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Tychicus to you,
come to me at
Nicopolis, for I have
Amplified: When I send Artemas or [perhaps] Tychicus to you,
lose no time but make every effort to come to me at Nicopolis, for I
have decided to spend the winter there.
Bible - Lockman)
When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come
unto me to Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter.
Phillips: As soon as I send Artemas
to you (or perhaps it will be Tychicus), do your best to come to me at
Nicopolis, for I have made up my mind to spend the winter there. (Phillips:
When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come
unto me to Nicopolis, for there to winter I have determined.
WHEN I SEND
hotan pempso (1SAAS) Arteman:
The conclusion is devoted largely to
personal matters. Paul indicates his plans for the future
movements of Titus and lays upon him the immediate obligation to assist
Zenas and Apollos. The thought of material assistance is next related
more generally to the Cretan Christians.
(pempo) means to dispatch, send, thrust out, cause to go.
the masculine form of the
ancient Greek goddess, Artemis or Diana. contraction of Greek. Artemidoros,
“gift of Artemis,” i.e., Diana.
Artemas and Tychicus evidently were
available as replacements for Titus on Crete.
suggest Paul is sending
either Artemas or Tychicus to Crete, presumably to take Titus’ place
temporarily as the leader of the church there. Thus freed, Titus would
be able to meet Paul at Nicopolis where he had decided to spend the
winter. Of the several cities named Nicopolis, most commentators judge
the reference in Titus 3:12 to be Nicopolis in Epirus on the west coast
of Greece. Since there is a tradition preserved in 2Ti 3:10
note) that Titus
went to Dalmatia, to the north of Nicopolis, it is probable that he
visited Paul along the way in Nicopolis and that Artemas (or Tychicus),
if Paul followed through with his plan, spent time in Crete serving the
church while Titus was away.
OR TYCHICUS TO
pros se e Tychikon: (Acts
We first meet Tychicus in (Acts
Paul was in Ephesus near the end of his third missionary journey. He
planned to return to Jerusalem via Macedonia, where he intended to
collect an offering. With the offerings from Galatia and Achaia, he
would present it to the needy believers at Jerusalem (cf. 1Cor 16:1-9). By
so doing, he hoped to cement the bond between the predominantly Gentile
churches outside of Palestine, and the predominantly Jewish church at
Jerusalem. He also planned to take some Gentile believers from Greece
and Asia Minor as representatives of their churches to the Jerusalem
church. Among them was Tychicus.
Tychicus’ willingness to travel with Paul to Jerusalem shows his
servant’s heart. Such a journey was not to be undertaken lightly. Travel
in the ancient world was far more difficult and dangerous than in our
day. The trip to Jerusalem would be very arduous, and it would take
Tychicus away from his family, friends, and church for a long time.
Along the way, Paul was repeatedly warned that trouble awaited him in
Jerusalem. Although Tychicus must certainly have heard those warnings,
he remained with Paul.
As Paul wrote Colossians, it had been more than two years since his
arrest at Jerusalem. Since then he had survived a plot by the Jewish
leaders to murder him, trials before Felix, Festus, and Agrippa, and a
harrowing voyage to Rome. Tychicus may have been with Paul through that
entire time. He definitely was with him during his imprisonment at Rome.
After Paul’s release, Tychicus remained with him. When Paul needed a
temporary replacement for Titus as pastor of the church on Crete,
Tychicus was one of the ones considered (note
Tychicus, who had begun as a messenger, was now a candidate to fill in
for as great a man as Titus.
At the very end of Paul’s life, during his second Roman imprisonment,
Tychicus was still with him. Facing imminent execution, Paul desired to
see Timothy one last time. Because Timothy could not leave his
congregation at Ephesus without a replacement, Paul sent Tychicus (see
2 Timothy 4:12). Once again, Tychicus’
name comes up as a replacement for one of Paul’s prominent associates.
That speaks highly of his character.
The writing of Colossians (see note
Colossians 4:7) finds Tychicus in Rome with Paul during his
first imprisonment. By this time about four years have passed since
Tychicus joined Paul in Ephesus. Because he is a man of proven loyalty,
Paul has an important task for him: He is to deliver the letter to the
Colossians. Not only does he carry Colossians, but Ephesians (cf. notes
and probably Philemon as well (cf. 4:9). The trip from Rome to Colossae
was a difficult one. Tychicus would first have to cross much of Italy on
foot, then sail across the Adriatic Sea. After traversing Greece on
foot, he would sail across the Aegean Sea to the coast of Asia Minor.
After all that, he still faced a journey of nearly one hundred miles on
foot to reach Colossae. That he was entrusted with delivering three
inspired books of Scripture once again indicates Paul’s trust in him.}
Not only will Tychicus deliver the letter of Colossians, he will also
bring the Colossians information about Paul’s affairs and update them on
his circumstances. That would include bringing them information on
Paul’s health, his hopes, and his future prospects. He would also
encourage their hearts by adding a personal word of encouragement to
what was written in the letter and answering their queries about Paul’s
Paul next lists three credentials Tychicus possessed that qualified him
to act as Paul’s personal envoy. First, he was a beloved brother in the
Lord. That Paul calls him a brother shows he was one of the family of
believers. His personal character had earned him the designation beloved
from no less than the apostle Paul himself. Second, Paul describes him
as a faithful servant. He never achieved prominence, but he served in an
important capacity as Paul’s liaison to the churches. He was a faithful
steward of his ministry—the highest commendation Paul could give (cf.
1Co 4:2). Finally, Paul calls him a fellow bond-servant in the Lord. He
was a diakonos (servant) in relationship to Paul, but a sundoulos
(fellow bond-servant) with Paul in relationship to the Lord.
(note)- beloved brother and faithful servant (diakonos) and fellow
bondservant (sundoulos) in the Lord
Ephesians 6:21 - the beloved brother and faithful minister (diakonos) in the
Lord, will make everything known to you.
2 Timothy 4:12
- I have sent to Ephesus.
MAKE EVERY EFFORT
TO COME TO ME AT NICOPOLIS:
spoudason (2SAAM) elthein (AAN) pros me eis Nikopolin:
Make every every
= earnestness, diligence)conveys the idea
hastening to do something with the implication of associated energy or
with intense effort and motivation. It means marked by careful
unremitting attention or persistent application. The idea is give
maximum effort, do your best, spare no effort, hurry on, be eager!
Hasten to do a thing, exert yourself, endeavour to do it. It means not
only to be willing to do with eagerness, but to follow through and make
diligent effort. In other words spoudazo does not stop with
affecting one's state of mind, but also affects one's activity.
Spoudazo conveys the idea of exertion. It means to be conscientious,
zealous and earnest in discharging a duty or obligation. The verb
calls for intensity of purpose
followed by intensity of effort toward the realization of that
signifies a command to do this now even with a sense of urgency. Be
diligent, conveying the idea of zealous persistence to accomplish an
objective. "Do your utmost!"
To be diligent is to exert
steady, earnest, and energetic effort and suggests earnest application
to some specific object or pursuit. The idea is careful and persevering
in carrying out tasks or duties. It means to be assiduous (marked by
careful unremitting attention or persistent application).
Spoudazo basically means to make haste, and from that come the
meanings of zeal and diligence. One commentator describes it as a holy
zeal that demands full dedication.
Wuest says that spoudazo
"to make haste, do one’s best, take
care, desire. The idea of making haste, being eager, giving diligence,
and putting forth effort are in the word. The word speaks of intense
effort and determination." (Wuest,
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Studies in the
Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament: Grand Rapids: Eerdmans)
The most likely site for the
meeting was the Nicopolis
in Epirus; this same Nicopolis is also known as Nicopolis of Achaia.
This variance has resulted because Tacitus (Ann. 2.53) described it as
an Achaian town, whereas Ptolemy (Geog. 3.13) ascribed it to Epirus. The
two terms are designations for large portions of what is today modern
Greece. It was located on the W side of the Greek peninsula across the
sea from the S end of the Italian peninsula (39°02´N; 20°44´E). The city
was built on the isthmus of the Bay of Actium. Augustus founded the city
in commemoration of the important naval victory over Mark Anthony in 31
b.c. which took place in the bay. The undisputed Princeps established
the city as a Roman colony. The show piece of Nicopolis was a memorial
dedicated in 29 b.c. to Neptune and Mars. The monument was decorated
with a number of rams from the front of ships captured during the naval
conflict. The city dominated the trade of the region and was the venue
for a quadrennial festival which rivaled the Olympic games. Herod the
Great, in his typical flair for promoting his own position with
Augustus, made generous donations toward the construction of a temple
there, as well as for numerous other public buildings (Josephus, Ant
16.5.3 § 147). The city became the home of the exiled philosopher
Epictetus in a.d. 89 (Aulus Gellius Attic Nights 15.11.5). The site is
occupied today by the modern village of Smyrtoula.
Paul’s intention to meet Titus in Nicopolis sometime after being
released from prison in Rome would have been a continuation of his
evangelistic endeavor. It is widely held that after traveling through
Miletus and Corinth, Paul made his way to Nicopolis, where he was
arrested and returned to Rome in a second Roman imprisonment.
FOR I HAVE
DECIDED TO SPEND THE WINTER THERE:
ekei gar kekrika (1SRAI) paracheimasai.
(Acts 27:12; 1Cor 16:6):
(krino) primarily signifies to distinguish and in this
means to come to a conclusion in the process of thinking. Paul had come
to the settled conclusion that it was best to winter in Nicopolis.
Although he does not state it plainly, there is little doubt that he had
come to this conclusion after consultation with His Father in heaven,
for he always sought to do His will on earth as it was done in heaven.
Decided is in the
perfect tense which speaks of an action completed in past
time having present results. The use of this tense by Paul is indicative
of a person who thinks a matter through and finally comes to a
conclusion where he is so sure of himself that he is settled in his
determination to follow a certain course of action. Paul thought the
matter through carefully as to the advisability of spending the winter
season in which travel by land was difficult, and by sea impossible, at Nicopolis, and came to the settled conclusion that that city was the
best place at which he could stay.
Spend the winter (3914)
(paracheimazo from para = alongside, beside + +
cheimázo = to be tossed with tempest)
Related Resource: See the
famous sermon entitled
Come Before Winter
based on 2Ti 4:21
Winter is a season. Seasons
pass. And when they pass, the opportunities (Click
for an in depth word study on
the Greek Word which means "opportunity") that were present during that
season will also pass. God gives us all opportunities, but He won't force
us to respond. We are responsible to choose to respond to the fleeting opportunities.
Little wonder that Paul instructed saints to continually (present
"Redeem the time (kairos)"
"Make the most of the opportunity (kairos)"
As Isaiah said...
All flesh is grass, and all its
loveliness is like the flower of the field. 7 The grass withers, the
flower fades, When the breath of the LORD blows upon it; Surely the
people are grass. 8 The grass withers, the flower fades, But the word of
our God stands forever. (Isa 40:6-8)
So teach us to number our days, That
we may present to Thee a heart of wisdom. (Ps
HELP...ON THEIR WAY:
spoudaios propempson, (2SAAM):
(Acts 21:5; 28:10; Ro 15:24; 1Corinthians 16:11; 3John 1:6-8)
- Spurgeon comments
Paul had already told Titus to bid
the saints in Crete to abound in good works; now he is commanded to take
care of certain travelling Christians, and to speed them on their way.
It was the custom in olden times, when travelling was very different
from what it is now, when the Christians passed from one town to
another, to find out the church, and to be entertained and speeded on
their journey by their fellow-believers. Thus they kept up a practical
fellowship of love to all the saints.
In this verse we
get a glimpse of Paul as a great spiritual general moving his workers
into strategic positions.
(spoudaios from speudo = hasten, make haste) means to do
this task earnestly, eagerly and promptly. Spoudaios describes
the attitude and actions of the godly Onesiphorus who came to the aid of
Paul in a Roman prison when all who were in Asia had turned away from
him. Paul testified that Onesiphorus...
often refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chains but when he was in
Rome, he eagerly searched for me, and found me (see notes
(propempo from pró = before + pémpo = to send)
means literally to send on before and is used in the NT,
meaning to send
forward on one’s journey, to
accompany someone on his way for some distance as a token of respect and
honor. Hence, propempo means in general to help one forward on their
Titus had been divinely given a similar earnestness in his heart for the
Corinthian church, Paul recording...
thanks be to God, Who puts
the same earnestness (spoude - speaks of an attitude which births
an action) on your behalf (the Corinthians) in the heart of Titus. For
he not only accepted our appeal, but being himself very earnest, he has
gone to you of his own accord. (2Cor 8:16,17)
Have you ever ask
God specifically to place an earnestness in your heart for your
brethren, another church, a missionary, etc.? What would happen to our
churches in America if the pastors with a spirit of love suggested that the local body
ask God for this perfect gift? This is an interesting spiritual
dynamic to consider.
Zenan ton nomikon: (Matthew
22:35; Luke 7:30; 10:25; 11:45,52; 14:3)
In the absence of
any example of this word being used as referring to the legal
profession, it seems best to assume that Zenas was a lawyer in the usual
NT sense, an expert in the Mosaic law.
A charismatic young
convert in the early Christian community, described as “a man of
learning, powerful in the scriptures” (Acts 18:24) who eventually had
some impact on the churches of Achaia, notably Corinth (Acts
18:24-28;1Cor 1:12; 3:4-6).
NOTHING IS LACKING FOR THEM: hina meden autois leipe. (3SPAS) :
(leipo) means to fall short, be destitute
or be in need. It pictures one not possessing something which is
necessary. It means to be deficient in something that ought to be
present for whatever reason. It can also mean to leave, fail or forsake.
Leipo is used 6 times in the
Luke 18:22 And when Jesus
heard this, He said to him, "One thing you still lack; sell all
that you possess, and distribute it to the poor, and you shall have
treasure in heaven; and come, follow Me." (Comment: Jesus defines
the one thing that hindered the rich man from a life of discipleship.
The things he had were the reason he lacked!)
Titus 1:5 (note) For this reason I
left you in Crete, that you might set in order what remains, and
appoint elders in every city as I directed you, (see
note) (Comment: Titus was
to correct and set straight certain doctrines. Presumably Paul or others
had accomplished some of the correcting, but the correcting still
fell short or was lacking)
1:4-5-note let endurance have its perfect
result, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking (leipo) in
nothing. But if any of you lacks (leipo) wisdom, let him ask of
God, who gives to all men generously and without reproach, and it will
be given to him. (Comment: The ultimate goal of the trials was
maturity, completeness, not lacking or being deficient in
anything of spiritual value.)
James 2:15-note If a brother or
sister is without clothing and in need of daily food,
Leipo is found 3 times in the
(Job 4:11; Pr 11:3; 19:4)
This matter of assisting Christian
workers on their journey is mentioned in different places by Paul (Ro
[note]; 1Cor. 16:6, 11; 2 Cor. 1:16).
AND LET OUR
(3PPAM) de kai hoi hemeteroi:
context refers to the
Christian brethren who lived
in Crete. They were the Cretan converts, not just Paul’s friends.
(manthano compare similar word mathetes = disciple) refers to
intentional learning by inquiry and observation (cf
Manthano means to genuinely understand and accept a teaching as true
and to apply it in one’s life.
Paul uses the
which indicates that this instruction is mandatory and needs to be the
Paul desires (and commands) for the believers on Crete to continually
keep learning how to do the following actions.
opportunity to help Zenas and Apollos would be a concrete example of at
least one kind of good work.
We must “learn” to maintain
good works. It’s something that must be worked at. A great many people
think it is easy; we need to know what God considers good works, and we
need to learn how to do them. (McGee,
J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Nashville: Thomas Nelson)
(give attention to)
IN GOOD DEEDS:
kalon ergon proistasthai (PMN)
: (Acts 18:3; 20:35; Ephesians 4:28; 1Thessalonians 2:9;
(proistemi from pró = before, over + hístemi =
place, stand) means literally to stand before and figuratively as in the
conveys the idea to give attention to. Paul use the
which calls for this to be their habitual practice with the
calling for their personal (reflexive) involvement.
(2570) (kalos) is used to describe whatever
is inherently or intrinsically good, that which is genuinely beautiful,
of those things that fully conform to their basic nature and purpose.
Their "beautiful" deeds should shine forth in a Cretan society that had
a widespread reputation for "evil" deeds.
The basic meaning of kalos is
good with emphasis on that which is beautiful, handsome, excellent,
surpassing, precious, commendable, admirable. Inherently excellent or
intrinsically good: providing some special or superior benefit. In
classical usage, originally as descriptive of outward form, beautiful;
of usefulness, as a fair haven, a fair wind. Auspicious, as sacrifices.
Morally beautiful, noble; hence virtue is called to kalon . The New
Testament usage is similar. Outwardly fair, as the stones of the temple
(Lu 21:5); well adapted to its purpose, as salt (Mk 9:50); competent for
an office, as deacons (1Ti 4:6); a steward (note
1 Peter 4:10);
a soldier (note
2 Timothy 2:3);
expedient, wholesome (Mk 9:43, 45, 47); morally good, noble, as works
The phrase it is good, i.e., a good or proper thing (note
In the Septuagint kalos is the most commonly used word for good as
opposed to evil (Ge 2:17; 24:50; Isa 5:20).
Illustration - Jean Louis Agassiz, the Swiss naturalist, was invited
to deliver a lecture to a prestigious organization. When he turned down
the engagement, saying that it would distract him from research and
writing, the organization said that it would pay a large honorarium.
“That’s no inducement to me,” Agassiz said. “I can’t afford to waste my
time making money.” Certainly, there is more to work than making money.
But for most of us, earning a living is a major reason we work. Today’s
passage indicates that this is a legitimate motivation. In verse 14 Paul
reminds Titus of the need to teach others to “provide for daily
necessities.” (Today in the Word)
TO MEET PRESSING NEEDS:
eis tas anagkaias chreias:
Christians are not only to conduct themselves properly, but are to
engage only in honorable occupations and to make themselves practically
useful to all the other believers.
(anagkaios from anágke = necessity, compelling
force) refers to what one cannot do without because it is
indispensable. It refers to what ought to be done according to the
law of duty (in this
context the law of Christian love not legalism).
Anagkaios refers to what is required by the circumstances.
(chreia from chréos = debt) in this case refers to that
which is lacking and particularly needed.
“The practical side of Christianity
is here brought into vivid focus. The words for necessary uses can be
understood either as necessitous cases or as wants. The more probable
interpretation is the former, as RSV ”so as to help cases of urgent
need.“ All who engage in such works of mercy need never fear that they
will be unfruitful” (Guthrie,
Donald: The Pastoral Epistles. Tyndale).
In short, Paul does not want anyone to be idle.
In a similar exhortation to the church at Thessalonica Paul wrote
Now as to the love of the brethren,
you have no need for anyone to write to you, for you yourselves are
taught by God to love one another; for indeed you do practice it toward
all the brethren who are in all Macedonia. But we urge you, brethren, to
excel still more, and to make it your ambition to lead a quiet life and
attend to your own business and work with your hands, just as we
commanded you; so that you may behave properly toward outsiders and not
be in any need. (see notes
For even when we were with you, we
used to give you this order: if anyone will not work, neither let him
eat. For we hear that some among you are leading an undisciplined life,
doing no work at all, but acting like busybodies. Now such persons we
command and exhort in the Lord Jesus Christ to work in quiet fashion and
eat their own bread. (2Th 3:10-12)
THAT THEY MAY NOT BE UNFRUITFUL:
hina me osin (3SPAS) akarpoi: (Isaiah 61:3; Matthew 7:19;
21:19; Luke 13:6-9; John 15:8,16; Romans 15:28; Philippians 1:11;
Philippians 4:17; Colossians 1:10; Hebrews 6:6-12; 2Peter 1:8)
1. Love what is Good
2. Teach what is Good (Titus 2:3
3. Do what is Good (Titus 2:7, 14, 3:8 see notes
Good Watches -Some people are like good watches. They’re pure
gold, open-faced, always on time, dependable, quietly busy, and full of
good works. Source unknown
(Hina) is a term of conclusion. In this
context the phrase "hina
me" is used with the subjunctive
mood to express the purpose or goal of their "learning".
Learning is to
take in Biblical truth that causes transformation in our lives so that
we in turn might be vessels useful to the Master for every good deed
which bear fruit that lasts
recalls Jesus' promise to His disciples...
"You did not choose Me, but I chose
you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that
your fruit should remain, that whatever you ask of the Father in My
name, He may give to you." (John 15:16)
from a = negative +
karpos = fruit,
literal but in Scripture most often figurative) means literally without
fruit and thus barren. It can include the ideas of unprofitable.
Paul does not want
their learning and their endeavors to be unprofitable or productive of
bad fruit as in the case following examples...
1Co 14:14 "For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays, but
my mind is unfruitful."
Ephesians 5:11 (note) "And do not participate in the
unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even expose them;"
It can mean to bear no fruit at all as the following uses of akarpos...
Jude 1:12 "These men are those who are hidden reefs in your love feasts
when they feast with you without fear, caring for themselves; clouds
without water, carried along by winds; autumn trees without
fruit, doubly dead, uprooted;"
Mt 13:22 "And the one on whom seed was sown among the thorns, this is
the man who hears the word, and the worry of the world, and the
deceitfulness of riches choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful."
Mk 4:19 "and the worries of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches,
and the desires for other things enter in and choke the word, and it
2 Peter 1:8 (note)
"For if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they
render you neither useless nor unfruitful in the true knowledge
of our Lord Jesus Christ.").
“Not only in supplying the needs, but in cultivating Christian graces in
themselves by acts of kindness.”
Illustration - Benjamin
Franklin learned that plaster sown in the fields would make things grow.
He told his neighbors, but they did not believe him and they argued with
him trying to prove that plaster could be of no use at all to grass or
grain. After a little while he allowed the matter to drop and said no
more about it. But he went into the field early the next spring and
sowed some grain. Close by the path, where men would walk, he traced
some letters with his finger and put plaster into them and then sowed
his seed in the field. After a week or two the seed sprang up. His
neighbors, as they passed that way, were very much surprised to see, in
brighter green than all the rest of the field, the writing in large
letters, “This has been plastered.” Benjamin Franklin did not need to
argue with his neighbors any more about the benefit of plaster for the
fields. For as the season went on and the grain grew, these bright green
letters just rose up above all the rest until they were a kind of
relief-plate in the field—“This has been plastered.”
Can people see the “fruit” in your
life? Can they see the results of what Jesus has done for you?
><> ><> ><>
Everyday Disciples (1Th 4:9-12 Titus 3:14)
- When I am asked how I'm doing as a
man in his eighties, I reply, "My life moves along contentedly in
well-worn grooves." As I observe my friends and neighbors around me, I
realize that most of them are also following a basic routine. Although
not trapped on a treadmill, they are working at their jobs, raising
families, and serving in their churches. There's nothing necessarily
heroic or exciting about their lives, nor is there about mine.
This reminds me of the response of the astute American statesman Bernard
Baruch when asked who he thought was the greatest personality of our
age. With great wisdom at age 94 he said: "The fellow who does his job
every day. The mother who has children and gets up to get them
breakfast, keep them clean, and send them off to school. The fellow who
keeps the streets clean. . . . The unknown soldiers—millions of them."
The apostle Paul also emphasized the importance of faithfulness in
everyday life. He urged his fellow believers to settle down, lead a
quiet life, and provide for their own families (1Th 4:11; 1Ti 5:8).
Most of us are ordinary Christians who live routine lives. Yet, our
extraordinary God wants all of us to be everyday disciples who are
faithful and fruitful. May it be so! —Vernon C Grounds
Lord, help me to follow Jesus,
To obey Him day by day,
To be His faithful disciple
And please Him in every way.
The world crowns success;
God crowns faithfulness
><> ><> ><>
Exercise Your Right (Luke 10:30-37)
Let our people also learn to maintain good works, to meet urgent needs.
Thomas Jefferson, who in 1776 wrote
the first draft of the US Declaration of Independence, took it for
granted that all of us possess certain God-given, "unalienable rights."
Yet, even in a democracy, there is fierce discussion about who is
entitled to what rights.
Christians can look at rights from another perspective. Instead of being
concerned about ourselves, we can think about what others need. In that
sense, we have the "right" to help others, just as the Good Samaritan
did (Luke 10:30-37). This parable is an illustration of our Savior's own
example, for we read in Acts 10:38 that He "went about doing good."
Believers ought to follow Jesus' example and be "do-gooders." Even
though that term is often used negatively, we who are grateful for God's
redemptive grace want to share with others the good things He gives to
We know that the gospel is far more than a humanitarian message of doing
good and being good. It's the message that God has provided forgiveness
of sins through the death and resurrection of His Son. As we exercise
our "right" to help people around us, let's also prayerfully share with
them that good news. —Vernon C Grounds
To weary souls along life's road,
Help me, O Lord, to share their load;
To fallen souls enslaved in sin,
Help me, O Lord, their souls to win.
A heart that is open to Christ
will be open to those He loves.
ARE WITH ME GREET YOU: Aspazontai (3PPMI) se hoi met' emou pantes:
(aspazomai) means to enfold in the arms, salute, welcome,
embrace. The KJV is
somewhat misleading translating the verb as they "salute" you. The verb
does not picture salute in a military sense.
THOSE WHO LOVE US:
philountas (PAPMPA) hemas:
(Galatians 5:6; Ephesians 6:23; 1Timothy 1:5; Philemon 1:5; 2John
1:1,2; 3John 1:1)
from phílos =
loved, dear, friend)
means to be a friend to another, to be fond of (have a liking for) an
individual or an object, to have or show affection for. In some contexts
it means to kiss another as a mark of tenderness for that person.
Phileo denotes personal attachment and is more a matter of sentiment
or feeling. It is devotion based in the emotions distinguished from
agapao which represents devotion based in the will. Stated another way
phileo is chiefly of the heart whereas agape is chiefly of the
head. Phileo is a love which is the response of the human spirit
to what appeals to it as pleasurable. Phileo is a love which
consists of the glow of the heart kindled by the perception of that in
the object which affords us pleasure.
used 25 times in the NT and is translated love 13x, loves 6x, loved 3x
and kiss 3x in the NAS. = Matt 6:5; 10:37; 23:6; 26:48; Mark 14:44; Luke
20:46; 22:47; John 5:20; 11:3, 36; 12:25; 15:19; 16:27; 20:2; 21:15ff; 1
Cor 16:22; Titus 3:15; Rev 3:19; 22:15
the response of the human spirit to what appeals to it as pleasurable.
The Greeks made much of friendship. Phileo was used to speak of a
friendly affection. Phileo is a love called out of one in response to a
feeling of pleasure or delight which one experiences from an
apprehension of qualities in another that furnish such pleasure or
friendship love, this "friendship factor" sadly often missing in
marriages. In Scripture phileo is used to describe the love of God the
Father and the Son, of Jesus and Peter, and of Jonathan and David.
is basically emotional.
cannot be commanded but it can be developed in relationships.
based on the qualities in another person that you find admirable or
Phileo is a
fellowship type love manifested in a living and growing relationship
between two friends.
does feed on response, and it cannot survive long without response from
the other. Friendship love requires attention.
describes a warm affection which exists between those who are near and
dear. It describes a fondness, a responsive type love. One might picture
phileo by the declarations "I love you because you love me" or "I love
you because you are a joy", both of these showing the reciprocal nature
of phileo love.
gives as long as it receives and thus is a conditional love.
S Lewis Johnson
Phileo refers to the love of
affection, the love that arises between individuals who have mutual
interests. The world loves those who are its kindred spirits (cf. John
15:19). This love is not a less genuine love than agapao„; it is simply
a different kind of love. The Lord has such love for His own (cf. of our
Lord's friendship with Lazarus in John 11:3, cf John 11:36; 20:2; Rev
[note]), and expects the same kind of love for Himself (cf. John 20:15-17;
16:27 ; 1 Cor 16:22). The Father loves the Son with this type of love
(John 5:20), and the sons also (John 16:27 ). And Paul uses the word to refer
to the love of disciples for him in the faith (Titus 3:15). (Studies in
the Epistle to the Colossians: Part XI: The New Man in the Old
Relationships. Bibliotheca Sacra)
In sum, phileo
is the love that has tender affections for another, but it always
expects a response. It is the “friendship” type love. In a marriage,
eros love makes us lovers, and phileo love makes us dear friends. In
phileo love we share thoughts and feelings and attitudes and plans and
This type of "love" for another
emanates chiefly from one's heart (emotions, will) whereas agapao self
less love originates from the "head" as a choice one makes independent
of the loveliness or unloveliness of the recipient. Agapao is used
predominantly for man’s love toward God while phileo is rarely used in
Phileo describes the love of the disciples for Jesus ("for
the Father Himself loves [phileo] you, because you have loved [phileo]
Me, and have believed that I came forth from the Father." Jn
16:27). The saints have a love for the Lord Jesus which springs from
their joy in Him, a love of delight. The Father has a love of delight in
the saints, for He finds in each saint the One in whom He takes delight,
the Lord Jesus, and because the saints find their delight in Him also.
Believers are never told to love their enemies with a
love because that would imply one has to have the same interests as the
speaks of the divine love which God is, and which He produces in the
heart of the yielded believer, phileo is never used.
Agapao is a
love springing from a sense of the preciousness of the object
loved. Phileo arises from a sense of pleasure found
in the object loved.
John's use of
agapao helps emphasize the difference in agapao and phileo. In his
second epistle John opens by writing...
The elder to the chosen lady and her
children, whom I love in truth; and not only I, but also all who
know the truth (2 John 1:1)
Phileo speaks of
finding pleasure in something but not that "something" is not always
another person, as indicated by the following uses...
"And when you pray, you are not to be
as the hypocrites; for they love (phileo -
to stand and pray in the synagogues and on the street corners, in order
to be seen by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full."
Matthew 6:5) Hypocrites find pleasure in ostentatious prayer and thus love
"Beware of the scribes, who like to
walk around in long robes, and love (phileo -
respectful greetings in the market places, and chief seats in the
synagogues, and places of honor at banquets" (Lu 20:46)
"Outside are the dogs and the
sorcerers and the immoral persons and the murderers and the idolaters,
and everyone who loves (phileo -
and practices lying." (see note
Revelation 22:15) Those who find pleasure in a lie and
thus love it, will go to a lost eternity.
us understand the distinction writing that if John had used phileo
instead of agapao...
"he would have been expressing a
human fondness for her, which would have been a grave mistake in a man
of John’s position in the Church. He tells her that he loves her and her
children with a Christian love, a love produced in his heart by the Holy
Spirit, a pure, self-sacrificial, heavenly, non-human love devoid of any
sex relation. It is as if he said, “I love you in the Lord.” But he is
not satisfied with thus carefully delineating his love for her by the
use of agapao. He adds the qualifying phrase, “in the truth.” It is
locative of sphere. That is, the love with which he loved this
well-known woman of position in the Church was circumscribed by the
truth as it is in Christ Jesus. It was in connection with the Word of
God that he loved her. His love for her had to do with Christian
relationships in the Church life and work. The example of John in all
this could well be emulated in these days. He uses the pronoun in an
intensive way, “whom, as for myself, I love in the sphere of the truth.”
But not only does John especially love her, but all those who have come
to know experientially the truth and as a result have it in their
knowledge, also love her."
There is another distinction we must
be careful to note, and that is that agapao is love that has
ethical qualities about it, obligations, responsibilities, where
phileo is a non-ethical love, making no ethical demands upon the
person loving. As a rule, these distinctions are rigidly adhered to in
the use of these words in the New Testament.
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
If anyone does not love
(phileo) the Lord, let him be accursed. Maranatha. (1Cor 16:22)
GRACE BE WITH YOU ALL:
te charis meta
panton humon: (1Corinthians 16:23; Ephesians 6:24; 2Timothy 4:22;
1Cor 16:23 The grace of the
Lord Jesus be with you.
Eph 6:24 Grace be with all
those who love our Lord Jesus Christ with a love incorruptible.
2Tim 4:22 The Lord be with your
spirit. Grace be with you.
Heb 13:25 Grace be with you
Grace be with you all -
Paul often used grace as the spiritual "bookends" of his letters (Titus
1:4). There is no verb "be" but that has been added. Literally it is
"Grace with you" where the word with is "meta" which has the basic sense
of "in the midst of" (Friberg). Grace, God's marvelous grace,
in your midst, always available when you need it (which is all the
time). Jesus used "meta" to encourage His disciples to finish the task
(Mt 28:18-19) reminding them "lo, I am with (meta) you always, even to
the end of the age." The idea He was conveying was that He would always
be with them to help them. And how is He with us today? While in one
sense He is in us, He has sent us His Spirit (Spirit of Christ) who
indwells us as our ever ready "Enabler." This is good news for all
subsequent disciples (us)!
May that final benediction drop like
the dew upon this whole company! “Grace be with you all. Amen
is God's unmerited favor, His supernatural power for living and for
spiritual transformation (2Cor 3:18-note,
is the same grace that appeared in Titus 2:11
The same grace that saved us the first time, enables us daily to live
out our new life in Christ. Supernatural grace for a supernatural life.
There is simply no other way beloved. His life lived through the
yielded, surrendered saint empowered by the grace that is in Christ
Jesus (2Ti 2:1-note)
The closing benediction, Paul prays
for God’s grace to be realized in each believer’s life using the plural
“you” suggesting that although this letter was designated for
Titus (Titus 1:4-note), Paul expected it to be shared with the entire Cretan
church. Note that "all" means without exception, for Paul did not
Matthew Henry agrees
This is the closing benediction, not
to Titus alone, but to all the faithful with him, which shows that
though the epistle bears the single name of Titus in the inscription,
yet it was for the use of the churches there, and they were in the eye,
and upon the heart, of the apostle, in the writing of it.
"Grace be with you all, the
love and favour of God, with the fruits and effects thereof, according
to need, spiritual ones especially, and the increase and feeling of them
more and more in your souls.’’ This is the apostle’s wish and prayer,
showing his affection to them, his desire of their good, and a means of
obtaining for them, and bringing down upon them, the thing requested.
Observe, Grace is the chief thing to
be wished and begged for, with respect to ourselves or others; it is,
summarily, all good. Amen shuts up the prayer, expressing desire and
hope, that so it may, and so it shall be.
The good deeds in the previous verse
call for exercise of God's grace in this verse. We can't produce
good deeds without amazing grace! They go together! Paul
made this very clear in his ministry (which overflowed with good
But (contrast - see 1Cor 15:9-note)
by the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace toward me did
not prove vain; but I labored even more than all of them, yet not I, but
the grace of God with me.
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