, they
need instruction. They don't need neglect, they need attention. Remember
the - Only the believer who has presented himself or herself to God as a
living sacrifice will carry out this duty with delight rather than
How do we help carry weaker brethren (in context of Romans 14)?
As Paul writes in the next verse the
simple (but not really so simple in everyday practice) answer is not to
please ourselves. Not being judgmental, critical or condescending and by
showing respect for the sincere views or practices even though we don't
necessarily agree with them. As long as these different views are
concerning the "non essentials" where the Bible does not give clear cut
guidelines, we are to walk in love & pursue the things that make for
peace & the building up of the brother.
Compare Paul's similar command
in (Php 2:3, 4 -note,
cp Ga6:2 which also uses the verb "bastazo"
to carry or bear)....if it is going to be a stumbling block to our
brother—we do not do it. We please, help, support, and live for the good
of our brothers and sisters so that they might be edified and built up
in the faith.
Wuest explains that...
When an informed believer foregoes an
action which he knows is right, but which a weaker Christian thinks to
be wrong, and does it for the sake of not offending that weaker
Christian, he curtails his own freedom of action, denies himself
something that is legitimately his, and this is a burden to him. Denney
“Paul says, ‘bear’ their infirmities:
because the restrictions and limitations laid by this charity on the
liberty of the strong are a burden to them.”
While Paul had in mind the particular
case of scruples, yet Alford thinks that these infirmities are general
and include various types of weaknesses At all events, the principle
applies to these latter also.
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
John MacArthur adds that...
"The idea is that of showing
genuine, loving, and practical consideration for other believers. We are
not to argue about minor issues or be critical of those who may still be
sensitive about a former religious practice or taboo. The injunction is
for mature believers to voluntarily and lovingly refrain from exercising
their liberty in ways that might needlessly offend the consciences of
less mature brothers and sisters in Christ, those who are without
strength....He was not speaking of compromising the gospel or godly
standards of living in order to gain acceptance and approval by the
world, a sin he strongly condemned. (Gal 1:10).
On the contrary, he was speaking of relinquishing personal liberties and
advantages for the sake of fellow believers—even for the sake of
unbelievers, if doing so might be instrumental in leading them to
J: Romans 9-16. Chicago: Moody Press
Speaking of "do's,
differences and don'ts" Ray Stedman adds this one:
"I was just reading this morning that
Dr. Carl McIntire, the flamboyant fundamentalist Presbyterian preacher,
is now attacking Christians for going along with the change from
Fahrenheit to Celsius, or centigrade. He says it is nothing but a sneaky
Communist plot to take over the world by degrees! So there are a lot of
things you could get upset about and divide over"
Stedman goes on to add that...
Someone has well said that Christians
can be compared to porcupines on a cold winter night, they need to
huddle together in order to warm each other, but, as they draw together,
their prickly spines dig into each other and they have to pull apart, so
all night long it is a process of huddling together and pulling apart.
Many churches, I am afraid, fit that description very aptly. This is the
essential problem that Paul faces in the application of all the mighty
doctrine that we have had in Romans thus far -- the practical matter of
getting along with other Christians. The first thirteen verses of Chap15
deal with two major causes of division among Christians. There are those
divisions that arise from a difference of conviction, of point of view.
Then there are those divisions that arise from difference of background.
These two factors are at work today to divide Christians all over the
world....Now, please, don't look around and be glad that so-and-so is
here this morning, listen patiently yourself as we look at this...: The
problem is those weak (or we might call them legalistic) Christians who
have the irritating habit of differing with us about certain points of
view. They are rather short-sighted, perhaps, in their outlook, and they
grow offended at the liberty others feel they have in participating in
actions and activities that the first group deplores...? I think the
fact that Christians differ in the matter of the use of the RSV as
compared with the KJV in public reading and teaching is one example of a
different point of view which can create divisions among Christians." (Power
from astheneo = to be weak or powerless) describes the result of
being weak (as indicated by the suffix -ma). Here Paul is referring to
the conscientious scruples (asthenema = plural in this passage) which
arise in those who are weak in the faith [cf. 2Co 11:29]. Paul is
describing the qualms or misgivings these saints have as the result of
their conscience being bound to legalistic requirements.
The NLT paraphrases the idea of
weaknesses this way...
We who are strong must be considerate
of those who are sensitive about things like this. We must not
just please ourselves.
from a = without +
dunatos [word study]
= possible, able, or
dunamai [word study]
= to be able or have power by virtue
of inherent ability and resources. Note the stem duna- or dyna-
conveying the basic sense of ability or capability, power, strength,
might) means impossible, incapable of being or of occurring, incapable
of being done. Adunatos is used twice to convey the idea of one
who is impotent, has no strength or lacks capability in functioning
adequately, once in a literal sense (Acts 14:8 below = powerless) and
here in Romans 15:1 by Paul the sense of spiritual weakness, of those
who do not "strongly" believe or have a "strong" faith.
Regarding those who are without
strength J C Ryle makes an interesting statement...
There is a wide difference between
the highest and lowest measure of grace possessed by those who are "born
again." There are real and true Christians who are only "babes" in
spiritual attainments, and there are others who are "strong," and
vigorous, and able to do great things for Christ (1John 2:12, 13, 14).
The Scripture speaks of little faith and great faith, of little strength
and great strength. One thing only is certain,--every regenerate person
has more or less the marks of regeneration, and he who has none of them
is not born again (Mt. 14:31, 15:28; Rev. 3:8; Ro 15:1). (J. C. Ryle.
The Upper Room)
AND NOT JUST PLEASE OURSELVES:
kai me heautois areskein
(See cross references on selflessness - Proverbs 11:26 Proverbs 18:1
Proverbs 28:27 Romans 2:8 Romans 15:1-2 1 Cor. 13:5 Galatians 5:19-21a
Galatians 6:2 Phil. 2:3-4 2 Tim. 3:2-4 James 2:15-16 James 3:14-16 1
In short if we live simply to please
ourselves (the converse of Phil 2:3, 4-note,
we are clearly not following in the steps of our Lord Jesus Christ Who
lived to please the Father by serving others (cp Mk 10:45)
Please (700) (aresko
[word study]) means behaving properly toward one with whom
one is related. The idea is that “we should not do just what we
ourselves want to do” or “we should not do just what is going to make us
happy.” Does this truth ever run counter to our modern society which is
much like the days of the Judges for "in those days there was no king in
Israel; everyone did what was right in his own eyes." (Judges 21:25-note)
What's the implication of
Paul's admonition? That the saints at Rome were focused inward
rather than outward. If you are prone toward being judgmental and
exclusive, this is a big pill to swallow. If you are the kind of person
who is sure he is right and must have his way, you doubtless are finding
yourself very uncomfortable with Paul's exhortation (and if we are
honest, this probably includes most of us!) We should be willing to deny
ourselves (Mark 8:34), if by it we may promote the edification of
In context Paul is referring
particularly to "opinions" (Ro 14:1-note)
about meats, drinks and days. But the broader application is to
Christian conduct in general, where we are not to make our own
gratification the standard of our conduct, but are to seek the welfare
of others. (See examples of Jesus' Phil 2:3, 4, 5-note
& Paul 1Cor 9:19,22, 1Cor 10:33 cf 1Cor 13:5, 10:24, Mt 6:24-note).
This does mot mean that we are never to do anything that we want to do,
but that we are never to do what pleases us regardless of its effects on
others. Consideration for weaker brethren takes precedence over what we
ourselves would like to do.
John MacArthur writes that
The right use of Christian liberty, which the strong believer
understands and appreciates, often involves self-sacrifice. When our
true motivation is to please Christ by helping “to bear the weaknesses
of those without strength” (v1a), we can expect to forfeit certain
legitimate liberties, when exercising them would harm a weaker brother
or sister....But the Lord does not grant those freedoms just so we can
selfishly please ourselves. He grants them for the benefit of His entire
church. Every believer has the same liberty in Christ as every other
believer, but because believers vary greatly in spiritual knowledge and
maturity, the careless exercise of a liberty by one member can do great
harm to the conscience and spiritual well-being of another member and
even to the well-being of an entire congregation. (MacArthur,
J: Romans 9-16. Chicago: Moody Press
Most of us are aware of churches that have split over the smallest
issues, such as
where the piano ought to be
placed or what color the carpet should be!
ILLUSTRATION - The story is
told of two congregations that were located only a few blocks from each
other in a small community. They thought it might be better if they
would merge and become one united, larger, and more effective body
rather than two struggling churches. They were not able to consummate
the amalgamation because they could not agree on how they would recite “The Lord’s
Prayer”. One church preferred “forgive us our trespasses,” while the
other church favored “forgive us our debts.” The local newspaper quipped “One church went back to its trespasses while the other
returned to its debts.”
Middletown Bible sums up this
section of Romans - Here in Romans chapter 15, Paul continues his
theme from Chapter 14, showing the strong believer’s responsibility
toward the weaker brother. Perhaps this is an unfortunate chapter
division, because the end of chapter 14 helps us to understand the
beginning of chapter 15. (Chapter divisions were added at a later time
and were not part of the original God-inspired text.)
Paul sets forth the responsibility of those strong in the faith. "We
that are strong"--Paul includes himself among the strong. The word
"ought" means "we must, we are obligated." That is, we have a moral
obligation. This moral obligation is towards the weak. We owe them our
love (Rom. 13:8). The term "infirmities" means weaknesses, literally
"lack of strength." The verb "bear" means "to carry, to support as a
burden, to bear a burden, bear patiently, put up with." Consider the
example of the Lord Jesus with His disciples. They were weak in many
ways but He patiently bore their infirmities, was patient with them, and
gently brought them along to maturity.
The responsibility of the strong believer towards the weak believer:
To receive the weak believer, as God
has (Rom. 14:1,3)
To not despise the weak believer (Rom. 14:2)
To not put a stumbling block in his way (Rom. 14:13,20)
To walk "charitably," that is, according to love (Rom. 14:15)
To be willing to sacrifice our own rights and liberties so as not to
bring ruin to our brother (Ro 14:15)
To pursue peace in the body of Christ (Rom. 14:17,19)
To edify and build up the weak believer, erecting stepping stones to
growth (Rom. 14:19)
To not flaunt our liberty before our weak brother (Rom. 14:22)
To bear patiently his weaknesses (Rom. 15:1)
To not be pleasing self (Rom. 15:1)
The strong believer is not to be
pleasing himself. That is, he is not to be gratifying his own selfish
desires. Our first concern must not be for self-gratification but the
weak brother’s edification, even if this involves personal sacrifice and
self-denial (saying "NO" to self). (ROMANS