(SINCE) THE SPIRIT OF HIM WHO RAISED JESUS FROM THE DEAD DWELLS IN YOU: ei de to pneuma tou egeirantos (AAPMSG) ton Iesoun ek nekron oikei
(3SPAI) en humin: (Ro 8:9; 4:24,25; Acts 2:24,32,33; Ephesians
1:19,20; Hebrews 13:20; 1Peter 1:21)
In Romans 8:10
Paul gave us the "bad news" that our body is dead because of sin but now
counters with the good news that our dead body will be resurrected. The
same Spirit that raised Jesus' body from the dead will raise ours from
the dead (Hallelujah!) and he adds that each will be raised "in his own
order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ’s at His
coming, and He is the first fruits of all who will follow." (1Cor
15:23). In other words the "first fruits" assures the fruits (so to
speak) will follow.
introduces a first class conditional statement which is a fact. In other
words the "if" does
not introduce doubt, but means "if, as is the case" (or
"since"). Note that
again (like Ro 8:10 above) Paul introduces this clause with "but" indicating contrast
with the body of death.
Note that the
pronoun "Him" in the phrase "the Spirit of Him Who raised Jesus"
is a reference to the Father not to the Spirit. It was God the Father
Who raised Jesus. And yet it was also the Spirit! The same Spirit Who
miraculously brought about conception of the life of Jesus the Man in
Mary's womb (Mt 1:20) is the same Spirit Who was also involved in giving
life to Jesus after He died as a Man! Oh, mystery of mysteries. How
great is our salvation! (Heb 2:3)
The New Testament affirms the
role of the Father in the resurrection in several other passages...
"And God raised Him up again, putting
an end to the agony of death, since it was impossible for Him to be held
in its power. (Acts 2:24)
Now God has not only raised the Lord,
but will also raise us up through His power. (1Cor 6:14)
"knowing that He (God the Father) Who
raised the Lord Jesus will raise us also with Jesus and will present us
with you." (2Cor 4:14)
And elsewhere the Scripture affirms
that the Spirit was intimately involved in the resurrection of our Lord.
And so in Paul's introduction to Romans he writes...
who was declared the Son of God with
power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the
Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord, (Ro 1:4NAS)
And Jesus Christ our Lord was shown
to be the Son of God when God powerfully raised him from the dead by
means of the Holy Spirit. (Ro 1:4NLT)
who was appointed the
Son-of-God-in-power according to the Holy Spirit by the
resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord. (Ro 1:4NET)
That God the Father and God the
Spirit are involved in the resurrection of Jesus Christ should not
surprise us. The great Puritan writer John
Owen explains how grace
is in Jesus and yet the effecting Agent of that grace is the Spirit of
Jesus (Acts 16:7, Phil 1:19-note, Ro
Everything God does He does as the
triune God. Each Person of the Trinity is involved in every action of
God. Yet at the same time each Person has a special role to fulfill in
that work....There is no
good that we receive from God but it is brought to us and wrought in us
by the Holy Spirit. Nor
is there in us any good towards God, any faith, love, obedience to His
will, but what we are enabled (Ed:
Note not "helped" which implies we have some ability and just
need a little "push"!) to
do so by the Holy Spirit.
Or, A Discourse Concerning the Holy Spirit)
As an aside remember that the Bible
says every Christian has the Holy Spirit. The question is does the Holy
Spirit have you? Is the Holy Spirit at home in your heart and life?
(egeiro) means to waken, rouse from sleep, from sitting or lying,
from disease and here means to wake up from death, of which sleep is the
emblem. Here Paul says the Spirit raised Jesus. In Ro 4:24, Acts 2:24,
Eph 1:19-20, Heb 13:20, 1Pe 1:21 we see that it is God the Father Who
raised Jesus from the dead. There is no conflict, for the Trinity
functions in perfect synchrony and unity, even if we cannot fully
comprehend how that occurs.
from oikos = home) means to live, inhabit or dwell in a
certain place as one's home. To inhabit a house. Oikeo is speaks of
dwelling often with a figurative sense - sin (Ro 7:17), Spirit (1Cor
3:16), marriage partners (1Cor 7:12).
In this passage
oikeo is in the
= "is dwelling" or continually dwells. This fact is important for it
emphasizes that the Spirit is not an occasional visitor (as He was in
the OT) but that He
takes up residence in God’s children. In fact the present tense
even underscores that the Spirit continually indwells us not only in
this life, but in the one to come! (cp John 14:16) And of course
now we never have to pray
the prayer of David in Ps 51:11b "Do not take Your Holy Spirit from
me!" Praise God! Of course we can still blunt His effect and power
by sin, so we need to keep short accounts!
- The significance of the term oikeo is that it speaks of
permanency. The idea is that the Holy Spirit takes up residency in
believers—forever. He doesn’t just pass through. He makes us His home.
He comes to stay. (The Wonderful Spirit-Filled Life)
What an awesome truth that the Spirit of
the Living God would make His home in ever redeemed sinner. He lives in
the believer, not simply paying a fleeting visit but making His "home"
in us, even as in 1Cor 7:12-13 a husband and a wife dwell together
(interesting as this brings to mind the picture of union and oneness
which is true as a result of our entry into the New Covenant)!
BDAG summarized -
(1) To dwell in a place - live, dwell (Ge 24:3, 27:44), in marriage
(1Cor 7:12-13) Of the Spirit of God Who dwells in believers (Ro 8:9, 11,
1Cor 3:16). Of "good" not dwelling (Ro 7:18). Of the principle of Sin
(the "virus" inherited from Adam) dwelling in every human body, even
believers (Ro 7:17). (2) To inhabit a place (Ge 24:13). In a
transcendent sense (1Ti 6:16).
(1) intransitively dwell, live; (a) literally, of marriage live with,
live together as husband and wife (1Co 7.12, 13); (b) figuratively, of
spiritual indwelling reside in (1Cor 3.16); (2) transitively inhabit,
dwell in something (1Ti 6.16) (Analytical Lexicon)
- A. transitive - to inhabit, occupy, Il., Hdt., Att.:-Pass.
to be inhabited, Il., Hdt., etc.; 2. Pass. to be settled, of those to
whom new abodes are assigned, Il. those who have been settled, i.e.
those who dwell on the mainland, Hdt.; of cities, to be situated, to lie
II. to manage, direct, govern, like dioikeo, Soph., etc. B. intransitive
- to dwell, live, be settled, Homer, etc.; "sweet is it to live free
from cares," Soph. II. of cities, in a pass. sense, to be settled, be
situated, Hdt., Xen. 2. to conduct oneself or be conducted so and so "to
a state with habits of self-control would be well governed," Plat.
the Septuagint - Gen 4:16.20; 16:3; 19:30; 20:1. To inhabit [ti] Gen
24:13; to live, to dwell Gen 4:16; to be situated; the (inhabited) world
2Sa 22:16; Is 21:12 live, dwell, return
verb enoikeo is used by Paul in commanding Timothy to "Guard,
through the Holy Spirit who dwells in (enoikeo - present tense) us, the
treasure which has been entrusted to you.
Oikeo - 9x
in 9v -
Romans 7:17 So now, no longer am I
the one doing it, but sin which dwells in me.
Romans 7:18 For I know that nothing good
dwells in me, that is, in my flesh; for
the willing is present in me, but the doing of the good is not.
Romans 7:20 But if I am doing the very thing I do not want, I am no longer the
one doing it, but sin which dwells in me.
Comment - Paul is saying "I
would never—in any way, shape, or form—choose to do this, but it is the
‘Sin’ living in my ‘house,’ oikeo, causing me to do it."
Romans 8:9 However, you are not in
the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you.
But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to
Romans 8:11 But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in
you, He who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to
your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.
1 Corinthians 3:16 Do you not know
that you are a temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwells in you?
Zodhiates - This indwelling of
the Spirit of God in the individual believer—in you and me—is not a
transient visit but a permanent presence. The Greek verb is oikeí, from
oikéō, which refers to dwelling in a house permanently. In fact, the
word for "house," even in Modern Greek, is oikía.
Wayne Barber - In other
words, He has taken up residence within our life. It is in the
present active indicative. Continuously He dwells in
our life, of His own accord (active voice) and write it down, it is a
fact (indicative) you see. In other words, this is something that you
just take home and understand. God says He has taken up residence in
your life. The Holy Spirit taking up residence in your life is proof of
your holiness before God. Understand that.
1 Corinthians 7:12 But to the rest I
say, not the Lord, that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever,
and she consents to live with him, he must not divorce her.
13 And a woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to live
with her, she must not send her husband away.
1 Timothy 6:16 who alone possesses
immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or
can see. To Him be honor and eternal dominion! Amen.
Oikeo - 79x
- Ge 4:16, 20; 16:3; 19:30; 20:1; 24:3, 13; 25:27; 27:44; 29:19; 34:16,
21, 23; 35:1; 36:7f; Ex 2:15; 16:35; Deut 28:30; Josh 21:42; Jdg 9:21,
41; 10:1; 11:3, 8, 26; 20:15; 21:9f, 12, 21; 2 Sam 15:8, 19; 19:32; 1
Kgs 3:17; 2 Kgs 4:13; 6:1f; 19:36; 1 Chr 4:41; 2 Chr 34:9; Ezra 4:6, 17;
Neh 3:26; 4:12; 7:3; 13:4; Esther 1:1; Ps 17:12; 84:10; Pr 8:26; 10:30;
21:9, 19; 25:24; 27:10; Isa 5:8; 6:5; 21:12; 30:19; 33:16; 34:11; 37:37;
Jer 35:7, 10f, 15; 40:4, 10; 42:14; 43:2; 48:28; Ezek 38:11; Dan 4:1,
11; 6:25; Hag 1:4
Headlam remark that oikeo "denotes a settled permanent
penetrative influence." (Romans 8 Commentary)
Note the truth of the Trinity in this verse.
God the Father's Spirit vitalizes us here and now, even though we are
sinful human beings, infusing us with that same power which raised Jesus
from the dead, enabling us to live holy lives. Every one of our
spiritual failures shouts out, “We can’t.” And every spiritual victory
affirms, “But He can!”
HE WHO RAISED CHRIST JESUS FROM THE DEAD WILL ALSO GIVE LIFE TO YOUR
o egeiras (AAPMSN)
Christon ek nekron zoopoiesei (3SFAI) kai ta thneta somata humon: (Ro
6:4,5; Isaiah 26:19; Ezekiel 37:14; John 5:28,29; 1Corinthians 6:14;
15:16,20, 21, 22; 1Corinthians 15:51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57;
2Corinthians 4:14; Ephesians 2:5; Philippians 3:21; 1Thessalonians 4:14,
15, 16, 17; 1Peter 3:18; Revelation 1:18; 11:11; 20:11, 12, 13) (Mortal:
Ro 6:12; 1Corinthians 15:53; 2Corinthians 4:11; 5:4)
Jews believed that
God would raise the dead at the end of this age. Paul modifies this
belief adding that God has already raised Jesus, and His resurrection is
a sure sign that the rest of the resurrection will transpire as
Not only has the
spirit of the Christian been made alive (see Ro 8:10), but in time the
body which is now under the curse of death will be resurrected as well.
The facts that God raised Christ Jesus and has given us the indwelling
Spirit guarantees every believer’s future resurrection, a glorious truth
repeated many times by Paul...
Behold, I tell you a mystery; we
shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the
twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound,
and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed. For
this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put
on immortality. But when this perishable will have put on the
imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will
come about the saying that is written, "DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in
victory. "O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR VICTORY? O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR STING?"
The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; but thanks
be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always
abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain
in the Lord. (1Cor 15:51-57)
For our citizenship is in heaven,
from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; who
will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the
body of His glory, by the exertion of the power that He has even to
subject all things to Himself. (see note
For if we believe that Jesus died and
rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep
in Jesus. For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who
are alive, and remain until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede
those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord Himself will descend from
heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the
trumpet of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we who are
alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to
meet the Lord in the air, and thus we shall always be with the Lord.
Therefore comfort one another with these words. (1Thes 4:14-18-see
Raised (awakened) (1453)(egeiro)
means to rise (stand up) from a sitting or lying position (Mt 8:26,
9:5), to awaken from sleep (Mt 8:25), figuratively to "awaken" from
death (rise up), describing the bringing back of Jesus from the dead.
(zoopoieo from zoós = alive +
poieo = to make)
means to revitalize, make alive, quicken, vivify.
zoopoieo in a similar way as Paul writing...
"For just as the Father raises the
dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life
to whom He wishes. (John 5:21)
"It is the Spirit who gives life;
the flesh profits nothing; the words that I have spoken to you are
spirit and are life. (John 6:63)
Why did Paul use "give life to"
instead of "raise" when describing men's bodies? Godet
Once again we see how carefully Paul
weighs every term he uses. We have a new proof of the same in the use of
the two expressions (egeirantos), to awake (raised) (applied to Jesus),
and (zoopoiesei), to quicken (to give life) (applied to believers). The
death of Jesus was a sleep, unaccompanied with any dissolution of the
body...; it was therefore enough to awake Him. In our case, the body,
being given over to destruction, must be entirely reconstituted; this is
well expressed by the word quicken ("give life"). (Romans Commentary
that "The reference is not to the
impartation of some special energy of life and power to our bodies in
their present state, but to the effect upon them of the shout of the
Lord at the time of the Rapture (1Thes. 4:17; see note
1Cor 15:52, 53). What is mortal will then be “swallowed up of life.” The
statement in this eleventh verse is to be put in connection with that at
the close of the seventh chapter, where the assurance is given that
Christ will deliver us “out of the body of this death” (see note
W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
S Lewis Johnson observes
this verse is the final answer to the
cry of Ro 7:24 (note).
The power of indwelling sin and physical death over the believer's body
is destroyed in the bodily resurrection. The logic of the apostle is
clear. The presence of the Spirit of God in our mortal bodies is the
guarantee of the bodily resurrection, for He is the one who raised up
Now one must be clear here. When Paul
says, "the one who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead," he is
referring, not to the Holy Spirit, but to the Father. It is not, "the
Spirit who raised up Jesus from the dead," but, "the Spirit of the One
Who raised up Jesus from the dead," that is, the Father God. It is the
Father Who raised up the Son, and that is the universal testimony of the
Bible. The reason for that is that it is important to make plain that
the sacrifice of the Son is acceptable to the Father. Therefore, the
almost universal testimony of the New Testament is that the Father
raised the Son (cf. Acts 2:24, 32; 3:15, 26; 4:10; 5:30; 26:8; 1 Cor.
6:14; 2 Cor. 4:14). Thus, regeneration and the indwelling of the Spirit
of the God of the resurrection naturally involve the resurrection of the
believer's body. All are parts of the one process of redemption. If God
has done the work of regeneration, He will accomplish the work in
What a wonderful promise that is
for the believer! Our spirits are already alive; our bodies soon shall
be. (Romans 8:5-17)
THROUGH HIS SPIRIT WHO
(continually) INDWELLS YOU: dia tou enoikountos (PAPNSG)
autou pneumatos en humin: (Ro 8:9; John 7:38,39; 14:17)
- Identifies the instrument, that is, a means whereby something
is achieved, performed, or furthered. Whenever you encounter a
through used in this sense, instead of "passing through,"
indifferently, it behooves the diligent disciple to pause and ponder the
spiritual dynamic that the writer is explaining (prayerfully relying of
course on your Teacher, the Holy Spirit to illuminate the sacred text.)
You may be pleasantly surprised at the insights you glean!
question of the role of the Spirit in giving life to our mortal bodies,
Leon Morris notes that "The Spirit is not usually linked with
resurrection, but here he seems to be. It is not clear whether Paul is
saying that the Spirit is to be the agent in raising us or the guarantee
that we will be raised. Both are true, and it does not seem to matter
greatly which way we resolve the textual problem. (Morris,
L. The Epistle to the Romans. W. B. Eerdmans; Inter-Varsity Press)
reminds us that in this verse Paul gives...
Two great assurances of the
resurrection of the body are mentioned:
(1.) The resurrection of Christ:
He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken. Christ rose
as the head, and first-fruits, and forerunner of all the saints, 1Cor
15:20. The body of Christ lay in the grave, under the sin of all the
elect imputed, and broke through it. O grave, then, where is thy
victory? It is in the virtue of Christ’s resurrection that we shall
(2.) The indwelling of the Spirit.
The same Spirit that raiseth the soul now will raise the body shortly:
By his Spirit that dwelleth in you. The bodies of the saints are the
temples of the Holy Ghost, 1 Co. 3:16; 6:19. Now, though these temples
may be suffered for awhile to lie in ruins, yet they shall be rebuilt.
The tabernacle of David, which has fallen down, shall be repaired,
whatever great mountains may be in the way. The Spirit, breathing upon
dead and dry bones, will make them live, and the saints even in their
flesh shall see God. (Ibid)
(enoikeo from en = in + oikéo =
word study on
enoikeo) means to take up residence, make one's home in or among. To live
in, inhabit; dwell in. Note that three of the five NT uses refer to
indwelling of Spirit or God. All the NT uses of enoikeo are
observes that enoikeo "is used, with a spiritual
significance only, of (a) the indwelling of God in believers, 2Co 6:16;
(b) the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, Ro 8:11; 2Ti 1:14; (c) the
indwelling of the word of Christ, Col. 3:16; (d) the indwelling of
faith, 2Ti 1:5; (e) the indwelling of sin in the believer, Ro 7:17. (Vine,
W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament
Words. 1996. Nelson)
Our spirits have been regenerated by the Holy
Spirit, and our physical bodies ultimately will be resurrected by the
Holy Spirit, Who continues to indwell our spirit bodies even after
death. In other words, God promises spiritual resurrection life now
(Ro 6:4, 8, 11, Php 3:10-see notes
Php 3:10) for each believer’s mortal body and
physical resurrection in the future for that mortal body (Ro
6:5-note, 1Cor 6:14, 15:42, 53
- What a difference it makes in your
body when the Holy Spirit lives within. You experience new life, and
even your physical faculties take on a new dimension of experience. When
evangelist D. L. Moody described his conversion experience, he said: “I
was in a new world. The next morning the sun shone brighter and the
birds sang sweeter... the old elms waved their branches for joy, and all
nature was at peace.” Life in Christ is abundant life. (Wiersbe,
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor)
Wayne Barber - "Do you think God is
through with your body? No - in fact to show you how much victory
you have over the flesh, this old body that now the Spirit has
power over, one day is going to die and will be raised up so that
you can live in it forever, free then from even the PRESENCE of
SIN, much less the power of SIN. So you see that we are free from
any control of the FLESH. You say Wayne, "That's not true. I've
been controlled recently by it." Maybe so but what Paul is
explaining is that now when the flesh controls you, it is because
you choose to be, not because of the work of grace that God has
done in your heart. We choose it now. The whole emphasis of this
section is that the "factory has been taken over by new
management". We have not changed outwardly. Our bodies are still
the same. What has changed outwardly is my behavior because some
ONE has come in & has changed me inwardly. The spirit is alive
even though this body continues to reek of the stench of death &
will someday die.
Bishop Moule waxes
eloquent on this passage writing "Wonderful is this deep
characteristic of the Scripture; its Gospel for the body. In
Christ, the body is seen to be something far different from the
mere clog, or prison, or chrysalis, of the soul. It is its
destined implement, may we not say its mighty wings in prospect,
for the life of glory. As invaded by sin, it must needs pass
through either death or, at the Lord’s Return, an equivalent
transfiguration. But as created in God’s plan of Human Nature it
is forever congenial to the soul, nay, it is necessary to the
soul’s full action. And whatever be the mysterious mode (it is
absolutely hidden from us as yet) of the event of Resurrection,
this we know, if only from this Oracle, that the glory of the
immortal body will have profound relations with the work of God in
the sanctified soul. No mere material sequences will bring it
about. It will be “because of the Spirit”; and “because of the
Spirit dwelling in you,” as your power for holiness in Christ. (The Epistle of Paul
the Apostle to the Romans - Online)