JUST AS IT IS
I LAY IN ZION A STONE OF STUMBLING AND A ROCK OF OFFENSE: kathos gegraptai (3SRPI)
idou tithemi (1SPAI) en Sion lithon proskommatos kai petran skandalou:
(Matthew 21:42,44; 1Peter
from root graph- = primarily means to scratch on or engrave as on
an ornament, reports, letters, etc; English = graph, graphic,
etc) means to engrave or inscribe with a pen or stylus characters or
letters on a surface which can be wood, wax, metal, leather, stone,
parchment, dirt (John ), paper, etc. (Click
to review all 191 uses of grapho in the NAS)
is in the
which emphasizes the lasting and binding authority of that which was
written. It has been written at some point in time in the past and it
The Lord Jesus Christ, “the stumbling Stone” (1Pe 2:4, 5, 6-note,
1Pe 2:7, 8-note), did not conform
to the Jews’ expectations (He did not defeat the Roman army and set up
an earthly kingdom - that will be fulfilled in His
Second Coming), so they rejected Him instead of responding to
Him by faith. To show that God anticipated this, Paul quoted from
where "it is written"
The stone (Messiah) which the
builders rejected Has become the chief corner stone. (Psalms 118:22-note)
"Then He shall become a sanctuary;
But to both the houses of Israel, a stone to strike and a rock to
stumble over, and a snare and a trap for the inhabitants of
Jerusalem. And many will stumble over them, then they will fall and be
broken. They will even be snared and caught." (Isaiah 8:14,15)
Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold,
I am laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, A costly cornerstone
for the foundation, firmly placed. He who believes in it will not be
disturbed. (Isaiah 28:16)
Paul combines two
statements to indicate the contrasting reactions by men to the Stone
that God placed in Zion. To some
people Messiah would prove to be a stumbling Stone and Rock of offense
(Isaiah 8:14). Others would
believe on Him and find no reason for shame, offense, or disappointment
(2400) (idou) means "Look!" and in Hebrew
style narrative was used to emphasize an idea or call attention to some
thought. In this case Paul wants every reader to look to
the "Stone" that has been laid in Zion.
Behold is in
and the middle
voice which is a
command calling for immediate, effective
personal involvement which even conveys a sense of urgency in looking at
the "Rock". Why? Because to choose not look to at the Rock of salvation assures
one's destiny and "the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the
presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power" (2Th 1:9)
(líthos) means a stone, literally or as in the current verse
figuratively referring to the Messiah.
from prós = to, against + kopto = cut,
strike) can describe literal or figurative stumbling. It is something a
person trips over. Thus proskomma can be an obstacle in the way
which if one strikes his foot against he stumbles or falls or
figuratively it can describe that over which a soul stumbles i.e. by
which is caused to sin or which causes an occasion of apostasy. It is
also used figuratively, to describe a cause of falling or an
occasion of sinning (Ro 14:13, 20; 1Cor. 8:9;
Ex 23:33; 34:12).
Translated: obstacle, 1;
offense, 1; stumbling, 3; stumbling block, 1
Romans 9:32 (note) - [Why? Because they
did not pursue it by faith, but as though it were by works. They
stumbled over the stumbling stone,
Romans 9:33 (note) - just as it is written, "BEHOLD, I LAY IN ZION A STONE OF
STUMBLING AND A ROCK OF OFFENSE (skandalon), AND HE WHO
BELIEVES IN HIM WILL NOT BE DISAPPOINTED "
Romans 14:13 (note) Therefore let us not judge one another anymore, but
rather determine this --not to put an obstacle or a
stumbling block (skandalon) in a brother's way.
Romans 14:20 (note)
- Do not tear down the work of God for the sake of food.
All things indeed are clean, but they are evil for the man who
eats and gives offense.
1 Cor 8:9
-But take care that this liberty of yours does not somehow become
a stumbling block to the weak.
1 Peter 2:8 (note)
- and, "A STONE OF STUMBLING AND A ROCK OF OFFENSE "; for they
stumble because they are disobedient to the word, and to this doom
they were also appointed.
Barclay writes that...
proskomma, means 'a barrier',
'a hindrance', 'a road-block'. It is the word that would be used for a
tree that has been felled and laid across a road to block it. We must
never do or allow anything which would be a road-block on the way to
goodness. (William Barclay. New Testament Words)
The TDNT summarizes the
meanings of proskomma...
1. This noun may denote the result of
falling, hence “damage,” “wound,” “bump,” or more generally “hurt,”
“destruction,” “ruin,” and morally “fall,” “sin.”
2. It may also denote a quality as in
the phrase “stone of stumbling.”
3. Finally, it may indicate a cause
of hurt, e.g., an “obstacle,” or more generally a cause of ruin, e.g., a
“hindrance” to faith, a “temptation” that causes a fall into sin.
(Kittel, G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of
the New Testament. Page 946. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W. B. Eerdmans)
A Rock of
offense - In this
clearly symbolizes Christ.
This picture of Christ as a Stone or Rock is intimately
woven by the Spirit throughout both the Old and New Testaments and makes
for a fascinating and encouraging study
This study would make an edifying series in a Sunday School class and
would be very enlightening to those who are not that familiar with the
Old Testament. Remember to carefully
to arrive at the most accurate
interrogating each each "base" verse with questions such as... When
does this take place? Where does this take place? What
are the circumstances surrounding the use of this
Who are the "cast of characters"? Who used the name Rock?
What attributes do you discover about the Rock or Stone? How
this truth to our life today -- not
Can we? - it is God's Word of Truth and it is ALWAYS
to our life. The more relevant
question is "Will we allow the
Spirit to speak the Word of Truth to our innermost being and respond
with unhesitating obedience"?)...here
are the Scriptures...
Genesis 49:24 > Exodus 17:6 > Exodus
33:21 > Numbers 20:11 > Deut 32:4 > 2Samuel 23:3 > Psalm 18:2 > Psalm
18:31 > Psalm 18:46 > Psalm 19:14 > Psalm 27:5 > Psalm 28:1 > Psalm
31:2-3 > Psalm 40:2 > Psalm 42:9 > Psalm 61:2 >Psalm >Psalm
62:2 >Psalm 62:6-7 >Psalm 71:3 >Psalm 78:16 > Psalm 78:20 >
Psalm 78:35 > Psalm 81:16 > Psalm 89:26 > Psalm 92:15 > Psalm 94:22
>Psalm 95:1 >Psalm 105:41 >Psalm 114:8 >Psalm 118:22 >Psalm 144:1
>Isaiah 8:14 > Isaiah 17:10 > Isaiah 26:4 >Isaiah 28:16 >Isaiah
30:29 >Isaiah 32:2 >Isaiah 33:16 >Isaiah 44:8 >Isaiah 48:21 >Isaiah 51:1
> Da 2:34 > Da 2:35, 44-46 > Hab 1:12 > Zech 4:7 > Mt 7:24,25> Mt 16:18
>Mt 21:42 >Mk 12:10 >Luke 20:17 > Acts 4:11 >Ro 9:32-33 > Acts 4:11
>1Cor 1:23>1Cor 10:4 >Ephesians 2:20 >1Pe 2:4-8 (Suggestion:
which makes this study a breeze
- see description
(Which book of the Bible has the most allusions to Rock? Why might that
be the case?)
(1) To God Jesus is...
Exodus 17:6, 1Cor 10:4,
cp John 4:13, John 4:14
(2) To Israel Messiah is...
(note); 1Cor 1:23
(3) To the Church the Lord
1Cor 3:10, 11, 12
(4) To all the Gentile world powers Jesus the King of kings is
Stone cut without
Stone that grows and fills the earth
Da 2:35, cf Da 2:44 2:45
(5) To Israel at Second coming Messiah is...
Capstone of the corner
(6) To unbelievers the Lord Jesus Christ is the...
Crushing Stone of judgment
(skandalon from a root meaning jump up, snap shut) was originally
the piece of wood that kept open a trap for animals. Outside the Bible
it is not used metaphorically, though its derivative skandalethron (e.g.
a trap set through questions) is so used. The English word scandal
is derived from the noun via the Lat. scandalum.
skandalon was literally, that movable part of a trap on
which the bait was laid, and when touched caused the trap to close on
its prey. Skandalon thus came to mean any entanglement of the
foot. Figuratively, as used most often in Scripture,
skandalon refers to any person or thing by which one is drawn into error or sin.
(but see more detailed notes below)
Skandalon is used 15
times: KJV (15) - occasion of
stumbling, 1; occasion to fall, 1; offence, 9; stumbling block, 3;
thing that offends, 1;
NAS (15) - cause for stumbling, 1; hindrances, 1; offense,
2; stumbling block, 7; stumbling blocks, 4
Mt 13:41 "The Son of Man will
send forth His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all
stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness,
Mt 16:23 - But He turned and said to Peter, "Get behind Me, Satan!
You are a stumbling block to Me; for you are not
setting your mind on God's interests, but man's ."
Mt 18:7 - "Woe to the world because of its stumbling
blocks! For it is inevitable that stumbling blocks come; but
woe to that man through whom the stumbling block
Lk 17:1 - He said to His
disciples, "It is inevitable that stumbling blocks
come, but woe to him through whom they come! William Barclay
comments on skandalon in this verse writing...
Skandalon has two
meanings. (a) It originally meant the bait-stick in a trap. (b) It
then came to mean any stumbling-block placed in a man’s way to
trip him up. Jesus said that it was impossible to construct a
world with no temptations; but woe to that man who taught another
to sin or who took away another’s innocence. Every one must be
given his first invitation to sin, his first push along the wrong
way. Kennedy Williamson tells of an old man who was dying.
Something was obviously worrying him. He told them at last what it
was. “When I was a lad,” he said, “I often played on a wide
common. Near its centre two roads met and crossed, and, standing
at the cross-roads, was an old rickety sign-post. I remember one
day twisting it round in its socket, thus altering the arms and
making them point in the wrong direction; and I’ve been wondering
ever since how many travelers I sent on the wrong road.” (The
Daily study Bible series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster
Romans 9:33 (note) - just as it is
written, "BEHOLD, I LAY IN ZION A STONE OF STUMBLING AND A
ROCK OF OFFENSE, AND HE WHO BELIEVES IN HIM WILL NOT BE
Romans 11:9 (note)
- And David says, "LET THEIR TABLE BECOME A SNARE AND A
TRAP, AND A STUMBLING BLOCK AND A RETRIBUTION TO THEM.
Romans 14:13 (note)
- Therefore let us not judge one another anymore, but
rather determine this --not to put an obstacle or a stumbling
block in a brother's way.
Romans 16:17 (note)
- Now urge you, brethren, keep your eye on those who
cause dissensions and hindrances contrary to the teaching
which you learned, and turn away from them.
1Corinthians 1:23 - but we preach Christ crucified, to Jews a stumbling
block and to Gentiles foolishness,
Galatians 5:11 - But I, brethren,
if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? Then
the stumbling block of the cross has been abolished.
1 Peter 2:8 (note)
- - and, "A STONE OF
STUMBLING AND A ROCK OF OFFENSE "; for they stumble because
they are disobedient to the word, and to this doom they were also
1John 2:10 - The one who loves his brother abides in the Light and
there is no cause for stumbling in him.
Revelation 2:14 (note) - 'But I have a few things against you, because you have
there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who kept teaching
Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of
Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to commit acts of
Skandalon - 11x in the
- Lev 19:14; Josh 23:13
(translates Heb = moqesh = bait or lure placed in a hunter's trap); Jdg
2:3; 1Sa 18:21; 25:31; Ps 49:13; 50:20; 69:22; 106:36; 119:165; 140:5;
141:9; Hos 4:17
As noted above, in
the NT skandalon is always used metaphorically, and ordinarily of
anything that arouses prejudice, or becomes a hindrance to others, or
causes them to fall by the way. Sometimes the hindrance is in itself
good, and those stumbled by it are the wicked. Paul clearly uses
skandalon in the good sense here in Romans 9:33. He also records that rejection of the
especially true with respect to His Crosst...
"we preach Christ crucified, to Jews
a stumbling block (skandalon),
and to Gentiles foolishness (1Co 1:23) (see also
Galatians 5:11 above)
Skandalon can describe that
which causes someone to sin or that which produces certain behavior
which can lead to ruin. Skandalon thus denotes an enticement to
conduct which could ruin the person in question. For example, Balaam’s
device was a trap for Israel, John recording Jesus' words...
'But I have a few things against you,
because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who kept
teaching Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, to
eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit acts of immorality. (Rev
Skandalon can refer to a hindrance which stresses that which cause
harmful or annoying delay or interference with progress. For example,
Now I urge you, brethren, keep your
eye on those who cause dissensions and hindrances (skandalon)
contrary to the teaching which you learned, and turn away from them. (Ro
William Barclay has a lengthy note on skandalon writing...
The interest of this word lies in the
fact that it has, not one, but two pictures behind it, and to
differentiate between the two will often give us a much more vivid
picture. The word
skandalon is not a classical Greek word at all.
It is late Greek and is, in fact, much commoner in the
Septuagint (LXX) and in
the NT than anywhere else. The classical equivalent is skandalethron,
which means `the bait-stick in a trap'. The skandalethron was the
arm or stick on which the bait was fixed. The animal for which the trap
was set was lured by the bait to touch or step on the stick; the stick
touched off a spring; and so the animal was enticed to its capture or
destruction. In classical Greek the word is used by Aristophanes for
`verbal traps' set to lure a person in an argument into defeat. It is
therefore clear that the original flavour of the word was not so much 'a
stumbling-block' to trip someone up as an 'enticement' to lure someone
When we turn to the
Septuagint (LXX) we find
that this distinction is still quite clear. The Greek word skandalon is
used to translate two Hebrew words. (a) It is used to translate the word
michsol, which quite definitely does mean a 'stumbling-block'. It is so
in Lev. 19.14,
'Thou shalt not put a stumbling-block
before the blind.'
It is so used in Ps. 119.165,
'Great peace have they which love thy
law; and nothing shall offend them.'
That is to say, 'Nothing shall trip
(b) It is used to translate the word
mokesh, which definitely means 'a trap' or 'a snare'. So in Josh. 23.13
alliances with foreign nations are said to be 'snares' and 'traps'. In
Ps. 140.5 the Psalmist says that the proud have hid a 'snare' for him,
and cords; they have spread a 'net' by the wayside; they have set 'gins'
for him. In Ps. 141.9 the Psalmist prays :
'Keep me, from the snares which they
have laid for me, and the gins of the workers of iniquity.'
In Ps. 69.22 the Psalmist says
'Let their table become a snare
before them; and that which should have been for their welfare, let it
become a trap.'
The idea is that success and
prosperity can become a snare instead of a blessing. In the
Septuagint, then, the word
skandalon has two ideas behind it. It means either a
'stumbling-block', something set in a man's path to trip him up, or 'a
snare', 'a bait', 'a lure' to entice him astray and so to ruin him.
When we turn to the NT we find that the translators of the AV always
skandalon in the sense of 'stumbling-block', but when
we go to the NT passages with the idea of the double meaning of
skandalon in our minds, we find that in certain passages the other
meaning gives a more vivid picture.
(i) There are some passages where either meaning is perfectly suitable.
In Matt. 13.41 it is said that the Son of Man will remove all
skandala from his Kingdom. When the Kingdom comes all the things
which are calculated to make a man sin, all the things which could trip
him up, all the things which would entice him and seduce him into the
wrong way will be taken away. The Kingdom will be a state of things in
which temptation will lose its power.
(ii) There are some passages where the meaning of `stumbling-block'
is more fitting, or where it is even essential. In Rom. 14.13 we are
forbidden to put a `stumbling-block' or 'occasion to fall' in our
brother's way. The word that is used for 'occasion to fall' is
proskomma, which means 'a barrier', 'a hindrance', 'a road-block'. It is
the word that would be used for a tree that has been felled and laid
across a road to block it. We must never do or allow anything which
would be a road-block on the way to goodness.
In Matt. 13.21 the shallow hearer of
the word is said to be 'offended' (skandalizein) by persecution.
Persecution is a stumbling-block that stops him on the Christian way.
The Pharisees are 'offended' by Jesus
and his words (Matt. 15.12).
Jesus forecasts that all his
disciples will be 'offended' because of him (Matt. 26.31). The false
teachers put a 'stumbling-block' in the way of others (Rev. 2.14).
The Jews find the cross of Christ 'a
stumbling-block' and 'an offence' (I Cor. 1.23; Gal. 5.11).
In all these cases, the words mean
something which stops a man's progress, something which trips him up,
something which bars the way to him. That something may come from the
malicious action of others, or it may come from the prejudice and the
pride of a man's own heart.
(iii) But there are certain cases where it gives a far better picture to
take skandalon and skandalizein in the sense of a 'trap',
a 'snare', a 'bait', an 'allurement', an 'enticement to sin'. Rom. 16.17
warns against those who cause divisions and 'offences' contrary to the
doctrine which Christ's people have received. That is a warning against
those who would 'lure' us from the way of true belief.
1 John 2.10 says :
'He that loveth his brother abideth
in the light, and there is no skandalon in him.' That is to say, 'He
would never entice and seduce anyone into sin.'
Matt. 18.6 talks about the sin of
'offending' one of these little ones, and the next verse talks about the
terribleness of 'offences'. It gives a much better picture to take
skandalon and skandalizein there in the sense of luring and
enticing the younger and the more impressionable people to sin.
Matt. 5.29, 30 speak of the necessity
of cutting off and plucking out the hand and the eye which 'offend' us.
Clearly it is better there to take skandalon in the sense of
'that which lays a trap or snare to entice us into the ruin of sin'. If
the desires of the hand and the eye are a bait to sin they must be
When Burns went to learn flax-dressing in Irvine he met an older man who
led him far astray. He said of him afterwards : 'His friendship did me a
mischief.' That is precisely the meaning of skandalon. A
skandalon is that which trips us up or that which lures us into sin.
From our own lives such things must be rooted out; and God will not hold
us guiltless if we bring such things into the lives of others. (William
Barclay. New Testament Words)
Regarding skandalon, Vine writes
that it was
originally the name of the part of a
trap to which the bait is attached, hence, the trap or snare itself, as in
‘stumbling block,’ quoted from [Ps 69:22
- see Spurgeon's note],
and in [Revelation 2:14-note],
for Balaam’s device which proved to be a trap for Israel rather than a
stumbling block to them...In NT skandalon is always used metaphorically, and
ordinarily of anything that arouses prejudice, or becomes a hindrance to
others or causes them to fall by the way. Sometimes the hindrance is in
itself good, and those stumbled by it are the wicked. Thus it is used (a) of
Christ in [Romans 9:33-note] “(a rock) of offense” [cf
1Cor 1:23'; see 1 Peter 2:8-note] and
of His cross [Gal 5:11] of the “table” provided by God for Israel [Romans
(b) of that which is evil, eg, [Mt 13:41] lit., “all stumblingblocks”; [Mt
18:7] “occasions of stumbling” and “occasion”; [see Romans 14:13-note]
“an occasion of falling” of such use of Christian liberty that proves a
hindrance to another; [see Romans 16:17-note]
“occasions of stumbling,” of the teaching of things contrary to sound
W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words.
Paul is saying in these verses that
the Messiah is either a stumbling stone
(to perdition) or a stepping stone (to salvation). That "stone" which
caused Israel to stumble, the "rock" which offended their
self-righteousness, was none other than their Messiah,
the Lord Jesus Christ. Israel's rejection of
their Messiah resulted in God setting Israel aside and turning to the
“In their foolish course Israel thought that they were
advancing on a clear path, and lo! all at once there was found in this
way an obstacle upon which they were broken; and this obstacle was the
very Messiah whom they had so long invoked in all their prayers.”
AND HE WHO
BELIEVES IN HIM WILL NOT BE DISAPPOINTED (put to shame): kai o pisteuon
(PAPMSN) ep auto ou kataiscunthesetai (3SFPI): (Ro 5:5; 10:11;
Ps 25:2,3,20; Isa 45:17; 54:4; Joel 2:26,27; Php 1:20;
2Ti 1:12; 1Jn 2:28) (1Pe 2:6)
He who believes in Him - In
Christ. The one who places his faith in Christ.
from pistis; pistos; related
faith, the obedience
of faith) means to consider something to be true and
therefore worthy of one’s trust. To accept as true, genuine, or real.
To have a firm conviction as to the goodness, efficacy, or ability of
something or someone. To consider to be true. To accept the word or
evidence of. Present tense signifies this is his "lifestyle" (not
perfection, but direction).
Be disappointed (2617)
from kata = down but here intensifies meaning of verb aischuno = to
shame) means primarily to put to shame, to humiliate, to disgrace (1Cor
11:4, 5) and (as used in the present verse) to disappoint or to
frustrate one's hope (Ro 9:33-note,
To disappoint means to fail to
meet the expectation or hope of, to hinder from the possession or
enjoyment of that which was intended, to prevent the fulfilment of (a
plan, intention, etc.
In the passive voice it can
mean to blush with shame at one's predicament.
Aischuno and its compound
forms kataischuno and
epaischunomai are used in the
Septuagint as translations of bos and its derivatives. In Greek culture,
the focus was not on the objective consequences of actions but on the
feeling of shame that might come with exposure of shameful deeds to
others. The OT sense of the word is clearly seen in Ro 9:33 and Ro
10:11, each of which quotes from the OT and affirms that anyone "who
trusts in him will never be put to shame."
L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)
The NIDNTT writes that...
The root aisch- refers originally to
that which is ugly and disgraceful. Aischuno (Homer onwards) thus
meant originally to disfigure, make ugly. It is found in Greek
literature almost exclusively in the mid. or pass. with the meaning to
feel shame, be ashamed, or to be confounded, be disconcerted.
(Aesch. onwards) is a strengthened form of the mid.,
and kataischuno (Homer onwards) of the active and passive
meanings of aischuno.
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
TDNT on aischuno,
epaischunomai [word study]...
This group was in common use and is
thus often found in the
The sense is “to shame,” “put to shame” (God mostly as subject), “be
shamed or ashamed” (personally rather than publicly). The main point of
aischune is not “feeling of shame” but “disgrace” i.e., the shame
brought by divine judgment, though sometimes with a stress on “being
G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the New
Vine writes that kataischuno...
involves the falsification of ideas,
the exposure of pretensions, and the nullification of hopes.
W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
Kataischuno - 13x in 12v - NAS = disappoint(1), disappointed(3),
disgraces(2), humiliated(1), put to shame(3), shame(3).
Luke 13:17 As He said this, all His
opponents were being humiliated; and the entire crowd was
rejoicing over all the glorious things being done by Him.
Comment: The critics of our
Lord were thoroughly put to shame by His words.
Romans 5:5-note and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God
has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was
given to us.
Comment: God's hope (absolute
assurance of future good) will not bring disappointment because God
loves us and enables us to withstand tribulations.
MacDonald: If we were to hope
for something but then later find that we were never going to get it,
our hope would be put to shame or disappointed. But the
hope of our salvation will never be put to shame. We will
never be disappointed or find that we have rested on a false
confidence. How can we be so sure? Because the love of God has been
poured out in our hearts.
W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson or
Romans 9:33-note just as it is written, "BEHOLD, I LAY IN ZION A STONE OF
STUMBLING AND A ROCK OF OFFENSE, AND HE WHO BELIEVES IN HIM WILL NOT BE
Romans 10:11-note For the Scripture says, "WHOEVER BELIEVES IN HIM WILL NOT
Comment: MacDonald -
"The thought of public confession of Christ might arouse fears of
shame, but the opposite is true. Our confession of Him on earth
leads to His confession of us in heaven. Ours is a hope that will
never be disappointed." (Ibid)
1Corinthians 1:27 but God has chosen the foolish things of the world to
shame the wise, and God has chosen the weak things of the world to
shame the things which are strong,
1Corinthians 11:4 Every man who has something on his head while praying
or prophesying disgraces his head. 5 But every woman who has her
head uncovered while praying or prophesying disgraces her head,
for she is one and the same as the woman whose head is shaved.
1Corinthians 11:22 What! Do you not have houses in which to eat and
drink? Or do you despise the church of God and shame those who
have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you? In this I
will not praise you.
Comment: The lack of control
at the time of the Lord's Supper and the shameful treatment of poorer
brethren is most inconsistent with the Christian faith.
2Corinthians 7:14 For if in anything I have boasted to him about you, I
was not put to shame; but as we spoke all things to you in truth, so
also our boasting before Titus proved to be the truth.
2Corinthians 9:4 otherwise if any Macedonians come with me and find you
unprepared, we-- not to speak of you-- will be put to shame by this
1Peter 2:6-note For this is contained in Scripture: "BEHOLD, I LAY IN ZION A
CHOICE STONE, A PRECIOUS CORNER stone, AND HE WHO BELIEVES IN HIM WILL
NOT BE DISAPPOINTED." (See similar uses of kataischuno in
translation of some of the Psalms below)
1 Peter 3:16-note and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which
you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ will
be put to shame.
"Even if a believer’s life is blameless, the enemies of the gospel will
still find fault with him and bring false charges against him. But when
the case comes to trial, and the charges are found to be empty, the
accusers will be ashamed." (Ibid)
Kataischuno - 57x in the
- Jdg 18:7; Ruth 2:15; 2 Sam 10:6; 16:21; 19:5; 2 Kgs 19:26; Ps
6:10; 14:6; 22:5; 25:2f, 20; 31:1, 17; 34:5; 35:4; 37:19; 40:14; 44:7,
9; 53:5; 70:2; 71:1; 74:21; 119:31, 116; 127:5; Pr 19:26; Isa 3:15;
28:16; 54:4; Jer 2:36; 6:15; 7:19; 9:19; 10:14; 15:9; 17:13, 18; 46:24;
48:13, 20; 49:23; 50:2, 38; 51:17; Ezek 24:12; Hos 2:5; 4:19; Joel
2:26f; Mic 3:7; 7:16; Zeph 3:11, 20; Zech 10:5; 13:4.
Given the fact that the Septuagint
has many more uses of kataischuno, below are most (but not all)
of these passages to help discern the meaning of this verb.
Ruth 2:15-note When she rose to glean,
Boaz commanded his servants, saying, “Let her glean even among the
sheaves, and do not insult (Heb = kalam = to humiliate, cause to
blush; Lxx = kataischuno) her.
2Sa 16:21 Ahithophel said to (David's
son) Absalom, “Go in to (have sexual relations with) your father’s
concubines, whom he has left to keep the house; then all Israel will
hear that you have made yourself odious (Heb = baash = have a bad
smell, to stink!; Lxx = kataischuno) to your father. The hands of
all who are with you will also be strengthened.”
Psalm 22:5-note To You they cried out and
were delivered; In You they trusted and were not disappointed.
(Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno)
Psalm 25:2-note O my God, in You I trust,
Do not let me be ashamed (Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed;
Lxx = kataischuno); Do not let my enemies exult over me.
Spurgeon: O my God, I trust
in thee. Faith is the
cable which binds our boat to the shore, and by pulling at it we draw
ourselves to the land; faith unites us to God, and then draws us near to
As long as the anchor of faith holds
there is no fear in the worst tempest; if that should fail us there
would be no hope left. We must see to it that our faith is sound and
strong, for otherwise prayer cannot prevail with God. Woe to the warrior
who throws away his shield; what defence can be found for him who finds
no defence in his God?
Let me not be ashamed. Let not
my disappointed hopes make me feel ashamed of my former testimonies of
thy faithfulness. Many were on the watch for this. The best of men have
their enemies, and should pray against them that they may not see their
wicked desires accomplished.
Let not mine enemies triumph over
me. Suffer no wicked mouth to make blasphemous mirth out of my
distresses by asking, "Where is thy God?" There is a great jealousy in
believers for the honour of God, and they cannot endure that unbelievers
should taunt them with the failure of their expectations from the God of
their salvation. All other trusts will end in disappointment and eternal
shame, but our confidence shall never be confounded.
Psalm 25:3-note Indeed, none of those who
wait for You will be ashamed (Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed;
Lxx = kataischuno); Those who deal treacherously without cause
will be ashamed (Lxx = aischuno).
is a great prayer to pray, as are the next two entries below!)
Guard my soul and deliver me; Do not let me be ashamed
(Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno), for I
take refuge in You.
Spurgeon " Let me not be
ashamed. This is the one fear which like a ghost haunted the
psalmist's mind. He trembled lest his faith should become the subject of
ridicule through the extremity of his affliction. Noble hearts can brook
anything but shame. David was of such a chivalrous spirit, that he could
endure any torment rather than be put to dishonour. For I put my trust
in thee. And therefore the name of God would be compromised if his
servants were deserted; this the believing heart can by no means
Psalm 31:1-note For the choir director. A
Psalm of David. In You, O LORD, I have taken refuge; Let me never be
ashamed (Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno);
In Your righteousness deliver me.
Spurgeon "Let me never be
ashamed. How can the Lord permit the man to be ultimately put to
shame who depends alone upon him? This would not be dealing like a God
of truth and grace. It would bring dishonour upon God himself if faith
were not in the end rewarded. It will be an ill day indeed for religion
when trust in God brings no consolation and no assistance."
Psalm 31:17-note Let me not be put to
shame (Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno),
O LORD, for I call upon You; Let the wicked be put to shame, let them be
silent in Sheol.
Psalm 34:5-note They looked to Him and
were radiant, And their faces will never be ashamed
(Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno);.
David Smith, 1792-1867: They
looked unto him. The more we can think upon our Lord, and the less
upon ourselves, the better. Looking to him, as he is seated upon the
right hand of the throne of God, will keep our heads, and especially our
hearts, steady when going through the deep waters of affliction. Often
have I thought of this when crossing the water opposite the old place of
Langholm. I found, when I looked down on the water, I got dizzy; I
therefore fixed my eyes upon a steady object on the other side, and got
Spurgeon: And their
faces were not ashamed. Their faces were covered with joy but not with
blushes. He who trusts in God has no need to be ashamed of his
confidence, time and eternity will both justify his reliance.
Psalm 37:19-note They will not be
ashamed (Hebrew = bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno)
in the time of evil, And in the days of famine they will have abundance.
Spurgeon: They shall not be
ashamed in the evil time. Calamities will come, but deliverances will
come also. As the righteous never reckoned upon immunity from trouble,
they will not be disappointed when they are called to take their share
of it, but the rather they will cast themselves anew upon their God, and
prove again his faithfulness and love. God is not a friend in the
sunshine only, he is a friend indeed and a friend in need.
Psalm 44:7-note But You have saved us from
our adversaries, And You have put to shame (Hebrew = bos/bosh =
to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno) those who hate us.
Spurgeon: And hast put them to
shame that hated us. With the back of thy saving hand thou hast given
them a cuff which has made them hide their faces; thou hast defeated
them in such a manner as to make them ashamed of themselves to be
overthrown by such puny adversaries as they thought the Israelites to
be. The double action of God in blessing his people and confounding his
enemies is evermore to be observed; Pharaoh is drowned, while Israel
passes through the sea; Amalek is smitten, while the tribes rejoice; the
heathen are chased from their abodes, while the sons of Jacob rest
beneath their vine and fig tree.
There they were in great fear where no fear had been; For God scattered
the bones of him who encamped against you; You put them to shame,
because God had rejected them.
Psalm 71:1-note In You, O LORD, I have
taken refuge; Let me never be ashamed (Hebrew = bos/bosh =
to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno).
Let not the oppressed return dishonored; Let the afflicted and
needy praise Your name.
Psalm 119:31-note I cling to Your
testimonies; O LORD, do not put me to shame! (Hebrew = bos/bosh =
to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno)
Spurgeon: O LORD, put me
not to shame. This would happen if God's promises were unfulfilled,
and if the heart of God's servant were suffered to fail. This we have no
reason to fear, since the Lord is faithful to his word. But it might
also happen though the believer's acting in an inconsistent manner, as
David had himself once done, when he fell into the way of lying, and
pretended to be a madman. If we are not true to our profession we may be
left to reap the fruit of our folly, and that will be the bitter thing
called "shame." It is evident from this that a believer ought never to
be ashamed, but act the part of a grave man who has done nothing to be
ashamed of in believing his God, and does not mean to adopt a craven
tone in the presence of the Lord's enemies. If we beseech the Lord not
to put us to shame, surely we ought not ourselves to be ashamed without
Psalm 119:116-note Sustain me according to
Your word, that I may live; And do not let me be ashamed (Hebrew
= bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno) of my hope.
Spurgeon: And let me not be
ashamed of my hope. In Psalm 119:114 he had spoken of his hope as
founded on the word, and now he begs for the fulfilment of that word
that his hope might be justified in the sight of all. A man would be
ashamed of his hope if it turned out that it was not based upon a sure
foundation; but this will never happen in our case (cp Ro 5:5).
We may be ashamed of our thoughts, and our words, and our deeds for they
spring from ourselves; but we never shall be ashamed of our hope, for
that springs from the Lord our God.
Such is the frailty of our nature that
unless we are continually upheld
by grace, we shall all so
foully as to be ashamed of ourselves, and ashamed of all those glorious
hopes which are now the crown and glory of our life. The man of God had
uttered the most positive resolves, but he felt that he could not trust
in his own solemn determination: hence these prayers. It is not wrong to
make resolutions, but it will be useless to do so unless we salt them
well with believing cries to God.
David meant to keep the law of the
Lord, but he first needed the Lord of the law to keep him.
Psalm 127:5-note How blessed is the man
whose quiver is full of them; They will not be ashamed (Hebrew =
bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno) When they speak with
their enemies in the gate.
Proverbs 19:26 He who assaults his
father and drives his mother away Is a shameful (Hebrew =
bos/bosh = to be ashamed; Lxx = kataischuno) and disgraceful son.
Isaiah 28:16 Therefore thus says the
Lord GOD, "Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, A costly
cornerstone for the foundation, firmly placed. He who believes in it
will not be disturbed.
Isaiah 54:4 "Fear not, for you will
not be put to shame; And do not feel humiliated, for you will not
be disgraced; But you will forget the shame of your youth, And the
reproach of your widowhood you will remember no more.
Jeremiah 2:36 "Why do you go around so much Changing your way? Also, you
will be put to shame by Egypt As you were
put to shame by Assyria.
Jeremiah 6:15 "Were they ashamed because of the abomination they have
done? They were not even ashamed at all; They did not even know
how to blush. Therefore they shall fall among those who fall; At the
time that I punish them, They shall be cast down," says the LORD.
Jeremiah 7:19 "Do they spite Me?" declares the LORD. "Is it not
themselves they spite, to their own shame?"
Jeremiah 9:19 "For a voice of wailing is heard from Zion, 'How are we
ruined! We are put to great shame, For we have left the land,
Because they have cast down our dwellings.'"
Jeremiah 10:14 Every man is stupid, devoid of knowledge; Every goldsmith
is put to shame by his idols; For his molten images are deceitful, And
there is no breath in them.
Jeremiah 15:9 "She who bore seven sons pines away; Her breathing is
labored. Her sun has set while it was yet day; She has been shamed and
humiliated. So I will give over their survivors to the sword Before
their enemies," declares the LORD.
Jeremiah 17:13 O LORD, the hope of Israel, All who forsake You will
be put to shame. Those who turn away on earth will be written down,
Because they have forsaken the fountain of living water, even the LORD.
Jeremiah 17:18 Let those who persecute me be put to shame, but as for
me, let me not be put to shame; Let them be dismayed, but let me not be
dismayed. Bring on them a day of disaster, And crush them with twofold
Jeremiah 46:24 "The daughter of Egypt has been put to shame,
Given over to the power of the people of the north."
Jeremiah 48:13 "And Moab will be ashamed of Chemosh, as the house
of Israel was ashamed of Bethel, their confidence.
Jeremiah 48:20 "Moab has been put to shame, for it has been shattered.
Wail and cry out; Declare by the Arnon That Moab has been destroyed.
Jeremiah 49:23 Concerning Damascus. "Hamath and Arpad are put to shame,
For they have heard bad news; They are disheartened. There is anxiety by
the sea, It cannot be calmed.
Jeremiah 50:2 "Declare and proclaim among the nations. Proclaim it and
lift up a standard. Do not conceal it but say, 'Babylon has been
captured, Bel has been put to shame, Marduk has been shattered; Her
images have been put to shame, her idols have been shattered.'
Jeremiah 51:17 All mankind is stupid, devoid of knowledge; Every
goldsmith is put to shame by his idols, For his molten images are
deceitful, And there is no breath in them.
Hosea 2:5 "For their mother has played the harlot; She who conceived
them has acted shamefully. For she said, 'I will go after my
lovers, Who give me my bread and my water, My wool and my flax, my oil
and my drink.' (NET Bible note = This statement alludes to the
practice of sexual rites in the Canaanite fertility cult which attempted
to secure agricultural fertility from the Canaanite gods)
Hosea 4:19 The wind wraps them in its wings, and they will be ashamed
because of their sacrifices (Reflects Israel's apostate idolatrous Baal
Joel 2:26 "You will have plenty to eat and be satisfied And praise the
name of the LORD your God, Who has dealt wondrously with you; Then My
people will never be put to shame. 27 "Thus you will know that I
am in the midst of Israel, And that I am the LORD your God, And there is
no other; And My people will never be put to shame. (Promises to
be fulfilled in the
Micah 3:7 The seers will be ashamed and the diviners will be
embarrassed. Indeed, they will all cover their mouths Because there is
no answer from God.
Micah 7:16 Nations will see and be ashamed Of all their might.
They will put their hand on their mouth, Their ears will be deaf. (NET
Bible note: Apparently this means the opposing nations will be left
dumbfounded by the LORD's power. Their inability to respond will make
them appear to be deaf mutes.)
Zephaniah 3:11 "In that day you will feel no shame Because of all
your deeds By which you have rebelled against Me; For then I will remove
from your midst Your proud, exulting ones, And you will never again be
haughty On My holy mountain.
Zechariah 10:5 "They will be as mighty men, Treading down the enemy in
the mire of the streets in battle; And they will fight, for the LORD
will be with them; And the riders on horses will be put to shame.
Zechariah 13:4 "Also it will come about in that day (Millennium)
that the prophets will each be ashamed of his vision when he
prophesies, and they will not put on a hairy robe in order to deceive;
Spicq on the frequent (when compared
to the NT) Septuagint uses of kataischuno...
In the sense “dishonor, taint”
(2Sa16:21; 19:6; Pr 19:26; Sir 22:4–5; 42:11; 1Cor 11:5, 22),
humiliate and molest (Ruth 2:15), expresses simultaneously the ideas of
punishment and derision: Mic 3:7 (linked with katagelao); Ps 44:8; 1Cor
1:27; 1Pet 3:16; (Spicq, C., & Ernest, J. D. Theological Lexicon of the
New Testament. Peabody, MA.: Hendrickson)
Warren Wiersbe sums up Romans
9 writing that...
But the main thrust of this chapter
is clear: Israel’s rejection of Christ does not deny the faithfulness of
God. Romans 9 does not negate Romans 8. God is still faithful,
righteous, just, and gracious, and He can be depended on to accomplish
His purposes and keep His promises.
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor