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this is the
TIME I WILL
Amplified: For this is what the promise said, About this time
[next year] will I return and Sarah shall have a son.(4)
ESV: For this is what the promise said: "About this time
next year I will return and Sarah shall have a son."
ICB: God's promise to Abraham was this: "At the right
time I will return, and Sarah will have a son."
NKJV: For this is the word of promise: "At this time I
will come and Sarah shall have a son."
NIV: For this was how the promise was stated: "At the
appointed time I will return, and Sarah will have a son."
NLT: For God had promised, "Next year I will return, and
Sarah will have a son."
Philips: For it was a promise when God said: 'At this
time I will come and Sarah shall have a son'. (Everybody, remember,
thought it quite impossible for Sarah to have a child.)
Wuest: for the word of promise is this, According to this season I
will come and there will be to Sarah a son.
Young's Literal: for the word of promise is this;
'According to this time I will come, and there shall be to Sarah a
B H Carroll
Explore the Bible
Explore the Bible
F B Hole
Jamieson, F, B
S Lewis Johnson
H C G Moule
A T Robertson
Romans 9 Commentary
Romans 9:1-3: The Attributes of God
Romans 9:1-5: Israel: A Privileged
Romans 9:6-13: Israel: A Proud People
Romans 9:14-19: God is a God of Purpose
Romans 9:19-24: God is God of
Romans 9:30-10:5:Righteousness Precious
Romans 9 Commentary
Romans 9:1-5 Burdened For A
Romans 9:6-33 Bound By The
Romans Expository Notes
Romans 9:1-13 Man Opposes; God Disposes
Romans 9:14-23 Divine Election is Questioned
Romans 9:24-33 Israel’s Failure Is the Scripture’s Fulfillment
Romans 9:1-29 Need for Mercy
Romans 9:18: The Sovereignty of God in
Romans 9:30-10:21 Call to
Romans 9-11 What
Will Happen to Israel-
Romans 9:1-9 True and False Believers
Romans 9:7-21 God's Choice and Salvation
Romans 9:22-33 God's Patience and Mercy
Romans 9:1-29 The
Stage for Christ
has God Proved Himself?
Romans 9 Commentary
Romans 9 Commentary
Prologue to Prison (1954)
Romans 9 Commentary
Romans Notes -
Verse by Verse
Romans 9 Commentary
Romans 9:1-13 The Roller Coaster Ride
Romans 9:14-29 The Great Brain Teaser
Romans 9-11 Is God
Finished With Israel, Part 1
Romans 9-11 Is God Finished With Israel,
Romans 9:1-4 The
Sorrowful Unbelief of Israel, Part 1
Romans 9:4-5 The Sorrowful Unbelief of
Israel, Part 2
Romans 9:6-13 Is Israel's Unbelief
Inconsistent with God's Plan? 1
Romans 9:14-18 Is Israel's Unbelief
Inconsistent with God's Plan? 2
Romans 9:19-24 Is
Israel's Unbelief Inconsistent with God's Plan? 3
Romans 9:25-33 Is
Israel's Unbelief Inconsistent with God's Plan? 4
Romans 9, 10 & 11 What's Ahead for
The Epistle of
Paul the Apostle to the Romans
Romans 9 Commentary
Romans 9:1-5 The Absolute Sovereignty
of God: What Is Romans Nine About
Romans 9:1-5 My Anguish: My
Kinsmen Are Accursed
Romans 9:1-5 How Great Is
the Honor of Israel
Romans 9:6-12 God's Word
Stands: Not All Israel is Israel, Part 1
Romans 9:6-12 God's Word
Stands: Not All Israel Is Israel, Part 2
Romans 9:6-13 Unconditional Election and
the Invincible Purpose of God
Romans 9:8-17 The Hardening of Pharaoh
and the Hope of the World
Romans 9:14-18 The Freedom
and Justice of God in Unconditional Election
Romans 9:14-18 The Fame of
His Name and the Freedom of Mercy
Romans 9:19-23 How God
Makes Known the Riches of His Glory
Romans 9:17 A Passion for
the Supremacy of Christ--Where He Is Not Named
Romans 9:23,24 God's
Ultimate Purpose: Vessels of Mercy
Romans 9:24-29 The Gentiles
Romans 9:30-33 The Gentiles
Have Obtained Righteousness by Faith
Romans 9:30-10:10 Believe in Your Heart
that God Raised Jesus
Romans 9:6-18 God's Freedom
Romans 9:6-18 God's Word Has Not Failed
Romans 9 Word Pictures in the
Romans 9:1-33 Jacob I Have Loved
Romans 9:1-29: Who
Romans 9:14-33 Let
God Be God
Romans 9 Greek Word Studies
Romans 9:1-8 For They Are Not All
Israel, Who Are Descended From Israel
Romans 9:9-13 Jacob I Loved, But Esau I
Romans 9:14-23 What Then Shall We Say?
Is God Unjust? Not At All!
Romans 9:24-33 I Will Call Them My
People, Who Were Not My People
Romans 9-11 - Part 3 Download
Israel's Election by God
Israel's Rejection of God
God's Ways Higher
God Not Rejecting Israel
Summary on the Attributes of God
Spurgeon on the Attributes of God
Israel of God - Is God "Finished"
with Israel in His prophetic plan?
Off Site - Table
Comparing/contrasting Israel & Church
Off Site - Does the Church Fulfill
Israel's Program? - John Walvoord
The Jewish People, Jesus Christ and World History
- S Lewis Johnson
Are you confused about God's plan for Israel?
Then I highly recommend Tony
12 Hour Course on Romans 9-11
in which he addresses in depth the question of What
Will Happen to Israel?
or see the individual lectures below)
Romans 9:1-5 Paul's Sorrow Concerning Israel
Children of the Promise
The Potter and the Clay
A Remnant Will be Saved
The Righteousness of God
Has Israel Not Heard?
God Has Not Cast Away The Jews
Life from the Dead
Two Olive Trees
The Salvation of Israel
Note that when you click the
preceding links, each link will in turn give you several choices
including an Mp3 message and brief transcript notes. The Mp3's
are long (avg 70+ min) but are in depth and thoroughly Scriptural with
many quotations from the Old Testament, which is often much less well
understood than the NT by many in the church today. Tony Garland takes a
literal approach to Scripture, and his love for the Jews and passion to
see them saved comes through very clearly in these 12 hours of teaching!
Take your home Bible Study group through this series if you dare! Take
notes on the tapes as the transcripts are a very abbreviated version of
the audio messages.
This course is highly recommended for all who love
Israel! I think you will agree that Tony Garland, despite coming to
faith after age 30 as an engineer, clearly has been given a special
anointing by God to proclaim the truth concerning Israel and God's
glorious future plan for the Jews. Garland has also produced more than
20 hours of superb audio teaching in his verse by verse commentary on
depth transcripts also available) which will unravel (in a way you did
not think was possible considering the plethora of divergent
interpretations) God's final message of the triumph and return of the
our Lord Jesus Christ as the King of kings and Lord of lords! Maranatha!
FOR THIS IS A
PROMISE AT THIS TIME I WILL COME AND SARAH SHALL HAVE A SON: epaggelias
gar o logos houtos kata ton kairon touton eleusomai (1SFMI) kai estai
(3SFMI) te Sarra huios: (Genesis 17:21; 18:10,14; 21:2) (Hebrews
(epaggelia from epí = intensifies verbal meaning +
aggéllo = to tell, declare) originally referred to an announcement
or declaration (especially of a favorable message) but in later Greek
came to mean a declaration to do something with the implication of
obligation to carry out what is stated (thus a promise or pledge).
Epaggelia was primarily a legal term denoting summons, a promise to
do or give something, but in the
NT speaks primarily of the promises of God.
Epaggelia - 52x in 50v
(note concentration in Hebrews = 14x in 13v) - Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4;
2:33, 39; 7:17; 13:23, 32; 23:21; 26:6; Rom 4:13f, 16, 20; 9:4, 8f;
15:8; 2 Cor 1:20; 7:1; Gal 3:14, 16ff, 21f, 29; 4:23, 28; Eph 1:13;
2:12; 3:6; 6:2; 1 Tim 4:8; 2 Tim 1:1; Heb 4:1; 6:12, 15, 17; 7:6; 8:6;
9:15; 10:36; 11:9, 13, 17, 33, 39; 2 Pet 3:4, 9; 1 John 2:25. NAS =
promise(37), promised(1), promises(12), what was promised(2).
This verse is taken from from
(Ge18:10) but not an exact quote of the LXX in this case.
And he said, "I will surely return to
you at this time next year; and behold, Sarah your wife shall have a
son." And Sarah was listening at the tent door, which was behind him. (Ge
Paul is reminding his readers that
God's choice is not based on natural descent. Isaac's birth is
supernatural and represents God's sovereign choice.
means a point of time
or period of time, time, period, frequently with the implication of
being especially fit for something and without emphasis on precise
chronology. It means a moment or period as especially appropriate the
right, proper, favorable time (at the right time).
refer to a fixed and definite time, the time when things are brought to
crisis, the decisive epoch waited for or a strategic point in time.
speaks of a limited period of time, with the added notion of
suitableness ("the suitable time", "the right moment", "the convenient
time"). Kairos refers to a distinct, fixed time period, rather
than occasional moments.
is not so much a
succession of minutes (Greek
5550), but a
period of opportunity.
Chronos refers to chronological time, to clock time or calendar
time, to a general space or succession of time. Kairos, on the
other hand, refers to a specific and often predetermined period or
moment of time and so views time in terms of events, eras, or seasons,
such as the times of the Gentiles (see
below) In other words, kairos defines the best time to
do something, the moment when circumstances are most suitable, the
psychologically "ripe" moment.
kairos is "a passing instant when an opening appears which must be
driven through with force if success is to be achieved." (E. C. White,
Kaironomia p. 13)
only this, but there was
also, when she had
* twins by
And not only that, but this too: Rebecca conceived [two sons under
exactly the same circumstances] by our forefather Isaac,
ESV: And not only so, but also when Rebecca had conceived
children by one man, our forefather Isaac,
ICB: And that is not all. Rebekah also had sons.
And those sons had the same father, our father Isaac.
NKJV: And not only this, but when Rebecca also had conceived by
one man, even by our father Isaac
NIV: Not only that, but Rebekah's children had one and the same
father, our father Isaac.
NLT: This son was our ancestor Isaac. When he grew up,
he married Rebekah, who gave birth to twins.
Philips: And then, again, a word of promise came to
Rebecca, at the time when she was pregnant with two children by the
one man, Isaac our forefather.
Wuest: And not only, but also Rebecca, conceiving by one,
Isaac, our father.
Young's Literal: And not only so, but also Rebecca,
having conceived by one -- Isaac our father--
AND NOT ONLY
THIS BUT THERE WAS REBEKAH ALSO WHEN SHE HAD CONCEIVED TWINS BY ONE MAN
OUR FATHER ISAAC: Ou monon de alla
kai Rebekka ex enos koiten echousa (PAPFSN) Isaak tou patros hemon:
(Ro 5:3,11; Luke 16:26) (Genesis 25:21, 22, 23)
Notice that this sentence is not formally completed, being taken up
after the parenthetical Ro 9:11 by “It was said unto her” in Ro 9:12.
And not only this - The
connective "and" indicates Paul is giving another example to illustrate
By one man our father Isaac
Rebekah's children had one
and the same father
(koite) is a word which in general first refers to a structure on
which one can lie down (a bed). Then koite came to be used as a
euphemism for sexual intercourse (Heb 13:4) or even illicit sexual
activity (Ro 13:13). Here in Romans 9:10, koite is combined with the
verb echo (to have) and literally reads "bed having" (or have bed) and
is an idiomatic way of saying conceive or become pregnant.
Paul's point is that unlike Ishmael
and Isaac who were of a single father, but two mothers,
Esau and Jacob had one mother and one father and that furthermore, they
were twins conceived in the same act of union (Ge. 25:21, 22, 23, 24 ) .
Koite - 4x in 3v - Luke
11:7; Rom 9:10; 13:13; Heb 13:4.
And not only this; but when Rebecca
also had conceived by one, even by our father Isaac; Not only in the
case of Isaac was the election limited to him as the son of promise, but
also in a still more remarkable instance was this truth indicated in the
case of the two sons of Isaac. They were conceived by Rebecca of the
same husband, yet God chose the one and rejected the other. An original
difference between Isaac and Ishmael might be alleged, since the one was
born of the lawful wife of Abraham, the free woman, and the other was
the son of the bond woman; but in the case now brought forward there
existed no original difference. Both were sons of the same father and
mother, and both were born at the same time. The great distinction,
then, made between the two brothers could only be traced to the
sovereign will of God, who thus visibly notified, long before the event,
the difference of the Divine purpose, according to election, towards the
people of Israel.
Matthew Poole comments that
this is added
because there might be some objection
against the former; as if there were some reason why God chose Isaac,
and refused Ishmael. Isaac was born of a free-woman, and when Abraham
was uncircumcised: besides, Ishmael no sooner came to years, but he
showed some tokens of perverseness, and of a wicked spirit. Therefore,
in this and the three following verses, he gives another, which was
beyond all exception; and that is in Esau and Jacob, betwixt whom there
was no disparity, either in birth or in works: they had both one and the
same mother; Rebecca conceived with them at one and the same time, and
that by no other person than our father Isaac; and yet the one of these
is chosen, and the other refused. Tills now was an undeniable proof,
that the promise belongs not to all the children of Abraham, or of
Isaac, according to the flesh; all the seed of neither are the children
of the promise.
God's special election of one portion
of Abraham's descendants for special blessing is further evident in His
choice of Jacob rather than Esau. Someone might say that
Isaac was obviously the natural son through whom blessing would
come since he was the first son born to Abraham and Sarah. That was not
true of Jacob. Furthermore Esau and Jacob both had
the same mother as well as father, so that was not a factor as an
objector might claim it was in Isaac and Ishmael's case. Jacob and Esau
might have shared the firstborn privilege since they were twins. One
conception produced both of them. However, God chose Jacob even though
Rebekah bore Esau before Jacob. As in the case of Isaac, God made a
choice between them before their birth. Their birth was also
supernatural since their mother was barren. God chose Jacob before he
had done any deeds or manifested a character worthy of God's special
blessing. The fact that Jacob became a less admirable person in some
respects than Esau shows that God's choice was not due to Jacob but to
In Romans 9:10, 11, 12, 13 John
Murray explains that
In these verses appeal is made to
another instance of the same kind of differentiation in patriarchal
history. The thesis being established, it must be remembered, is that
not by natural descent did the descendants of Abraham become partakers
of God's covenant grace and promises. This was proven in Abraham's own
sons in the differentiation between Isaac and Ishmael. But it was not
only in Abraham's sons that this discrimination appeared; it enters also
into Isaac's own family. The argument of the apostle becomes cumulative
as it proceeds. There are new factors exemplified in Isaac's family that
do not appear in the case of Abraham's sons and these considerations
point up more forcefully and conclusively the differentiation that must
be recognized in the fulfilment of God's covenant purposes.
9:11 for though the
twins were not
born and had
because of Him
And the children were yet unborn and had so far done nothing either
good or evil. Even so, in order further to carry out God's purpose of
selection (election, choice), which depends not on works or what men
can do, but on Him Who calls [them],
ESV: though they were not yet born and had done nothing
either good or bad--in order that God's purpose of election might
continue, not because of works but because of his call--
ICB: But before the two boys were born, God told Rebekah, "The
older will serve the younger." This was before the boys had done
anything good or bad. God said this before they were born so that the
one chosen would be chosen because of God's own plan. He was chosen
because he was the one God wanted to call, not because of anything he
NKJV: (for the children not yet being born, nor having
done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election
might stand, not of works but of Him who calls),
NIV: Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good
or bad--in order that God's purpose in election might stand:
NLT: But before they were born, before they had done
anything good or bad, she received a message from God. (This message
proves that God chooses according to his own plan,
Philips: And then, again, a word of promise came to
Rebecca, at the time when she was pregnant with two children by the
one man, Isaac our forefather. It came before the children were born
or had done anything good or bad, plainly showing that God's act of
choice has nothing to do with achievements, good or bad, but is
entirely a matter of his will.
Wuest: For not yet having been born nor having practiced
any good or evil, in order that the purpose of God dominated by an act
of selecting out may abide, not out of a source of works, but out of
the source of the One who calls,
Young's Literal: (for they being not yet born, neither
having done anything good or evil, that the purpose of God, according
to choice, might remain; not of works, but of Him who is calling,) it
was said to her--
FOR THOUGH THE TWINS WERE NOT YET BORN
AND HAD NOT DONE ANYTHING GOOD OR BAD: mepo gar gennethenton (APPMPG) mede praxanton (APPMPG) ti
agathon e phaulon:
(Ro 4:17; Psalms 51:5; Ephesians 2:3)
(see in depth study on
agathos) means profitable, benefiting
others, whereas the related word kalos means constitutionally
good, but not necessarily benefiting others.
[word study]) worthless, bad or of no account. It describes the
impossibility of any true gain ever coming forth. The notion of
worthlessness is central to the meaning. Note the KJV (Textus Receptus)
translates a different Greek word (kakos) which denotes a lack of
something and thus that which is bad or not as it ought to be.
Phaulos - 6x in 6v - John
3:20; 5:29; Ro 9:11; 2Cor 5:10; Titus 2:8; Jas 3:16. NAS = bad(3),
God foresaw both Esau and Jacob as born in sin, "by
nature children of wrath even as the rest" (Ephesians 2:3). If left to
themselves they would have continued in sin through life; but for wise
and holy reasons, not made known to us, God purposed to change Jacob's
heart, and to leave Esau to his perverseness.
IN ORDER THAT GOD'S PURPOSE ACCORDING TO HIS CHOICE MIGHT STAND
continually): hina e kat eklogen prothesis tou theou mene (3SPAS):
(Ro 8:28, 29, 30; Isaiah 14:24,26,27; 23:9; 46:10,11; Jeremiah 51:29; Ephesians
1:9, 10, 11; Ephesians 3:11; 2Timothy 1:9) (Ro 11:5,7; Ephesians 1:4,5;
1Thessalonians 1:4; 2Peter 1:10) (Ro 11:6; Ephesians 2:9; Titus 3:5) (Ro
8:28; 1Thessalonians 2:12; 2Thessalonians 2:13,14; 1Peter 5:10;
from protíthemi = set before oneself and so to
purpose or plan) means to plan in advance. It describes that which is
planned or purposed in advance. Here it describes God’s intention
Prothesis - 12x in 12v -Matt 12:4; Mark 2:26; Luke 6:4; Acts 11:23; 27:13; Rom 8:28; 9:11; Eph
1:11; 3:11; 2 Tim 1:9; 3:10; Heb 9:2. NAS = consecrated(3),
purpose(7), resolute(1), sacred(1).
Prothesis has a secular
Greek use meaning setting forth of something in public and in a similar
NT use refers to the name give to the
("loaves of presentation") in the Temple which is "exposed before God".
The bread before the Presence of the Lord consisted of twelve
loaves of wheat bread offered every Sabbath (12 = number of the tribes
of Israel) and arranged in two rows on the table before the Holy of
Holies and to remain there for seven days. (See topics:
Vincent's note below,
table of shewbread or showbread).
The other major NT meaning of
prothesis and the one intended by Paul in Ro 9:11 is purpose,
which is something set up as an object or end to be attained. Purpose
describes fixed intention in doing something or the reason for which
something is done or for which something exists. It describes what one
intends to accomplish or attain and suggests a settled determination
(this is going to happen - see uses below that especially relate to
Richards observes that...
God's sovereignty is affirmed in both
OT and NT. An important NT aspect of this affirmation is found in the
repeated emphasis on that which God has purposed, planned, and decreed.
Two Greek words, prothesis and boule, are particularly
significant. Prothesis means "a plan" or "a resolve," denoting a
decision that has been made. The NIV renders this word "purpose" in four
of the twelve places where it appears in the NT (Ro 8:28; 9:11; Eph
1:11; 3:11). Boule is a strong term, indicating God's fixed
intention. That which is his purpose stands utterly fixed and cannot be
changed by any action of others. (Richards,
L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)
Prothesis speaks of the
action of an individual setting before himself a proposed action. Thus,
it presupposes deliberation upon a course of conduct, and then the
determination to carry it through.
Prothesis was also used to
denote the public lying in state of the dead (Plato, Leg., 12, 947b),
public announcements (Aristot., Pol., 6, 8, p. 1322a 9), and later an
intention (Polyb., 5, 35, 2). From Aristotle on prothesis was used to
express purpose and as shown below Paul uses it of 'the Divine purpose
of God for the salvation of mankind,' the 'purpose of the ages'
determined in the Divine mind before the creation of the world".
(Adapted in part from
Brown, Colin, Editor. New
International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan)
(ekloge from eklegomai
- word study] in turn from ek = out +
lego = select, choose, eklegomai meaning to choose or select
for oneself, but not necessarily implying rejection of what is not
chosen. See study of related word
elect) means literally a choosing out, a picking out, a selection or an
election (2Pe 1:10, 1Th 1:4 - referring to God's selection of
believers). In the passive sense ekloge refers to God's selection
for a purpose or task. In other words it represents a special choice as
when God referred to Paul as "my chosen instrument" (Acts 9:15). In Ro
11:28 ekloge speaks of God's choice of Israel, who were selected
by Him to carry out His specific plan of redemption for mankind.
In the context of Scripture
ekloge speaks of
election, the benevolent purpose of God by which any are chosen
unto salvation so that they are led to embrace and persevere in Christ’s
bestowed grace and the enjoyment of its privileges and blessings here
and hereafter. Although not used in this way in the present context,
ekloge, can describe election which is vocational. The Lord called out
the tribe of Levi to be His priests, but Levites were not thereby
guaranteed salvation. Jesus called twelve men to be apostles but only
eleven of them to salvation. After Paul came to Christ because of God’s
election to salvation, God then chose him in another way to be His
special apostle to the Gentiles (Acts 9:15; Ro 1:5).
Ekloge - 7x in 7v - Acts
9:15; Ro 9:11-note;
NAS = choice(4), choosing(1), chosen(1), those who were chosen(1).
NIDNTT elaborates on
several interesting aspects of secular use of this word group (eklego,
eklegomai, ekloge, eklektos) in classic Greek noting that...
(1) eklegomai (Herodotus) is
the middle voice of eklego, pick out, choose out a person or
thing (from a sizeable number). The active form does not occur at all in
the NT and only occasionally in the LXX. It is derived from lego =
count, collect, read (Word). The verbal adjective eklektos, which
is sometimes used absolutely (attested since Plato), denotes the person
or thing upon whom the choice has fallen. The noun ekloge,
derived from the verb (likewise Plato) and originally meaning
exclusively the act of choosing, can be used with the verbs lambano =
take, poieomai = do, or ginomai, here in the sense of arrive at.
The words of this group are used in
various contexts, but wherever they are found, it is evident that
certain things common to them all are implied.
First, there are several
objects from which to choose; secondly, the person making the
choice is not tied down by any circumstances which force his hand, but
is free to make his own decision. Thirdly, the person making the
choice-at least at the moment of choosing-has the person or thing to be
chosen at his disposal. Moreover, the act of choosing (and thus the
words of this group) includes a judgment by the chooser as to which
object he considers to be the most suitable for the fulfilment of his
purpose. It is not of vital importance whether it be objective criteria,
or subjective feelings and considerations which are paramount in making
(2) Although these words
originate in military vocabulary, by the time of Plato eklegomai
and ekloge are already in use in a political sense (referring to
elections). In every case it is a matter of electing people to perform a
certain task, or administer a certain office. These include in the
political sphere the presbytai, elders, for the administration of the
polis (city) (Plato, Rep., 536c; Polybius, 6, 10, 9), the archontes
(Plato, Rep., 414a, Beginning, art. arche NT 4), or other officials and
people with public responsibilities (Plato, Laws, 802b). ekloge,
however, is also used of the general conscription of men for military
service (Polybius 5,63,11), and the selection of individuals from the
whole army for a particularly difficult or glorious mission (Polybius 9,
Prudence and experience, appropriate
standing in society or sufficient wealth, courage and suitability
constitute the conditions necessary in each instance, if a person is to
be considered for election. But it is the election itself which makes it
possible for him to take up his function and which at the same time lays
an obligation upon him. For election, whether of individuals or of a
group, is regarded as a distinction (very occasionally it is used in a
negative sense, implying especial severity). It is usually conducted in
a manner in keeping with the concept of an aristocratic élite. It is
always, however, accompanied by some kind of obligation or task
concerned with the well-being of all the other members of the community
of which the one elected forms part. Through its proper organs, the
polis gives the individual who has special gifts the opportunity to
develop these for the benefit of all.
(3) At the same time, the
words may be applied to objects. eklegomai is used of the choice
of certain places (Plato, Tim., 24c), deciding in favour of what is
intellectually or aesthetically good (Symposium, 198d), or selection of
especially treasured passages from literature in general or from the
work of a certain author (Athenaeus, 14, 663c; Polybius, 1, 47, 9).
Ekloge can also refer to the requisition of material (e.g. ships),
or the levying of official tribute and taxes (Athenaeus 6, 235b).
The words express in every case
the idea that a part has been claimed from a greater quantity, by an
independent act of decision for a particular purpose, and that the
remainder has been passed over.
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
NOT BECAUSE OF WORKS BUT BECAUSE OF HIM WHO
CALLS: ouk ex ergon all ek tou kalountos (PAPMSG): (Ro 11:6;
Ephesians 2:9; Titus 3:5) (Calling - Ro 8:28; 1Thessalonians 2:12;
2Thessalonians 2:13,14; 1Peter 5:10; Revelation 17:14-note)
Not because of works but... -
Literally the Greek reads "not out of works but out of the calling".
In other words, it is not because of anything that
man does within himself. In the current verse Esau and Jacob were not born so they could not have done
anything yet. Man does not obtain salvation by his works. He cannot
manipulate God by His works. God is sovereign in election and in salvation.
Calls in this
means "calls to salvation" (see discussion of "the called" in study of
the related word
kletos). God's call to salvation in the
epistles of Paul and Peter is an "effectual" call so that in essence
those who are called equates with those who are chosen (the elect).
said to her, "THE
Amplified: It was said to her that the elder [son] should serve
the younger [son].
ESV: she was told, "The older will serve the younger."
ICB: But before the two boys were born, God told
Rebekah, "The older will serve the younger." This was before the boys
had done anything good or bad. God said this before they were born so
that the one chosen would be chosen because of God's own plan. He was
chosen because he was the one God wanted to call, not because of
anything he did.
NKJV: it was said to her, "The older shall serve the younger."
NIV: not by works but by him who calls--she was told, "The
older will serve the younger."
NLT: not according to our good or bad works.) She was
told, "The descendants of your older son will serve the descendants of
your younger son."
Philips: The promise was: 'The older shall serve the younger'.
Wuest: The older shall serve the younger; even as it
stands written, Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.
Young's Literal: 'The greater shall serve the less;'
IT WAS SAID TO HER
(Esau) WILL SERVE THE YOUNGER
(Jacob): errethe (3SAPI) aute hoti
douleusei (3SFAI) to elassoni: (Genesis 25:22,23; 2Samuel 8:14;
Paul quotes the
of (Genesis 25:23) (o meizon
douleusei (3SFAI) to elassoni).
from doulos =
slave or one who is in bondage or bound to another, in the state of
being completely controlled by someone or something) means to be in
bondage or in the position of a servant and to act accordingly,
dutifully obeying the master's commands.
This "prophecy" was given before the twins were born.
The eldest son according to man's ways should have received the
blessing but God choose Jacob over Esau.
Do you know the final confrontation of Jacob and Esau recorded in the
Jesus before Herod, the King before "a" king. Herod was Idumean, Edomite, a descendant of Esau. Jesus was, through David, a
descendant of Jacob. There, standing face-to-face, were Jacob and
Esau! Herod has nothing but contempt for the King of the Jews, and
Jesus will not open his mouth in the presence of Herod. This is God's
strange and mysterious way of dealing with humanity. His ways are not
my ways, and His thoughts are not my thoughts.
Esau, the older, did not actually serve Jacob, his younger twin; but
Esau’s descendants, the Edomites, did. For example during David's
reign we read that...
"he put garrisons in Edom. In all
Edom he put garrisons, and all the Edomites became servants to David.
And the LORD helped David wherever he went." (2Sa 8:14)
Just as it is
As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated (held in
 relative disregard in comparison with My feeling for Jacob).(6)
ESV: As it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated."
ICB: As the Scripture says, "I loved Jacob, but I hated
NKJV: As it is written, "Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have
NIV: Just as it is written: "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated."
NLT: In the words of the Scriptures, "I loved Jacob, but
I rejected Esau."
Philips: And we get a later endorsement of this divine choice
in the words: 'Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated'.
We must not jump to conclusions about God
Wuest: even as it stands written, Jacob I loved, but Esau I
Young's Literal: according as it hath been written,
'Jacob I did love, and Esau I did hate.'
JUST AS IT IS WRITTEN: kathos gegraptai (3SRPI) :
[word study]) is in the
which emphasizes the lasting and binding authority of that which was
written. It has been written at some point in time in the past and it
Paul is saying in
this section (Ro 9:10, 11, 12, 13) that God's election is...
Not based on
Not based on works (good or bad)
According to His purpose
JACOB I LOVED BUT ESAU I HATED:
ton Iakob egaphesa
(1SAAI) ton de Esau emisesa (1SAAI):
Paul quotes the
of (Malachi 1:2,3).
see related study of noun
agape) means to love unconditionally
and sacrificially as God Himself loves sinful men (John
3:16), the way He loves the Son (John 3:35, 15:9, 17:23, 24).
is a verb and by its
verbal nature calls for action. This quality of love is not an emotion
but is an action initiated by a volitional choice.
John MacArthur writes that
expresses the purest, noblest form of
love, which is volitionally driven, not motivated by superficial
appearance, emotional attraction, or sentimental relationship. (MacArthur,
John: 1 & 2 Thessalonians. Moody Press
A student once said to Dr. Griffith Thomas that he was having trouble
with this passage because he could not understand why God hated
Dr. Thomas answered,
I am having a problem with that passage too, but mine is different. I do
not understand why God loved Jacob. (Ed: And I'll add "I don't
know why He loved me!")
That is the
big problem. It is easy to see why God rejected Esau. He was godless, filled with pride, and
not surprisingly from his loins came forth a
nation (Edom) that wanted to live without God and which as a result turned their backs
And so from a human perspective we can find some rationale for why God rejected Esau, but
that is not the case with why He chose Jacob. This reminds me of the
passage in Deuteronomy which says "the secret things belong to the
LORD." (Dt 29:29)
Jacob I loved -
The Hebrew idiomatic phrase (according to Rienecker) can mean "I prefer
Jacob to Esau". In other words in context God choose Jacob even though
Esau was the firstborn. Don't forget though that Esau sold his
birthright for a mess of porridge -- he despised his birthright
(miseo from misos = hatred) means to dislike strongly or
to love less.
Hate is a relative
term as employed here. Jesus used the same word in a similar way when He
cautioned that a man must hate his father and mother if he would come to
Christ (Lk 14:26). Obviously Jesus, who was an advocate of the Law
(Ex 20:12), was not encouraging "hate" in the usual sense of the word.
But through a consecrated use of the hyperbole of antithesis, Jesus is
saying that the love a man has for Christ ought to dwarf his love for
his father to the extent that the latter would seem to be "hate" by
comparison. Hatred in this sense is not absolute but relative to a
God did not "hate" Esau in the conventional sense of the word.
In fact, He
greatly prospered and favored him (Ge 27:38, 39, 40). Esau did receive earthly
blessings, as he himself testified (Ge 33:9.)
However, God's favor and
blessing upon Jacob was so extensive that by comparison Esau would
appear to be hated. The verse could be understood to mean that God has
chosen Jacob to fulfill His elective purpose, but He has passed over
Esau. Keep in mind that Esau rejected God. The divine rationale for
this action is simply the elective purpose of God in Israel.
F B Meyer writes...
The apostle is dealing here, not
with individuals as such, but with peoples w id nations. For instance,
Isaac stands for the entire Jewish race — Abraham’s seed (Romans 9:7). He
is dealing with the question, why it was that God chose Israel and
rejected Edom; chose Jacob and rejected Esau: and he shows that the
ultimate decision of their destinies lay in the purpose of God, according
to election. The one was elect to be a channel of immense blessing to the
world; whilst the other was rejected.
But we must always associate the
Divine foreknowledge with the Divine choice. “Whom He did foreknow, He
also did predestinate.” We must regard Jacob and Esau, not as individual
personalities merely, but as the founders of nations. For God’s purpose in
the building-up of the chosen people, Jacob the methodical and far-seeing,
was more suited than Esau the free-lance, the rover, the child of impulse
and passion. And, besides, there were religious aptitudes and capacities
within him, of which Esau gave no sign or trace. This does not solve the
entire mystery, perhaps; but only casts it a degree or two further back.
Still, it ought to be considered. Like a candle, it casts a slender ray on
to the black abyss. In any case, is it not certain that God’s choice did
alight on him who was most suited to serve the Divine purpose?
It may be that God is wanting to
execute his purpose through you. Take heed. Still the savory dish steams
on the desert air, and appeals to the appetite of our natures; and we are
strongly tempted to forego the unseen and eternal for a moment’s
gratification. See to it that for one morsel of meat you do not sell your
birthright. (Our Daily Homily)
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