FOR THERE ARE MANY
REBELLIOUS MEN: eisin
(3SPAI) gar polloi kai anupotaktoi: (Acts 20:29; Ro 16:17;16:18
2Co11:12, 13, 14, 15 Ep 4:14; 2Th 2:10;11, 12 1Ti1:4; 1:6, 6:3; 6:4, 6:5
2Ti 3:13; 4:4; Jas 1:26; 2Pe 2:1,2:2 ; 1Jn 2:18; 4:1; Rev 2:6, 14)
for there are many both insubordinate (YLT)
will not recognise authority
who are refractory (Wuest), who refuse to obey (TLB)
disorderly and unruly men (Amp)
who don't respect authority (CEV)
who rebel against right teaching (NLT)
who refuse to obey (ICB)
there are plenty of insubordinate creatures (Moffatt)
many rebellious spirits abroad (Knox)
there are far too many who are out of control (NEB)
For there are many that spurn authority (WNT)
(gar) is a conjunction that introduces the
logical reason overseers must
refute (and be equipped to do so) those who are opposed.
(polus) speaks of a great number or quantity.
(506) (anupotaktos from a = without + hupotásso
= to subject or arrange [troops] in a military fashion under the command
of a leader, sit under in an orderly manner) in the active use describes
those who cannot be subjected to control, disobedient, unruly,
refractory, undisciplined. They refuse submission to authority. The are
ungovernable for they refuse to be subject to any control. They are
unruly, disregarding restraint, insubordinate, unwilling to submit,
disorderly, headstrong, intractable, undisciplined, and out of control
Calvin says these men
cannot endure to be brought to obey
and...throw off the yoke of subjection.
not submit to God’s
Word or to the authority of God’s servant.
Anupotaktos was used in this same chapter describing the elder
Titus 1:6 namely, if any man
be above reproach, the husband of one wife, having children who believe,
not accused of dissipation or rebellion.
There are only two other uses of
anupotaktos in Scripture...
1Timothy 1:9 realizing the
fact that law is not made for a righteous man, but for those who are
lawless and rebellious, for the ungodly and sinners, for the
unholy and profane, for those who kill their fathers or mothers, for
murderers. (Comment: In this context, anupotaktos refers
to unbelievers - lawless, ungodly, sinners, unholy, profane, etc).
Hebrews 2:8 Thou hast put all
things in subjection under his feet." For in subjecting all things to
him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do
not yet see all things subjected to him. (Comment: In this
context, anupotaktos means not made subject, unsubjected and thus
They are rebels who unwilling to submit to authority. Being a law unto themselves and representing the first rebel
Satan, they do not recognize the authority of God’s Word or of His
Spirit, much less that of His divinely called preachers and teachers.
Even when their erroneous doctrine and immoral living are exposed, they
are inclined to defy correction and discipline by the true church.
Beware of teachers who will not put themselves under authority. And
since there were "many"
it was all the more imperative for Titus to appoint elders in every city
for Titus no matter how persuasive in refuting these men, would hardly have
had time to deal with their growing numbers. Jude also described
men who "by dreaming, defile the flesh and reject authority."
Paul had predicted that there would be men who would come in among the
church (an "inside job") and would not spare the flock (Acts
who talk nonsense (Phillips, NJB)
who are idle (vain, empty) and
misleading talkers (Amp)
they engage in useless talk (NLT)
people who talk about worthless
vain jangling (Vincent)
senseless talkers (Berkley)
who impose on people with their empty
disobedient babblers (Conybeare)
given to idle and misleading talk
all noise, empty parade, and no work
empty chatterers (McGee)
(mataiologos from mataios = vain, empty,
profitless, fruitless, aimless = building houses on sand, chasing the
wind, shooting at stars, pursuing one's shadow + lego = talk) are vain talkers,
idle talkers, foolish prattlers who speak
only worthless nonsense. These folks are babblers with nothing to say.
The root mataios described heathen worship (mataios is
used as a word for idols in Acts 14:15, 2Ki 17:15, Jer 2:5, 8:19),
specifically worship which produces no goodness of life and nothing of
eternal value! He is one who utters empty, senseless things. A windbag!
Titus 1:10 is the only use of mataiologos
in the Bible
The related word mataiologia
means “empty prattle” and is used in for those who forsake sincere
1Timothy 1:6 For some men,
straying from these things, have turned aside to fruitless discussion
These people in
Crete could talk glibly but all their talk was ineffective in bringing
anyone one step nearer goodness.
Their talk produced no spiritual benefits, and in fact robbed the
hearers of the truth which led them into error. The Cynics used to say
that all knowledge which is not profitable for virtue is vain. The
teacher who simply provides his pupils with a forum for pleasant
intellectual and speculative discussion teaches in vain. Shakespeare
would describe them as “full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.”
an unusual note writing that...
the writer’s fondness for unusual compounds. Jangling is an early
English word from the old French jangler, comp. jongleur a teller
of tales. Hence jangling is empty chatter. So Chaucer,
“Them that jangle of love.” Shakespeare,“ This their jangling I esteem a
sport.” (Mids. Night’s Dream. iii. 2) (Word studies in the New Testament
adds that they
occupy themselves with nothing but useless subtleties (contrast holding
...because they contribute nothing to piety and the fear of God.
What these men
said may have impressed their hearers, but the words lacked substance.
were frequent in the ranks of many of the pseudo-intellectuals in the
ancient world. Jeremiah described a similar breed of men in Israel
The prophet who has a dream may relate his dream, but let him who has My
word speak My word in truth. What does straw have in common with grain?
They led God's
people astray by their falsehoods and reckless
boasting yet (God) did not send them or command them, nor do
they furnish this people the slightest benefit... (Jer 23:32)
it blinds people to the truth (TLB)
who delude people's minds (JNT)
and lead others into the wrong way (ICB)
(phrenapates from phren = mind + apatáo = lead astray, deceive) is literally
deceiver" or one who leads one's mind astray!
Instead of leading men to the
truth they led them away from it. The deliberately cause someone to
believe something that is not true. They cause others to accept as true
or valid what is false or invalid.
In the church,
disguise themselves as believers and as teachers of truth.
They typically disguise their deceit in ''Biblese'' language, for
they are familiar with all the Christian buzz words. Paul wrote to
men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse,
and being deceived." (2Ti 3:13-note)
Unfortunately these men have seldom had difficulty attracting an
audience. In Paul's last known communication, he warned Timothy that the
time would come when men would
“not endure sound doctrine but wanting to have their
ears tickled, they (would) accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to
their own desires and (would) turn away their ears from the truth, and (would) turn aside to myths.”
2 Timothy 4:3;
In his first epistle to Timothy Paul warned that
"in later times some
will fall away from the faith, paying attention to deceitful
spirits and doctrines of demons."
THOSE OF THE CIRCUMCISION: malista hoi ek peritomes: (Acts 15:1;
15:24; Gal 1:6, 7, 8; Gal 2:4; 3:1; 4:17, 18, 19, 21; 5:1; 5:2, 5:3,
5:4; Php 3:2; 3)
especially those with Jewish connections (NET)
of the circumcision group (NIV)
this is especially true of those who insist on circumcision for
I am talking mostly about those who say that all non-Jews must be
particularly those who have come over from Judaism (Moffatt)
from perí = around + témno
= cut off)
refers literally to cutting and removal of the foreskin. but in this
context refers to Jews. Paul used this identical phrase
describing the party of the
circumcision (Gal 2:12).
In Paul's letter to Philippi he warned believers to
"beware of the
identifying himself as "the true
who worship in the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no
confidence in the flesh"
From Acts we
known that Jews lived in Crete (Acts 2:11),
and from Paul's comments, a number of them were Judaizers, men
who attempted to place believers back under the Law, seeking to impose
OT ceremonial standards (eg, rules about foods and washings) and
sometimes even rabbinical traditions, which amounts to
a practical denial of the all-sufficiency of the finished work of Christ
and the grace that flows from His Cross.
Luke records that
men came down from Judea and began teaching the brethren, "Unless you
are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be
saved." (Acts 15:1)
These men were
seeking to persuade men that they needed more than Christ and more than
grace in order to be saved. They were intellectualists for whom the
truth of God was too simple and too good to be true.
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Smooth Talkers (Titus 1:5-16)
Speak the things which are proper for sound doctrine. --Titus 2:1 A man who was trying to explain the
meaning of the word oratory commented with tongue in cheek, "If you say
black is white, that's foolishness. But if while you say black is white
you roar like a bull, pound on the table with both fists, and race from
one end of the platform to another, that's oratory!"
We can quickly be swept off our feet by the way people express
themselves, even though we have some questions about their message. Jude
warned us about those whose mouths speak "great swelling words" (v.16).
The masses are often moved more by style than by content.
According to Paul, the time will come when people will turn away from
the truth of sound doctrine and tolerate only those who entertain and
make people feel good (2Ti 4:3, 4). So we must carefully analyze and
evaluate in the light of the Scriptures everything we hear--even what is
taught and proclaimed by the most eloquent of speakers. We must not
allow ourselves to be swayed by mere oratory--especially in the church!
We need to be sure that the Bible teachers we listen to are "speaking
the truth in Christ and not lying" (1Ti 2:7).
Don't let "idle talkers and deceivers" (Titus 1:10) confuse you. Eloquence
is never a substitute for truth. —Richard De Haan (Our
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by
permission. All rights reserved)
We must beware of speakers who
Distort and twist God's Word;
They'll entertain and motivate,
And call the truth absurd. --Sper
To recognize Satan's lies, focus on God's truth